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Патент USA US2122191

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June 28, 1938.
s, BALLANTlNE
2,122,191
SOUND TRANSLATION APPARATUS
‘
Filed‘Dec. 15, 1955
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June 28, 1938.
s. BALLANTINE
2,122,191
SOUND TRANSLATION APPARATUS
Filed Dec. 13, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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2,122,191
Patented June 28, 1938
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE
2.122.191
scum) 'razmsm'rron mans-rue
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Application December 1:, ms, serial No. 54,341
'
19 Claims. . - (01. 119-1)
This invention relates to'apparatus for trans
lating mechanical vibrations of the body in the
region of the throat. as ‘set up by the voice, into
articulate speech sounds or into electrical cur
‘ rents which when reproduced yield articulate
speech sounds.
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and structures involved in the voice production.
since the frequency response characteristic of the
microphone itself ’ with its associated ampli?er
is smooth. Wave analysis reveals the presence
of several of these resonances.
Although natu- . 5
rally these vary in frequency and intensity from
'0 Apparatus and methods for this general pur- ' ' individual to individual, there is su?lcient cluster
pose have been described in my copending appli-H ing' to permit a de?nite identiilcationin terms of
frequency. For example, one of the most promi
xcations Ber. Nos.'6_,245 and 6,246, ?led Feb. 12, ‘nent
of these resonances lies in the neighborhood 10
10 1935, and Ber. No. 8,392, ?led’Feb. 26, 1935.
An object of thepresent invention is to provide of 900 cycles and can readily be demonstrated in
the semi-vowel sound of‘ "L" as in the word
' methods of and apparatus for the further im
provement of the ‘quality of the reproduced sound
in order that it may more closely resemble the
7 ‘5 natural quality of the voice as perceived by aerial
sound transmission.
.
A further object ‘is to improve the articulation.
of speech sounds picked up by the throat micro
‘o
Dhone._
"hello", in the sound of "F'" as in "for" or in the
sound of f‘M". 'Another concentration occurs in
the region 2500-3500 cycles, and several of less 15
importance between 1000.and 2000 cycles.
a Reference is made to the accompanying draw
ings forming a part of this speci?cation, in which:
‘ Fig. 1 is a graphic comparison of vibratory en
In my copending application Ser. No. 6,245, I‘ ’ ergy available at the throat and in sound waves in 20
I
_
have disclosed the'results' of my investigations air;
which have established that the mechanicalen- ‘_ _ Fig. 2 is a frequency-transmission curve for an
ergy in the vibrations ofthe throat due to the amplifier or network which will com, ensate for
excessive energy inputat n00 cycles;
voice, available for the actuation of a throat mi-' anFig.
8 is a circuit diagram of a translating sys- 25
crophone, varies with frequency in a manner
which differs from the variation with frequency tem. including a network having a characteristic
'
' V
of the aerial sounds. so that if these vibrations , suchas shown in Fig. 2:
are reproduced by a system devoid of distortion ' >
'0’ (frequency discrimination) the sounds do not
Fig.4 is a fragmentary circuit diagram of a '
compensating ampli?er system;
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f
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,
resemble the natural sound of the voice. I have
.a in that application shown how these discoveries
Fig. 5 is a frequency-output curve illustrative
rises as the frequency‘ is increased. This come
pensates for, the gross and more important differ
ences in frequency‘ distribution between ‘the
n throat .and voice-operated methods of sound
The vertical lines of Fig. 1 show'the location
and relative amplitude _of the more important
80
of the operaticnof the Fig. 4 ampli?er; and
may be utilized. to achieve natural reproduction ‘ Fig. 6 is a fragmentary. circuit diagram of a
and highly articulate speech with a'throat micro sound translating system embcdying‘the inven
"; phone.‘ The general method comprises, in gen tion, the microphone being shown incentral sec- 35
on.
eral, providing an overall transmission which
‘components in the sound “L” asperceived by
means of the throat microphone system of my 40
copending application Ser. No. 6,245, and as per
ceived by means of a distortionless microphone
actuated by the aerial sound waves. The 900
‘ systems ofthe prior art.
7,
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,
component is seen to be in the ratio of about
Further‘ experimental studies under various 'cycle
5 to 1 in the case of the throat microphone, over 45
‘5 conditions and with a variety of subjects have re
_
vealed a residual “fuzziness" in the reproduction that of the aerial microphone.
