Патент USA US2121951код для вставки
vJune 28, 1938'. K. CLARK PAPER ARTICLE ' ‘ 2,121,951 Filed April 11, 19:54 ' WMMMWEH 2,121,951 Patented June 28, ‘1938 ‘UNITED STATES PATENT- OFFLCE to American Seal-Kan Corporation of‘ Dela- . ware, /Wilmington, DeL, a corporation of Del aware Application April 11, 1934, Serial No. 720,066 ’ 9 Claims. This invention relates to paper articles and ’ more particularly to those intended to- contact _ with foods. One example of such an article'isa milk bottle cap or closure,- and while it should be 5 understood that the invention is not to be re v stricted in its broadest aspects to closures for imilk bottles, the invention. will be hereinafter more particularly described with relation to such use. 10 ' , . . (01. 215-38) ' ‘ plastic conditionso that they interfelt with each other in a- manner well known in manufacture ' of multi-ply paper. _ _ It is,’of course, important that in the manu facturing processes in making the caps, be so carried out that the facing of the paper stock ‘which contains the color forms the outside face of the cap,v and in order to insure this and to 1 insure ready handling of the paper in its various . In many cases it is desirable to-use colors in stages of formation, certain methods of handling. 10 connection-with such articles, as for the ‘purpose the paper have been found highly desirable as‘ ' of producing ornamental e?ects or for distin - will later more fully appear. For. a more complete understanding of this guishing between grades or types of milk. For example, one color may be used in connection invention, reference may be had tothe accom 1.5 ' > with bottles containing cream, another color mayv panying drawing in which Figure 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a be ,used in connection with bottles containing vmultiple cylinder ‘paper machinewarranged for ing buttermilk, and so on, through the various‘ sheeting a paper in accordance with this inven gr'ades‘and qualities for which suchdesignations tion. vcertified milk, another color for bottles contain 20 may be desired. Likewise it may be desired that Figure. 2 is a fragmentary perspective of a 20 certain colors be used exclusively by certain dairies, particularly in any given district, in order multi-ply paper suchas is produced by the mech as the letters on the bottles. before forming them into caps. anism shown in Figure 1 and which forms the that the pro-ducts of the various dairies may be - basic material from which the caps are made. Figure 3 is a diagrammatic view illustrating readily distinguished. Likewise in some localities 25 the use of 'coloredlettering is employed on the the cutting of the paper into blanks from which. 25 ‘ bottles themselves and it then may be desirable the caps are made and certain subsequent treat to employ sealing caps presenting'the same color ments to which these blanks may be subjected - ‘ ' Figure 4 is a fragmentary perspective showing In most cases, however, it is undesirable that the food products themselves should come into ' ’ a blankv asin the condition subsequent to treat-‘- 30 contact‘ with colored paper vmaterial, not only. ment'by the apparatus of Figure 3. ,Figure 5 is a diagrammatic representation of because with the use of certain coloring mate-v rials there might. actually be some chance of a manner of supporting and feeding the several blanks to the cap-forming dies. ' _ contamination 'of they food product, or some un ' Figure 6 is a perspective partly broken away 35 desired e?ect on the coloring material itself hi‘ one form of completed'cap'. . . through'contact with such product, but also be Referring ?rst to‘ Figure 1, at I, 2 and 3 are cause the public has been generally educated up to the point 'where there is a real demand for shown the several vats containing the paper stock closure members which present an‘ appearance from which'the several plies of the paper are to 40» of extreme purity and cleanliness where the food be made.- As shownthe vat l [contains a stock 40 which is colored by any suitable means, such, products are brought into contact therewith. According to this vinvention, therefore, the caps‘ are formed of a paper material which presents 45 exteriorly the desired color but which on the opposite face presents material entirely free from later. The vats 2 and 3 are shown as containing 45 coloring material. In order to accomplish this uncolored stock which should be of such a nature purpose the paper used is preferably‘of multi-ply ‘ that‘it contains no substances such as would be stock, one face portion only being colored, the deleterious to ‘the food product with which ityis to contact. While threeseparate vats are illus other face portion being. free from coloring mat The use of multi-ply paper permits the trated by which a three-ply paper may be made, 50 application of coloring matter to the stock 'of one or more of the plies before the plies, are . 