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Патент USA US2122163

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June 28, 1938.
E. F. sUTr-:R
2,122,163
PERMANENT WAVING APPARATUS
Filed Jan. 6. 1936
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2,122,153
Patented June 228., 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFiCE
2,122,163
PERMANENT WAVING APPARATUS
Eugène F. Suter, New York, N. Y., assigner to
Eugene Ltd., New York, N. Y., a corporation of
New York
Application January 6, 1936, Serial No. 57,644
2 Claims.
The invention relates to new and useful im-provements in method and means for heating
wound tresses of hair in permanent waving, and
in certain of its features the invention relates
CR more particularly to novel process and means for
older hair may in some respects be otherwise
Objects and advantages of the invention will
be set forth in part hereinafter and in part
will be obvious herefrom, or may be learned by
practice with the invention, the same being real
obtained.
The graduated curl-treating means of the in
pended claims.
The invention' consists in the novel parts, con
structions, arrangements, combinations and im
Yprovernents herein shown and described.
The accompanying drawing referred to herein
and constituting apart hereof, illustrates one
embodiment of the invention, and together with
20 the description, serves to explain the principles of
the invention.
Of the drawing:
Fig. l is a plan of a curl heating device em
bodying the invention;
Fig. 2 is a central longitudinal section of a
different form of such a device; and
Fig. 3 shows the waving device applied to a
wound tress of hair in the permanent waving
process.
30
so that the new hair gets a greater amount of
treatment than the old, and this is preferably
effected by decreasing the electrical conductivity
outwardly along the curl, or at the outward part
of the curl, although the decreased action for the
electrolytically rewaving hair.
ized and attained by means> of the instrumen
talities and combinations pointed out in the ap~
25
(Cl. 219-24)
‘
Objects of the invention are to provide a proc
ess and means for Variably treating the different
parts of wound tresses of hair in permanent wav
ing and more especially for giving different
amounts of treatment in rewaving the hair,
35 whereby the new and thicker hair nearest the
scalp is heated more than the hair which had
been previously subjected to the permanent wav
ing process; to provide such a process and means
especially adapted for use in or with the elec~
40 trolytic process of permanent waving such as
is described and claimed in U. S. No. 2,014,246
to Durham and Finnegan, dated September l0,
1935, although in certain of its features the pres~
ent invention is useful in or with other processes
45 of permanent waving; to provide such a process
and means which in certain respects is especially
applicable or useful when the heating means and
the solution-carrying means are unitary or in
tegral; and in accordance with certain features
of the invention it is preferably embodied in an
electrolytic curl-treating device such as is dis
closed in the above-mentioned patent. The invention pursuant to certain of its features em
ploys the curl-treating solution as an electrolyte
55 and varies the electrolytic action along the curl
vention is shown as exemplarily embodied in an
electrolytic device having fieXible electrodes, the
device being deformable so as to conform to the
shape of the curl and to form a vapor chamber
thereabout. Said device is shown in open form
capacitated to be wrapped about a wound tress
and then conformed to the shape of the tress as
described, and is also shown of tubular form
adapted to be slipped endwise over the tress as
wound on the curling rod, and in this instance
also the device is preferably deformed and closed
20
about the curl as already described.
It will be understood that the foregoing gen
eral description and the following detailed de
scription as Well are exemplary and illustrative
but are not restrictive of the invention.
Referring now in detail to the accompanying 25
drawing, which exemplarily shows the invention,
an electrolytic curl-treating device of the type
or form which is wrapped about a tress wound
on a curling rod is shown in Fig. 1. In this illus
trated form, a sheet or layer l of absorbent ma 30
terial is provided, which is an electrical insulator
when dry and is electrolytically conducting when
saturated with an electrolytically conducting
hair waving solution. Various materials of this
kind may be employed for the member l, which 35
acts as an absorbent and a carrier for the elec
trolyte waving solution, among the suitable mate
rials being felt or flannel or cotton which has
preferably been previously treated to increase
its absorptive capacity. The sheet l is preferably 40
slightly longer than the length of a long, wound
tress ready for heating, and is slightly wider than
the circumference of such a tress so that when
the wound tress has been enclosed in the sheet
it is completely covered thereby.
An inner electrode is provided preferably as a
sheet 2 of metallic foil on the inner face of
the absorbent sheet I, and the sheet 2 is some- l
what narrower than the absorbent sheet l, and
the side edge portions 3 and 4 of the sheet I pro
ject beyond the electrode 2, thereby insuring that
the electrode 2 will be completely insulated when
the pad is wound about the curl. The sheet 2
is placed so that a portion 5 of the absorbent
sheet l is below the lower end of sheet 2, that is,
2
2,122,163
near the customer’s scalp, and as no current
passes through this projecting portion 5 during
the heating process, the electrolyte in the portion
5 is cooler and operates as a safeguard against
burning the scalp. At its outer end, the elec
trode sheet 2 projects beyond the top of the ab
sorbent sheet I, so as to conveniently afford a
terminal for the circuit. Usually the interior sur
face of the electrode 2 is insulated from the en
closed tress, and there is shown for this purpose a
sheet 6 of thin parchment paper adherent upon
the inner surface of the electrode 2. The elec
trode and insulating sheet must be Vapor pervious
to permit the vapor from the electrolyte to pene
trate the curl, and for this purpose both sheets
are perforated .as shown at 1.
