Патент USA US2121934код для вставки
.lune 28, 1938. l |_' J. sNADER ET AL ` 2,121,934 « DIAMOND TURNING MACHINE FOR FORMING PISTONS OF ELLIPTICAL SHAPE ` ` Filed Feb. 25, 1935 a shams-shem-l 1 INVENTÓRD ORNEYS June" 2_8, 1938. |-. J. sNA‘DER ET AL ' 2,121,934;y DIAMOND TURNING .MACHINE Non FORMING PIsToNs o?‘ ELLIPT’ICAL SHAPE Filed Feb.' 2s, v1935 ‘ a sheds-sheet 2 --June 28,v 1938. l'. J.' sNADER Erm. . 2,121,934 --DIAMOND TURNING MACHINE FOR lFORMING PISTONS OF ELVLIPTNICAL SHAPE' I Filed Feb. 23, 1955 8 She'etS-Sheet 3 RNEYS. -June 28, 1938. DIAMOND TURNING MACHINE FORNORMING PIsToNs oF 'ELLIPTICALLSHAPE ' ' Filed Feb. 23,1955 _' s sheets-„sheet 4 , ¿i «A15-E1 4 44 v . ‘INVENTORS fm J." Shader Chr-:Sivan /lßr‘?//ebaic ,BYî @14M9 TORNEYS ‘ June 28, 1938. ` l'. J. sNADER ET Al. 2,121,934 DIAMOND- TURN-ING MACHINE FOR FORMING PISTONS OF ELLIPTICAL SHAPE Filed Feb. 2s, 1935 8 sheets-sheet 5 /Oö E /07 INVENTORS. 'Bf/muffa” Mair/@zaak MMM/f June 28, 1938.V ~ y „l |._`„'|„ SNADER ET AL' 2,121,93411 DIAMOND TURNINGv MACHINE FOR FORMINGPISTONS OÈ‘ ELLIPTICAL SHAPE Filed Feb. 23, v1935 - ß 8 Sheets-Sheet 6` A _ oRNEYs. lJune 28, 1938. l. Jj‘sNADER ET AL i 2,121,934 DIAMOND TURNING MACHINE AFOR FORMING PISTONS OF' ELLIPTICAL SHAPE' Filed Feb. 2s'. 1935 " s sheets-sheet 'rV ORNEYS. -Junezs,193s. , -LflsNA'DER?AL 2,121334 DIAMOND TÚRNING MACHINE FOR FORMING lPISTQNS OF ELLIPTICALLÈHAPE ATTORNEYS. 2,121,934 Patented June 28, 1938l Á,..~ÍUNIT_ED STATES ,PATENT o_FFicI-z» I y 2,121,934 DIAMoNn TURNING mcnnm ron. roaM- i . rNc ris'roNs or mmr'rlcsn sans A Ira J. Snader and Christian A. Birkebak', Detroit»,> Mich., assignors to Ex-Cell-O Corporation, a corporation of Mlollllan ' -Application February 23, 1935, serai No. 'was 19 (Cl. 82--15) This invention relates to a~ machine for shaping three spindles belt driven or turning internal combustion motor pistons'and ‘thelikep " . . Fig. 13 is a view in elevation of the skirt-end _ of a piston: showing the elliptical shape thereof. . Fig. 14 is a view in side elevation of the same, to provide a machine for turning a piston or like direction; to provide a machine for tin-ning a 10 piston having an elliptical shape at anycross section normal to the longitudinal' axis of the in Fig. 14, the view being taken with the piston ence' to the position depicted in Fig. 14. Fig. 16 is an enlarged side elevation of the work holding iixture shown in Fig. 1. a piston being 15 shown mounted thereon. tions along the piston, and to provide as machine 15 of this character> which can be readily adjusted to vary the shape of the piston or'the like being . Fig. 17 is an enlarged vertical section taken in ' a plane through the piston 8.318411 Fig. 416. Fig. 18 isa further >enlarged end elevation of . An illustrative embodiment of this invention is shown in the accompanying drawings.' in which: 20 work piece engaging parts shown in Fig. 17, and a0.l Fig. 1 is a view in perspective of the improved machine. ` . _. . rotated _90° about its longitudinal axis with refer.-> piston but with the maior axes of such elliptical cross-section shifting to diiIerent rotational posi _. - showing the tapering of the same from thel skirt toward the head. Fig. 15 is aside elevation of the piston shown 10 workpiece to slightly helical -shape in`an axial . by two different mo- f tioning of .the spindles. an improved machine for turning pistons 5. Vide and the like to an elliptical cross-sectional shape; _ , tors and illustrating the odset or echelon posi: ' - The main objects of >this invention are to pro turned. ` Fig. 12 isa top plan view of a machine having - ' Fig. 19 is a view _similar to Fig. 1'1 of a modi- _ fled form of work piece holding and aligning - Fig. 2 is an` enlarged fragmentary transverse vertical sectional view of the same taken on the means. ' In theconstruction shown in the drawings, the line 2--2 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction indi machine t’in general comprises a base support il 25 25 cated. ` of substantially rectangular shape and having a Fig. à is a view in elevation of the cutting tool reciprocating work holding table i8 slidably spindle and bracket therefor as'viewed from the 4 mounted in -ways on the top thereof. A work - near side of 'the machine illustrated in Fig. 1. holding fixture or support I1 is mounted on th Fig.. 4 is a view in elevation of the same as seen table il for carrying _a piston Il or like piece oî 30 `’3o from the right. hand end or Fig. a. work toward and away from the cutting tool of Fig. 5 is a longitudinal verticalsectlonal view ` the spindle. The base I5 has an inverted `Uof the same, showing the means for raising the shaped bridge 20 mounted on laterally projecting rear end of the spindle during the cutting or and 22 integrally formed