55 for example, as a pigment-or a die of the desired color. -A more detail ‘discussion ofthe desirable characteristics of such coloring will be given brought together to form the completed paper, the several ‘layers of material beingvv brought to gether while ‘they are in awet and more or less it should, of course, be understood that any desired‘number might be used. Further.refer ence to the desirability of any particular number r of plies will later appear. As shown, each ‘one of the vats contains a pick- ‘5 2 2,121,951 up cylinder or cylinder mold such as d, 5 and 6, . employed with alum, the retention of the color which picks up the stock from its respective vat and the setting e?ect by the alum is less e?cient. and applies it to the under face of the usual blanket l which passes successively over and in Where pigments are employed the use of a small contact with the molds 4, 5, and 6, being pressed thereagainst by suitable couch rolls 8, 9 and ill. The blanket then passes about a suction roll or other similar device as at H for the purpose of more completely removing the water from the 10 stock and from which it passes over suitable sup porting rolls l2, between the press rolls l3 and M, the blanket returning around the roll it while the sheeted paper passes to the drier indicated conventionally at I?» from which it may be fed 15 01? to any suitable device, for example, a winder amount of size helps to retain the pigment, but of course this detracts to some extent, at least, from the open and porous character of the paper and the ease with which it may be impregnated with the wax. With the use of direct dyes the salt which is used in setting them is easily washed ‘ out and has no bad effect on the paper stock and 10 such dyes do not bleed into the wax as is the case with many dyes commonly-used in papermaking. Not only would such bleeding into the wax be dis advantageous in that the color might spread through the‘uncolored portions of the ‘paper, but 15 ure 2 and comprises a colored lamination 20 and it might also contaminate the wax in the treating tank through which the blanks pass and thus pass into subsequently treated blanks in those two uncolored laminations 2i and 22. “Paper for tions where color is not desired. shown at It. , .The paper thus produced is illustrated in Fig use as milk bottle caps and which is subjected to a severe molding action when being died to form should be of a somewhat open and porous nature so that‘ it can be' readily impregnated by mate rials such as water and waterproo?ng or resist 25 ant materials such as wax, which not only facili tate the molding operation; but also render the caps when completed substantially waterproof. It has been found in practice that it is most advantageous to have substantially only one 30 third of the total paper by weight or thickness colored. If there is less than this, the uncolored portion of the paper_wil1 tend to show through . In order to make a paper satisfactory for the molding operations, it is also advantageous to hold the degree of saturating qualities and the tensile strengths in directions longitudinally and crosswise ,of the paper within proper limits, these limits depending somewhat on the severity of 25 the stresses produced by the molding operations, which are in turn dependent on the amount of deformation which the paper must undergo dur ing such molding. The paper thus prepared may then be subjected 30 to treatment bothv to condition it for resistance to moisture and for the molding operation to which it must be subjected in forming it into the caps. In Figure 3 is shown diagrammaticallyv an appa ratus by which the paper is cut into blanks and 35 on the colored side, particularly where the paper is subjected to substantial forming operations when being molded, which tends to produce un desirable surface abrasions or local thinning free impregnated with the desired waterproo?ng from color. If the amount of colored stock is agents and otherwise conditions for the molding operation. As shown in this ?gure, the paper is more than one-half of the total, there is a tend ency for the color to show through the uncolored led from a suitable supply source, herein shown as the roll 30, through a punching mechanism in 40 40 side, particularly after waxing, to suclr an extent that it will give the appearance of being present dicated at 3|, by which blanks 25 of the proper on that side of the article which is brought into size are severed from the sheet material, the waste portions of thepaper being then removed ' direct contact with the milk, which also‘is un as by being wound up into a roll 32 while the desirable. While the most satisfactory propor _ tions of thickness of colored and uncolored stock is generally about 1 to 2, this may vary from, ac cording to conditions, of, say, about 1 to 3 to 1 to 1, with the thickness of paper most suitable for molding into milk bottle caps. As the paper is subjected to moistening, as well 50 as the wax treatment, in order to facilitate the molding operation, it is, of course, necessary that the color should be thoroughly set so- as to pre vent bleeding of coloring matter into them 55 colored portions or plies of the paper. Further more, as the articles when in use may become moistened by contactwith the milk, any such bleeding orr?ow of the color might have a very deleterious e?ect and even might escape into the 60 milk. The sealed milk bottles are also subjected ' to other conditions of great severity with relation to coloring material in the caps, ‘such, for ex ample, as the icing operations which not only subject the caps to the action of cold water but 65 also to abrasive actions of the ice. Two classes of coloring material are the most satisfactory, these being pigments, and dyes of the type known as direct dyes. 'Such dyes have a great a?inity for sulphite pulp such as is most suitable as a 70 basic stock material for bottle caps, and they may be thoroughly set by the use of a hot salt solution. Most dyes used in papermaking are set by alum, but for paper which is to be impreg mated with waxes or the like, the use of alum is 75 sometimes disadvantageous, and unless a. size is blanks 25 themselves are passed, as by the con veyor 33 to the impregnating tank 34. 