The exterior electrode is shown as a sheet II
of metal foil on the outer side of the absorbent
sheet I, the electrolyte carrying sheet I and the
two electrodes, one on the inside and the otherr
on the outside of the absorbent sheet I, being
fastened together in any suitable manner, The
sheet II only partially overlaps the sheet I, and
is so placed relatively thereto that when the
device is wrapped about the curl, the sheet II
constitutes a complete and continuous outer en
velope about the curl heating device. A portion
I2 of the absorbent sheet I extends outwardly
at the top beyond the outer edge of the sheet
II so that it will serve as an insulator between
the two electrodes. The sheet II preferably ex
tends at its bottom or inner end beyond the part
5 of the sheet I, so that this inner end of the
sheet II may be crimped about the tress near
the scalp and thus serve as a closure about the
tress to retain the vapor and prevent it reach
ing the scalp.
The embodied form of means for securing a
greater amount or degree of treatment for the
40 new hair at the inner part of the curl in the
present embodiment effects this by creating and
maintaining greater electrolytic action at the in
ner or lower part of the curl, and for this pur
pose the curl heating device has greater elec
trical conductivity at the inner part and less at
the outer part. This difference in conductivity
may be graduated longitudinally of the device, or
it may be in practically two stages, one of
greater conductivity and one of less conduc
tivity, the change being located at about the
usual or average distance that the hair has
grown out by the time the rewave is made. The
difference in conductivity is preferably effected
by treating the outer electrode I I to effect the
desired purpose, and this may be done in a
variety of ways and broadly it is preferably ef
fected by decreasing the conductive area of the
electrode at its outer end without decreasing the
over all size of the electrode, that is, without
60 changing the size or mechanical features of the
heater device. As exemplified, this has been
done by perforations I4 formed in the outer part
of the electrode I`I.
The same result can be accomplished in other
r ways, as by applying some non-conductive ad
hesive as a coating on more or less of the inner
face of the electrode II, sodium silicate being
one example of such an adhesive. Likewise, a
perforated strip of paper could be attached to a
portion of the inner surface of electrode II,
which would permit contact or communication
between the electrode and the electrolyte only in
the open parts of the paper. Other means for
effecting the same end might be used if desired.
By using the perforate outer electrode as shown,
emission of a certain amount of vapor through
the openings occurs, and this additionally oper
ates to reduce the amount of heating and treat
ment of the old hair at the outer part of the
curl, but if the emission of vapor should be
found undesirable or disadvantageous in any
case, the conductivity could be lessened in some 10
of the other ways described or indicated, Where
by perforation of the outer electrode would be
obviated.
The heating device is applied to a tress wound
on a curling rod by wrapping it about the wound
tress in the usual manner, and a wrapped curl
ready for steaming is substantially represented
in Fig. 3 of the drawing. In that figure the tress
I1 has been wound spirally on a curling rod I8
in the usual manner and a heating device, such
as shown in Fig. l, has been wrapped and closed
about the Wound tress with the inner or bottom
part on the electrode II crimped or compressed
about the tress close to the scalp. An addi
tional shield to protect the scalp may be ern- =,
ployed but is omitted from the drawing.
A
source of electrical energy is shown diagram
matically, with a transformer I9 and terminals
2D and ZI connected respectively to the elec
trodes II and 2L
Heating devices of this type
are highly advantageous in that they use an
electrolytic of very low voltage which is not
harmful to humans.
In Fig. 2 of the drawing a curl heating device
of tubular form is shown having the general
structure, characteristics and functions of the
flat device previously described, and the same
reference numerals have been applied thereto
without further description. This tubular form
slips over the end of the wound tress, and it is 40
usually preferable and more eflicacious to con
struct the tube so that it may be deformed or
crushed about the curl, approximately as shown
in Fig. 3, which is possible when the electrodes
are made from sheets of metal foil.
The invention in its broader aspects is not 45
limited to the specific mechanisms shown and
described but departures may be made there
from within the scope of the accompanying
claims without departing from the principles of
the invention and without sacrificing its chief
advantages.
What I claim is:
1. A curl heating device for permanently wav
ing hair comprising a sheet of absorbent mate
rial adapted to hold an electrolyte, an inner '
electrode sheet which is vapor pervious, an outer
electrode sheet, and means for causing less elec
trical conductivity at one end of the device and
greater conductivity at the other end of said de
vice, comprising a plurality of perforations in
the cuter electrode sheet near one end thereof.
2. A curl heating device for permanently wav
ing hair comprising a sheet of absorbent mate
rial adapted to hold an electrolyte, an inner elec
trode sheet terminating short of the inner end
of said absorbent sheet, an outer electrode sheet
and means for causing less electrical conduc
tivity near the outer end of said device, com
prising a` plurality of perforations in the outer
70
electrode near the outer end thereof.
EUGÈNE F. SUTER.
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