thereon turning operation, taken on the line 5-5 of shoulders 2l and which supports a horizontally disposed mo 35 Fig. 6 is a view of the same, partly in top plan and partly in horizontal section, showing the relation of the spindle to the pistoneor like work piece being turned. j 4o Fig. ’l isaview in elevation as s_een from the left hand end of Fig. `6. _ ‘ l _Y ' ' Fig. 8 is an ‘enlarged view, partly in‘ top' plan tor driven spindle _ bly generally designated , 2l in Fig. 1 of the drawings. ‘ `Referring to Figs. _2 to 7, the spindle >assembly comprises'a frame 24 secured to the top10! the bridgeî 2l by vertically disposed boltsy 25. the heads of which engage in inverted T-slots M_ formed in the top surface of the bridge 2B. A' . centering diskll is att ched to the underside of _ and partly in horizontal section of the forward .the frame 2l at the mi die thereof by cap screw end of the spindle and a modiñed form of work 45 holding device with the . work piece positioned> thereon, showing the relation of th`e axis _of rota- s . tion of the spindle to the axis‘of the piston being 45 2l and is received in a aperture' 29 formed in the top surface of the> bridge 20. The frame 24 may be pivotally _swung horizontally about the ï disk 21 for positioning _' the _frame at .different angles with respect to the bridge.4 Fig. 9 is a sectional view taken on the line G-S ‘ The front end of the frame .2l is provided with 50 of Fig. 8, looking in the direction indicated. _ 'an integrally formed depending lug 30 which is turned. _ . _ _ ' Fig. 10 is a top plan view of a two spindle ma received between the inner ends of axially aligned. opposed adjusting screws 3l and l2 which _are threaded through lugs or bosses 33 and Il, re in elevation of the left'hand _ Fig. 11 is a View vspectively, rigid on the bridge 20. The rear endv chine in which both spindles'are belt driven by a single motor. ‘ ' ` ' .nd of the machine shown in Fig. 10. ' 2 . 2,121,984 of the frame “24' is also provided with laterally spaced-depending lugs 35 and 36 which are posi- ' tioned between axially aligned opposed adjusting screws 31 and 38 which -are threaded - through lugs or bosses 39 and 40'respectively, which are , rigidly attached to the bridge 20. All of the ad justing Vscrews are provided with jamb nuts 4I the spindle bodies 18 and 'I9 within the bracket l45,»the armature 83 being carried on and rigidly attached to the spindle shaft 8| for driving the same while the ñeld 82 is rigidly attached to the bracket 45. ` The rear end of the spindle shaft 8| projects from the bracket 45 suiiìciently to receive a brake for securing the screws in position when adjusted. , _drum 84 which is keyed thereto in the usual man-l The frame 24 is formed with a relatively flat ner. The forward end of the spindle shaft 0I 10 bottom portion with upstanding sides and at is provided with an axially disposed‘tapered the front end thereof the sides curve toward each socket 85 for receiving the shank of a cup-shaped 10 other to form an inverted U'-shaped portion 42 cutting tool carrying cage 86, the rim 81 .of which imparts rigidity to that end of the frame, the base of the, frame being cut away atthis 15 point and the sides continued forward in ad vance of the portion 42 to form a pair of spaced parallel axially aligned Vbeering heads 43 and 44. A generally tubular shaped spindle bracket 45 is pivotally mounted at its forward end between 20 the bearing heads 43 and 44 by trunnions 46 and Which-is drilled in a' radial direction to receive a cutting tool 88 which is adjusted or positioned in a radial direction by\a threaded plug 89 which abuts against the base- end of-the cutting tool. The cutter 88 is also held lby the inner end of the screw 90 which is threaded into rim 81 of the tool holder 86 -in a direction substantially at right angles tothe axis of the cutting tool 20 88. 'I'he tip or point of the cutting tool 88 is 41 which pass through the bearing headsand through similar bearing heads 48 and 49 formed so positioned and arranged as to rotate in a plane on the spindle bracket. 'I'he bracket 45, adja-v which contains the axis ofthe trunnions 46 cent its rear end, is provided with laterally pro 25 jecting kscrew studs 50 and 5| which extend into vertically disposed slots 52 and 53 respectively formed in the upstanding sides of the frame 24. The slots 52 and 53 are formed at the lower end of vertically disposed bores formed in the thick 30 cned side walls and in which are contained heli cal compression springs 54 and`55 which bear between the studs 50 and 5I at their vlower ends` so that the rear end of the bracket is yie1di'ngly and 41. ‘ In the modified form illustrated in Figs.