45 Some time previous to being incorporated with the waterproo?ng materials, it is preferable to sub ject either the blanks or the paper to a moisten ing action which swells the ?bers ,of the paper 50 and softens it so that it may be more easily formed between molding dies, and this moisten ing is done preferably prior to the treatment for moisture resistance, since it may aid in the im pregnating operation. Agents which may addvto 55 the strength or hardness of the completed caps or add other desirable qualities may be added to the treating water, if desired. ‘The blanks in moist condition are shown, therefore, as being fed in between confronting faces of reticulated feeding 60 belts 35 and 36, the recticulations permitting the water-resistant material, such as a suitable wax or mixture of waxes in molten condition, to ?nd ready access to opposite faces of the blanks. By ' causing the treating waxes to be maintained at 65 a temperature ‘somewhat above’ the boiling point of the moisture in the blanks, a portion of this moisture is vaporized and passed off from the blanks so that as the blanks pass out from the Wax tank with'a surface coating of molten wax 70 thereon, subsequent‘chilling'of the blanks and condensation of the moisture vapor therein, acts to draw in the wax from the blank surfaces, re sulting in a more thorough penetration of the wax into the ‘interstices and perhaps even into 75 UM, -3 2,121,os1 ‘ the ?bers‘ of the paper. The blanks after re plished either through controlling the’relative ' that they may become “conditioned” or “tem pered” and uniformly su?iciently plastic to be most suitable for the molding operations. For this purpose they maybe kept in closed con process, or through combinations of both. For moval from the tank are permitted to 'cool and ' shrinkages of the two types of stock in the forma are then deposited in any suitable (receptacles. tion and drying of the paper, or through con It is then preferable to-permit the moistened and trolling the relative amounts to which these sur saturated blanks to stand for a time in order ' face portions will be expanded by the saturating example, this may be done by controlling the rel- ' ative freeness or slowness of the colored and'un colored stock, as, by controlling the amount of heating ‘to which the stock is subjected before it 10 When properly conditioned they may be sub- ' is employed in papermaking. Thus, if the un— jected to the forming action between suitable colored stock is slower’ than the colored stock, the ‘ dies as has been illustrated diagrammatically .in'. uncolored side of the paper tends to take up less Figure 5. As therein shown theblanks 25 are fed water than the colored side. It expands less and one at a time from the lower end of a suitable therefore is on the concave side of the paper. 15 1.5 out containing tube 40 by means of a feed plate, such Another'factor which may be of use is the rate of as 4|, which may be reciprocated across the open cooling'of the blanks on the two sides after-they lower end of ‘the tube 40 ‘by any suitable means, leave the saturating tank. With the uncolored so that they may be delivered one at a time to side up, the colored side being against the face any‘ .suitable conveying means, as at 42, and of the conveyor, the uncolored side cools the more 20 rapidly and assists in cupping the blanks in the brought in between the upper and-the lower cap forming dies .43 and 44 by which they are formed proper direction. This is illustrated in Figure 3 into the ?nished ca'ps, one form of which may where the direction of cupping is changed as the ' be as illustrated in Figure 6 at 45. For example, blanks cool on the conveyor 3|. There is also a further advantage from maintaining the ‘uncol 25 the cap thus formedmay have a central disk shaped portion 46 which bridges the neck of the ored stock slower than the colored stock in that milk bottle, this portion 46 having an upstanding the uncolored side of the paper is less porous and 10 tainers for a few hours. ' ' _ wall 41 at its margin for engagement with the - therefore takes up less of the wax from the sat _ urating tank and is therefore less transparent, so inner face‘ of a milk bottle above the usual disk that the probability of the color ‘from the colored 30 receiving ledge therein, an outwardly turned por tion 48 covering over the pouring lip of the bottle, - side showing through is reduced. It is also important, particularly from the and a skirt. 49 depending therefrom to engage the outer face of the pouring lip. The entire outer standpoint of color and uniformity of color, that face of the cap presents the desired color while the completedyblanks be quite accurate in thick ness as the thickness of the blanksdetermines 35 35 the entire inner face of the cap is of uncolored stock so that no colored stock is presented where it may contact with the milk in the bottle. ' the action of the parts ‘of the die thereon which are relatively spaced by predetermined dimen ' sions. The amount of moisture-and the amount of saturating material, as also the amount of the In connection with the feeding of the cap blanks from the container 40 so that they may be delivered as desired to the forming dies, it is ‘ important that the blanks should be so positioned paper stock, is thus of importance sinceall these relative to the feed plate 4| that at each recipro cation it may engage'the lowest blank in the stack and remove it from the tube 40. There is a tend ency in making blanks of a suitable thickness for blank is highly compressed during the forming 45 operations, the color effect is deepened and where formation into bottle caps for the blanks to “dish” the compression is produced through a wiping action of the dies thereon, a glossy deeply colored through unequal rates of drying at opposite face portions thereof, or from other causes. 