‘8 and 25 9, thework-holding fixture comprises a work-' holding head 9| having clamping plates 92 and 93 bolted to the.front face thereof. An axially disposed supporting shaft 94 extends from the ' rear of the head .9| which is journaled in spaced 30 axially aligned bearings 95 and 96 formed in the f supports ,91 >and 98 respectively, and which are formed-on the top surface of a base plate 99. urged downwardly at all times. ' ' The underside of the base plate 99 is supported 35 Means are provided for supporting the rear -- on the table I6, which slides -on the ways |0I 4of end of the bracket 45 against the action of, the the base I5. 'I‘he shaft 94, at a point between 35 compression springs and comprise a vertically the spaced bearings 95 >and 96, is provided with disposed post 58 slidably mounted~in a sleeve l a radially extending arm |03, the outer free end4 bracket 59 which is rigidly attached to the bridge of winch is lpivoted to oney end of a link | 04, the 40 20. 'I'he upper end of the upost 58 is axially other end of which is pivoted to one end of a bored and threaded to receive an adjusting screw horizontally slidable push bar |05. The push bar. 40 60, the head of which is recessed to receive a ball » |05 is slidably mounted in an upstanding sup bearing 6I, which provides rolling contact with vporting bracket |06 -formed on the top surface the side wall surfaces 62 `f-‘of an inverted V-shaped of the base plate 99. The end thereof opposite 45 groove formed in a bearing block 63 which is' to the pivoted link |04 is bifurcated to receive. rigidly attached to the spindle bracket 45. Ro tative movement of the post 58 is limited by the inner projecting end of a screw 64 which is re ceived in an axially disposed slot 65 formed in 50 the post 58, as shown in Fig. 5. 'I'he lower end of the post 58 isbifurcated to form a pair of spaced parallel arms 66 and 61, between which is journaled a roller or wheel 68 on a pin 89. The wheel or roller 68 rests upon 55 the top surface oi’ a cam block 10 which is rigidly a journaled roller |01 which rides against a cam surface |08 formed at the upper end oi' a bracket arm | 09, the lower end of which is rigidly secured ' to the stationary supporting base I5 by bolts ||0. A helical tension spring ||I has one end at-`50 tached to the -upstanding bracket |06 and the other end thereof attached lto a depending hook I I2 formed at the extremity lof the arm I 03 >for normally maintaining the roller |01 in contact with the cam surface |08. . 55 secured to the table I6 by screws 1I, 12 and 13, y In the operation of this device, the spindle the latter two of which pass through angle shaped _ bracket supporting frame 24 is pivotally swung clips 14 and 15 respectively. The vertical arm about the centering disk 21 and accurately po of each> clip rests on the top of the table I6 a d sitioned by means of the adjusting screws 3|, 32, 60 the horizontal arm of each overlaps the ex 31 and 38 so'that the plane ,of rotation of the tended marginal edges 16 and 11 respectively, _ cutting tool 88 will be at a predetermined angle 60 of the cam block 10. 'I'he top surface of the cam with respect to a plane normal to the axis of the >plate 10 is sloped as shown at 10A, so as to move ' piston I9 or other work piece whlch'may be the post 58 upwardly and thereby raise the rear 65 end-of the spindle bracket _to the position shown in dotted outline (Fig. 5) when the table I6 moves to the left with respect to the stationary placed on the work holding fixture I1. The clamping bolts 25 are then tightened so as to rigidly hold the spindle supporting frame in such position. A work holding ñxture is then ' bridge 20. ymoved toward the spindle along the axis line` ’I'he spindle bracket 45 is provided with lspaced 70 axially aligned spindle bodies 18 and 19 rigidly | I3, as shown in Figs. 6 and 8, so that the cut ting tool, as it engages the end of the piston retained therein by clamping- bolts 18A and 19A, will, when viewed from a direction normal to 70 respectively. The bodies 18 and 19 vcarry special the axis of the piston, describe an ellipse, there ball bearing assemblies 80 in which is journaled by cutting away the material shown by dotted a spindle shaft 8|. ì‘lèe ñeld 82 and armature ,f lines ||4 in Fig. 13, to form the skirt end of 83 of an electric moto ` are positioned between the piston to elliptical shape. ` 75 9,121,934 As the work holding ñxture continues to ad, »vance toward the spindle,„the cam surface 10A will, by engagement" with the roller 68 and through the post 56, ball 6| and bearing block 63, raiseethe rear end of the spindle bracket, thereby changing or varying the plane of rota-l i -- 3, v engage and simultaneously begin cutting the' ends of the pistons, the direction of movement of the pistonsv -or- other Work being along- the -lines |30. ` ' As the pistons or