40 factors determine the thickness of the blank when it reaches the forming dies. If the blank isnot thick enough the color, of the blank itself will show up in the completed article. Where the‘ Should ?nish is produced, different from that of the col ored face of the blank before being molded. By 50' such a slightly dished blank be presented. with its convex face downward, this may cause di?iculty suitable disposition of the excess stock which 1 . in the. feeding action by reason of the feeding vmust be compressed in the molding operation or edge of the‘ plate 4| passing in under the edge of the blank, and it is important, there fore, that the blanks be presented so‘ that 55 if they are not exactly ?at, their convexed faces namental variations in shading may be produced. For example, areas of deeper color 50 separated by areas of. lighter color in pattern formation as indicated in Figure 6 may be produced, produc are positioned upwardly.v - This will’ result in the outer edge of the blanks where the feed plate en ing a pleasing ornamental effect. 55'. ' ters being engaged by the feeding edge of this ' ‘ From the foregoing descriptionof a preferred ' plate so thatthe blanks willbe removed succes , constructionand a method by which it may be 60 sively from the bottomof the stack as desired. It made it should be understood by those skilled in so" ' will be noted, however, that the blanks must be ' presented to=the forming dies‘ right side up so the art that various changes and modi?cations,’ that the colored face shall always appear on the outside rather than the'inside of the cap, and it is therefore necessary, to‘insure proper feeding with such a mechanism, that provision be‘made might be made without departing from the spirit or scope'of this invention as de?ned by the ap . pended I claims. claim: I _ ‘ v . 65 v . . 1. YA paper blank for molding into an article, so that the convex face of the blankshall always I said blank vcontaining colored,» and uncolored bear the same relation to the colored and un _ » colored faces. 70 There are various ways of insuring stocks in different portions, the colored stock" this. ' For example, the characters of the paper stock in the stock vats of the paper machine may bteing of a different freeness than the uncolored 70 be socontrolled that the colored stock when 2. A paper blank for molding into an article,‘ sheeted and processed shall‘be more extended in ' the conditioned blank than the stock forming 75 the remainder of the blank. This may be accom s ock. . ‘ ' . . said, blank containing colored and uncolored stocks in different portions, the colored stock being of a different freeness than the uncolored 75 2,121,951 stock, said blank being impregnated with water proo?ng material. 8. A molded paper milk bottle cap having a marginal portion of generally inverted U shape ‘ 3. A wax‘ paper blank for molding into an ar ticle, said blank containing throughout one face portion colored paper stock and in another face portion uncolored paper stock,the uncoloredpaper stock being slower than the colored paper stock. in cross section and forming a housing for the bottle pouring lip when the cap is applied to the bottle, said cap comprising interfelted lami nations, vthe top lamination comprising colored paper stock in acontinuous layer, and the bot 4. A water-repellant paper milk bottle‘ cap tom lamination being free from colored stock, presenting uncolored relatively slow paper stock said colored lamination being colored throughout in contact with the bottle contents, and a colored and of suf?cient thickness to avoid formation of l U surface abrasions and local thinning free from color by the molding operation; outer face layer of a colored ‘paper stock freer than said uncolored stock. 7 . 5. An interfelted multi-ply paper blank hav ing stock of di?erent degrees of freeness in oppo site surface plies. 9. A molded paper milk bottle cap having a .marginal portion of generally inverted U shape 6. A Wax paper article made from a laminated in cross section and forming a housing for the bottle pouring lip when the cap is applied to paper blank, the laminations at opposite faces of the blank being of di?erent degrees of freeness, nationsythe top lamination comprising colored the lamination containing the freer stock con paper stock in a continuous layer, and the bot taining the, larger proportion of wax and the vstock being colored. tom lamination being free from colored stock, 2 0 said colored lamination being colored throughout 7. A molded paper article having a central disk and a marginal portion of generally inverted U shape in cross section extending upwardly there from, said article comprising interfelted lami and of suf?cient thickness to avoid formation of surface abrasions and local thinning free from nations, the top lamination comprising colored the cap. the bottle, said cap comprising interfelted lam'i- ' color by the molding operation and comprising substantially one-third of the total thickness of paper stock in a continuous layer, and the bot tom lamination being free from colored stock. KEMPT’ON CLARK.