other work are moved into Y engagement with -the‘cutting tools,` the rearends of the .spindle brackets are cammed upwardly angles to that secured by angular adjustment y against the action of helical compression springs ’ tion of the cutting tool 8'8 in a direction at right „ |32 inthe same manner as inthe preferred'form of the spindle supporting frame 24.. of the device shown'in the preceding figures. This movement of the rear ¿end .of the spindle 10 In the embodiment -of the invention shown in causes the bracket to pivot Aon the trunnionsJ 46 and 41, the axis of which-trunnions intercept Fig. 12, three spindles and spindle bodies |40, 10 the center of the plane of Vrotation of the cutting |4|, |42 are mounted in a single bracket |43 which is pivoted at |44 and |45 to the forwardly toolA 88. Thus the cutting tool 88 will -also de scribe a path> of elliptic shape vwhen viewed in I projecting bearings |46 andl |41'of a frame |48. 15 ' the‘direction of the axis of the spindle and in 'It will be noted that the planes of the cuttingl a direction in a horizontal plane parallel to the tools |49, |50 and |5I V_are at a slight angle with axis of the piston, the ,combination ofthe two' respect to _the axis formed by the pivot mount |44 and |45, instead» of the axis being in movements producing a piston or other work ings piece elliptical in shape when viewed asin Fig. ¿ the plane of rotation of the tools as in the pre 20 ' 13, and generally tapered shape, when viewed as ceding forms, the arrangement being such thatV the axis of the tilting mountings passes through in Fig. 14, by reason of the removal of the ma the centers of the --.paths described by the three ' terialshown ~by the dotted lines ||5 in'Fig. 14 cutting tools. ' and by the dotted lines ||4 in Fig. 13. , The spindle shafts jeurnaied '1n-trie bodies im" 25 The shape of the pistonis, however, not that and |4| protrude from the rear end thereof and of a true frusto-cone, but is elliptical at -any sec tion taken normal 'to the axis of the piston. lThe I are provided with belt pulley wheels to receive majorl axes of such elliptical sections, however, drive belts |52 from the motor |56. The spindle shaft of the body |42 is similarlyv driven from a shift in a rotational direction' by an amount pro single motor |54 through belts |55.v p portional to the angle through which the spin 30 'lle axis is swung- in a vertical plane about the - Reference may now be had to Figs. 16, 1'? and 18, which illustrate more in detail the construc pivots 46 and 41. Thus the piston, when lfitted _ tion of the work holding fixture I1. 'I'he upper to a true cylindrical bore has an outside bearing -` land ||6. on ealch- of the two opposite sides‘- >portion of the‘ fixture |1 is provided with an en- ' thereof,~whic_h describe upon the surface of the . 35 said piston a helix. These lands ||6 are, there- . -fore, not truly axially disposedbutfdue to the larged cylindrical boss portion |60 provided with a horizontally disposed bore |6| hushed at |62 _and in 4which is received a horizontally recipro way in which they are cut, they -are inclined or cable plunger |63. The inner or left hand end of helical with respectv to the axis 'of the piston, as `plunger |63 is provided with an enlarged head indicated in Figs. 14 and ‘15,'the` angle Iof the portion |64 in which is formed a partially spher 4o. seating surface |65 cooperable with a corre-Á helix with respect toan’axial direction being ical spondingly shaped bearing surface |66 of a swiv , 'determined' by the angle of the cam surface 10A elled work engaging element |68. Spaced lugs which raisesthe rear end- of the spindle. `In the event this helical angle of the lands is |61 are provided upon the work >engaging face , desired to be decreased, eliminated, or increased, of the swivelled element |68. A plurality of pins tact inl the cylinder in which4 the piston is dis posed and eliminates localized wear on the cyl-_ ment |68 withreference to the plunger |63'and head portion |64 thereof. The swivelled element axially disposed. The effective support ofthe which projects, in spaced relation‘from the walls |2| are ganged together on a common baseÍ and driven by a single motor |22 which' is rigidly -bolted to the outer. side of the frame or spindle of the plunger |63. This urges the spherical sur-Í- use is made,> o°f the modiñed form of fixture |10 are ilxedto the swivelled element |68 and ex holding head shown in Figs. 8 and 9, the cam tend to the right therefrom, as indicated in Fig. surface |08 of which can be arranged to either `_ 17, into suitable borings |1| provided in the en -decrease, increase or entirely eliminate the helix larged head portion |64 to limit rotation of the angle of the bearing lands. The ycomparatively r swivelled element |68 relative to the plunger |68 and also to limit swivelling movement of the ele~ narrow helical land provides a wide bearing con inderwalls which would occur »if the land were ` |68 is provided with a step bore |13 through . piston in the cylinder is 'thereby circumferen \ thereof, a stud holt |14. A? spring |15 is arranged in compressed condition between the head of the tially increased, while the advantages of a nar row bearing which allows room for expansion` of stud bolt |14 and a radially inwardly directed ñange |16 provided on the swivelled element |66 the piston is retained. . _ ` ` y In the form of, the invention shown in Figs. 'so as yieldably to urge the swivelled element |60 10 and 11, two belt driven spindle units |20 and into contact with the enlarged head portion |64 unit |2I», a double belt pulley |23 being provided on the armature shaft of the motor for driv ing two belts |24 Íand |25 which passI around pulley wheels |26 and |21 respectively, which , are keyed to the protruding ends of--th'e ro ‘shafts m and |29 respectively. ' » The spindle units | lation to each othe - i, ' spindle ’ and |2| are in offset re n amountV equal- to the face bearing surfaces |65 and |66 into close lcon tact at all times- to prevent admission of >dirt or other foreign. matter between the swivelled ele ment and the head portion |64. The plunger |63, its enlarged head portion“|64 andthe swiv elled element |68fprovide a movable clamping element for retaining the piston I9 secured'to the fixture |1. ' ' ' The head portion mis provided 'with e recess' on adapter |80 opening to the left from the head e angle at.which the spi dle units arev set with ‘ portion and shaped so as to receive the peripheral respect to the axis of t ¿piston being turned, lsurface- of the work piece at the right hand end - , so that the cutters> of theïtwo- spindle units will thereof so as to'align the work piece I9 with its t, l l' i4 axis in a predetermined position with reference to the fixture I1. A stationary vclamping ele ment I8I provided with a radially inwardly di rected .ñange |82 is secured to the ñxture I1. 'I'he flange |82 is of U-shaped form.` as indicated in Fig. 18, and is adapted to be received within a ring groove |83 of piston I9 or in a similar 10 by the aligning pins |18 of Fig. 18. Springs 269 are arranged in compressed relation between the head 218 andvñangeÀ 216 provided on the swivelled element 268 for resiliently urging the Jswivelled element into engagement with the 5 enlarged head portion 264 to prevent admission of dirt or foreign matter between such enlarged peripheral groove within the work piece to be head portion and the swivelled element 269. turned. .'Spaced work engaging lugs 261 are provided on ` 'I'he plunger |63 may be actuated toward and the swivelled element 268, as before. 10 away from the stationary clamping :dange |82 by The adapter for `aligning the longitudinal axis means of the manually operated crank |84, illus trated in Fig. 1. The operating connection be tween the manual actuated crank |84 and the plunger |63 may be in the form of a screw, hy draulic means, or any other desired type of actu ating means commonly employed in the art. The speciñc actuating means is not illustrated in the present instance, since the particular type of actuating means used forms no part of _the present invention. In mounting a piston I9, or' similar work piece, upon the fixture I1, the work piece is slid down wardly with the flange |82 of the stationary 25 clamp I8I disposed within the peripheral ring of the work piece or piston I9 in this embodiment take‘s the form of a reciprocable center 288 mounted within a bore 299 provided at the inner or left hand end of the plunger 263. A spring 15 29| is arranged ln compressed condition between the bottom of the bore 298 and the outer or right hand end of the reciprocable center 288 for forc ing the latter outwardly to project a point 292 within a suitable axially arranged opening 294 20 within the workpiece or piston I9. An axially arranged groove 295 is provided in the periphery ofthe reciprocable center 288 and a stud screw 296 'cooperates therewith for preventing of the center 288 from the plunger 263. 25 groove |83 ofthe piston I9 or similar work piece ' ' The operation of this work holding means is es and the swiveled clamping element |68 brought sentially the same as that described with refer into engagement'with the adjacent end face oi ence to Figs. 16 to 18, inclusive, with the ex 30 the work piece. The spaced work engaging lugs ception of the fact that thespring urged center |61 upon the swiveled clamping element |68 upon 288 is employed for maintaining the longitudinal movement of the plunger |63 in-‘the directionV axis of the work piece I9 in the predetermined po 30 indicated by the arrow |85 of Fig. 17 bring the sition vwith reference to the iixture I1 instead of head end wall ofthe groove |83 into firm engage an adapter such as |88 employed in the embodi~ ment with the fiange |82 to secure the desired ment shown in Figs. 17 and 18'to engage the pe alignment of the piston I9 with reference, to the ` ripheral margin of the head end of the work piece. 35 fixture I1. The recessed adapter |88 upon -the -Although several diiïerent embodiments of this -enlarged head end portion |64 of plunger |63 of the movable clamping element maintains the f_invention have been herein shown and described, _longitudinal axis of the piston I9, or similar work it will be understood that numerous details of piece, in a desired predetermined position with the constructions shown may be altered or. without departing from the spirit of this 40 reference to the fixture I1. ‘I'he element |68 is omitted invention as deñned by the following claims. free to swivel relative to the enlarged head por We claim: tion |64 a suiïlcient amount so that the surface of the work contacting the lugs |61 does not have to be accurately machined or aligned with refer ence to the groove face |83. The piston I9, or similar work piece is heldvclamped to the iixture I1 in the position indicated in Figs. 16 and 17, while the work piece is turned to the desired 1. In a machine for shaping or turning an ap prdximately cylindrical-piece of work, a support, a work holding device -on said support, a device -on 45 said support having a cutting tool journaled to rotate in a plane about an axis so as to circum scribè a generally circular area, means‘for mov ing one of said devices toward the other for en 'shape and then may be removed from the fixture ' gaging the work and cutting tool, said cutting tool's axis of rotation being at an angle to the 50 direction oi.' relative movement of said devices and The'work piece may then be lifted in a vertical , intersecting with the longitudinal axis of the work direction out of the clamping means secured to piece in such plane. ` by retracting the plunger I 63 in a direction oppo site to that indicated by the arrow |85 in Fig. 1’1. the fixture I1. . ' ’ 2. In a machine for shaping or turning an ap Reference may now be had to Fig. 19 in which proximately cylindrical piece of work, a support, a slightly modiiied form of movable clamping a work holding device on said support, a spindle member _and adapter is employed. In this em device on said support, a cutting tool rotated bodiment a iixed clamping member 2I8I is secured by said spindle in‘ an orbit about the axis of the 60 to the fixture I1 and provided‘with" a substan spindle so as“ to circumscribe a generally circu tially -U-shaped iiange |82 adapted to engage a lar area, means for moving one of said'devices ring groove or similar peripheral groovev |83 of _ toward the other for engaging the work and cut the work piece. A reciprocable plunger 263 is ting tool, the plane of orbital movement of said mounted within a bushing |62 pressed within the cutting tool being at an angle ~to a plane normal 65 bore I6I of the upper enlarged portion' |68 of to the direction of r ative movement of said the ñxture I1. An enlarged head> portion 264 is devices and the cente of ~said area coinciding provided on the plunger 263 in much _the same with the longitudinal ' of the work piece.v manner as in the embodiment previously de 3. In. a machine forshaping4 or turning a piece scribed and a swivelled element 268 and the head of work, a support, a work holding device on said 70 portion 264 are provided with partially spherical support. a device on said support having a cutting bearing portions as before. Swivelling movement ,tool journaled to'rotate in a plane about an axis, of the element 268 with reference to the enlarged means for moving one of said'devices toward >the head portion 264 is limited by a plurality of stud other for engaging the work and cutting tool, said screws 218, three iii number being preferably em cutting tool's axis of rotation being at an angle 75 ployed, and arranged in the ‘relation indicated to the direction of relative movement of said de 55 60 ‘ 70 ~ 5 l 2,121,934'E vices and means forv changing the plane of rota- » 9. vIn a machine for shaping-or turning a piece tion or said cutting tool during the period of of work, a support, a work holding device on said engagement with the work. , ' . support, a spindle device pivoted to said support, y _ a cutter rotated by saidgspindle in a plane con taining the axis of said spindle pivot, means for moving one of said devices relative to the other 4. In a machine for shaping or turning a piece _of work, a support, a. work holding device on said support, a device on said support having__a .cut for engaging the work'and cutter and means for movingy said spindle device on its pivot during ting tool journaled to rotate in a plane about an axis, means for moving one of said devices toward' the other for engaging the work and cutting tool, cutting tool’s axis of rotation being at an io “said angle to the- direction of relative movement oi said devices, and means i019 progressively chang such relative movement. - 10. In a machine qfor shaping or turning a piece 10 of work, a support, a work holding device on said support, a- spindle device pivoted to said support, l a cutter rotated by said spindle in a plane con ing the plane of rotation oi said - cutting tool dur taining lthe axis of _said spindle pivot, means ing the period of engagement with the work. 5. In a machine for shaping or turningv a piece -for movingone of said devices relative tothe 15 other for engaging the work and cutter, the support, a device on said support having a cutting plane of rotation of said cutter beingv ät an angle tool journaled to rotate in a plane about an axis, to a plane normal to the direction of'such move means for moving one of 'said devices toward the ment, and means for moving said spindle device 20 other for -`engaging the work and cutting tool, on its pivot during such relative movement. = 11. In a machine for shaping or turning a said cutting tool’s axis of rotation being at an angle to the direction -of relative movement of - piece of work, a support, awork holding device, , said devices, and means for moving the axis of on said support, a spindle device -pivoted to said ,rotation of said cutting tool at an angle to the support, a. cutter rotated by said spindle in -a direction oi relative movement of -said devices plane Icontaining the axis of said spindle pivot 25 during such relative movement but in a direction -and perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said ' diiïerent from they ñrst mentioned angularv di-- spindle, means for moving' one of said devices relative tothe other for engaging the work and vergence. 6. In a machine for shaping or turning a piece cutter, the axis of saidt‘spindle being positioned 30 o! work, a support, a work- holding devicel on at an angie to the directiono! ‘relative‘movement Y said support, a device on said support having a of said devices and in a plane containing the axis cutting tool journaled to rotate in a plane about lof said spindle pivot, and means for moving said - an axis, means for moving one of said devices spindleV on its pivot. during such relative move , of work, a support, a work holding device on said toward the other for engaging the work and cut ting tool, said cutting tool’s axis of rotation be ing-at an angle to the direction of relative move ment. ment of said devices, and means for moving the, axis of rotation of said'cutting toolat an angle to the~direction of ,relative movement of spindle and containing the axis of said spindle 40 said'devices during such relative movement but pivot,-means for moving one of said devices rela in a direction substantially at right anglesto the ` , first mentioned angular> divergence. ' . 12. In a machine for> shaping `or turning a` piece of work, a support,.a work holding device on said support, a spindle device pivoted to Ísaid support, a cutter rotated by said spindle in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said - tive to the other for engaging the work and cutter ' '7. In a machine for shaping or turning va piece i -and means for moving said spindle on its pivot ' of work, a support, a work holding device on' said during such relative movement.-. 13.. In a machine for shaping or turning“a45 support, a device on said support having a cutting » ' tool journaied to rotate in a plane about an axis, piece of work, a, support, aÍ work holding device means ior-"movingroneof said devicesitowardfthe . on said support,l a spindle device gpivoted to said other for engaging the work and cutting tool, said cutting tool’s axis oi' rotation being at an angle tothe direction ì of 4relative movement of- said devices, and means for moving the axis'oi rota tion of said cutting tool at an angle to the -direc support, the axis of-said pivot being'perpendicu-larto the axisof rotation of said spindle, a cutter rotated by said spindle in a- planeperpendicular to the'axis of rotation of said spindle and -con taining the axis of said spindle pivot,-- means tor ltion of, relative movement oi’ said devices~ during moving one of saiddevices relative to the other v such relative -movement butin a direction kdit-v for engaging the work and cutter and means vfor moving said spindle on its pivot ‘during such rela--- ~ vferent `from the first mentioned angular diver gence, _and means for imparting limited rotation l tive movement.` to the work being shaped during >the shaping op 14. In a machine forshaping or turning a ` piece otlwork, a support, a ,work holding device ¿, 8. In a machine for shaping or turning a piece fon said support, a spindle device pivoted to said*v 1 o! work, a support, a work holding device on said support. a cutting tool rotated by said spindle in'` eration. ‘ y support, a device on said support having a cutting` a plane normal to the axis of rotation of .saidl tool journaled to rotate in a -plane about an axis, spindle, means forv moving one-oi said devices , means for moving one oi said .devices'toward‘the relative tothe other for engaging the work and - ‘ other for vengaging the work and cutting tool, - cutting tool, lthe axis of’rotation of said spindle said cutting tool’s axis oi' rotation being atan ` angle to the direction o! relative movement of said devices, means for movingfthe axis of rota tion of said cuttingl tool at an angle to the di rection of relative movement of said deviceadur ing such» relative movement but in a `directiî'rn » diii'erent from the ßrst mentioned angular diver f gence, and means for imparting, limited rotation I to the4 work being’ shaped on an axis parallel to the direction of relative movement o! said device, " ‘ . during such relative movement. being at an angle >to the direction of relative movement or said devices and in a direction‘par allel to a plane'containing the axis of rotation o! said spindle and theaxis of said pivot 15. In a. machine for shaping orNturning a piece of work, a support,'¿'a work holding device on said support, a spindle device pivoted to vsaid.support, a cutting tool rotatedby said‘splndle in a plane normal to /the axis of rotation oi said spindle„means ~for moving one of said devices Y relative to the other for engaging the work and 6 2,121,984 cutting tool, the axis of rotation of said spindle being at an angle to the direction of relative -movement ofA said devices and in a direction par allel to a plane containing the axis of rotation 5 of said spindle and the axis of said pivot mount ing and means for moving said spindle device on its -pivot during such relative movement. movement directed at an acute angle to the plane of tool rotation. I ` 18. A machine for shaping a work piece ini tially of generally cylindrical shape to provide an elliptical surface, which comprises- means for holding the work piece substantially against ro tation, a single-point tool adapted to engage the work piece. means for rotating the tool, and means for relatively advancing the work piece 104 work holding ilxture- mounted on said movable and tool to cause the tool to engage the work piece 10 support for supporting a generally cylindrical `progressively along the latter with the longitudi ‘work piece with the longitudinal axis ci.' said work nal axis of the work piece progressively during piece disposed parallel to the direction of move- . such movement coinciding with the center of the ment of said movable support, a single-point tool. area defined by rotation ofthe tool point, but 15 a tool spindle mounted on said stationary sup with such axis directedat an acute angle to ther port for rotating said single-point tool about the plane of tool rotation. _ » axis of said spindle, means for rotating said spin 19. A machine for shaping a work piece ini dle, the longitudinal axis of said work piece and tially'of generally cylindrical shape to provide an the axis of said spindle beingdisposed at an angle elliptical surface; which comprises means for 20 .and intersecting at the center o! the path of tool . holding the work piece substantially against rota 20 rotation, and means for causing relative move tion, a single~point tool adapted to engage the ment of said movable- support with respect to- the work piece,v means for rotating the tool, and tool whereby said tool will generate an elliptical means for advancing the Work piece with respect 16. In a machine tool, a base having a sta tionary support and a movable support thereon, a surface of said work piece. 25 Y 17. A machine for providing a work piece wit an elliptical surface which comprises means for touthe tool to cause the latter to engage the work progressively therealong, with the axis of the 25 work piece during such movement remaining un holding the'work piece substantially against rota changed in direction, -coincident to the center of tion, a single-point tool 4adapted to engage the' the area deñned by the tool point rotation, and work piece, means for rotating the tool, and directed to an angle to the plane of tool rotation. 30 means for advancing the `,tool and 4work piece IRA J. SNADER. j 30 relative to each other with the path of relative CHRISTIAN A.~B1RKEBAK.