. 'I ?nd that a readily recognizable improve- - '
of‘certain sounds.‘ > This, I .?nd to be due to a
‘concentration of mechanical energy at certain ment in the quality of the reproduced sound can
pick-up. ‘Application of these principles results
in a vast improvement'over throat microphone
frequencies in the region. of the throat which is ' be obtained by compensating'for these resonances
In in excess of vtheenergy present in the aerial in the frequency characteristic of the throat mi- 50
sound, as revealed by the spectral analysis ‘of crophone system. This can be‘effected either in
oscillograms of the sounds as received through the microphone or in the associated circuits.
the air and through the throat microphone sys While it is desirable to compensate for all of the
tem. Such concentrations are probably caused throat resonances, I ?nd as a practical matter
. by resonances inthe larynx, associated cavities that attention can be pro?tably con?ned to a 55
2
2,122,191
few ‘of the more prominent ones, particularly to
those centered at 900 and 3000 cycles. In the de
sign of certain practical apparatus, I have con
curve ABD in Fig. 5. The output circuit of T2
comprises the resistance R5 and transformer
L4—-L5. It is usually convenient to design the
?ned the compensation to the 900-cycle group,
employing a characteristic of the type shown in
output circuit so that the impedance viewed from
the output terminals is a pure resistance thus
Fig. 2. This effects a considerable improvement,
particularly in the case of reception by ordinary
telephone receivers which themselves contribute
an augmented response in this frequency region
facilitating the connection of the equipment to
a line or other electrical communication equip
ments. The function of the remaining apparatus
in Fig. 4 will be readily understood by one skilled
due to diaphragm resonance. It is to be under
stood, of course, that this new characteristic is to
be superposed on the characteristic described
in application Ser. No. 6,245. The latter can be
regarded as a general trend compensation, and
in the art.‘ The. overall frequency character
istic of theequipment shown in Fig. 4 is illus
tra
' icrophone M is actuated at constant
the present characteristic as a further re?ne
” herange of frequencies.
ment.
An embodiment of the invention as applied to e
a carbon type of throat microphone is shown in
Fig. 3. The apparatus to the left of the_dotted
line A is identical with the apparatus shown at
the left of line 0-1), Fig. 2 of my application Ser.
‘No. 6,245, and includes a throat microphone M,
and a network I'of the constant resistance type
25
which compensates for the general decrease in
vibratory energy towards the higher speech fre
quencies and also for the decreased response of
the carbon granule type of microphone at‘higher
frequencies. The network II between the dotted
Fig. 5, curve ACD, which represents
t" voltage to frequency relationship
ment shown in Fig. 6, the dip in
the frequency characteristic is obtained mechani
cally in the microphone itself. Themicrophone
shown is of an electromagnetic type to be more
particularly described in a forthcoming applica- '
tion. Briefly, the diaphragm I, in the form'of
a strip of electrical steel, is caused to vibrate by
the button B in contact with the throat. The
ends of the strip I are supported on permanent
magnets 2 which are polarized as indicated. A
back member 3 carries a pole piece 4 encircled by
‘coil 5 that is connected acrossan ampli?er 6. A
small air gap ‘of a few thousandths of an inch
separates the .pole piece 4 and the diaphragm I.
acteristic at the 900-cycle range similar to that When the diaphragm is caused to vibrate an elec 30
shown in Fig. 2, and the network III between lines trical voltage is generated in-the coil which is
B and C provides a similar dip in the transmission ampli?edby the ampli?er 6 and actuates the tele
at another larynx resonance frequency, say at phone receivers ‘I. The dip characteristic is ob
tained in this arrangement by means of the
35 3000 cycles. The equalizers are shown for con
venience as of the constant resistance type and springs-8 which are attached to the diaphragm
may be so designed that all apparatus can be con— at one end, and which carry the weights 9 at
nected on a constant image impedance basis, their other ends. The dynamic impedance of
such a combination to forces applied at the spring
thereby permitting the substitution of the ap
~10 paratus to the left of line C for an equivalent end tends to a very high value at the frequency
carbon microphone, designed for actuation in the of resonance between the compliance of the
usual manner by aerial sound waves, of the same spring and the mass of the weight 9. This high
impedance tends to suppress the motion of the
resistance.
.
A second embodiment is shown in Fig. 4, in diaphragm at this resonance frequency. The
45 which the dip characteristic for the 900-cycle springs 8 and weights 9 are so chosen that res
resonance is incorporated in the pre-ampli?er. onance occurs at the frequency ‘it is desired to
The triode ampli?er A1 and following pentode A2
Two springs and masses are shown vin Fig. 6,
preferably have a. common cathode and are in
corporated in a single glass envelope but for disposed on either side of the pole piece. Both
50 clearness of illustration, are shown as separate may be tuned to the same frequency, or one may
tubes. M designates the throat microphone, be tuned to one'frequency it is desired to sup 50
which may be of any convenient type. For the press, and the second to another ‘frequency.
It will be understood that the particular cir
purposes of explanation, it is assumed that it is of
the electromagnetic type and preferably of a con
cuit arrangements herein described are illustra
tive of apparatus that may be employed to carry
struction to be described in a forthcoming appli
cation, having an output voltage which is pro
out the novel methods of this invention. Other 55
portional to. the mechanical actuating velocity circuit arrangements which may be used to obtain
over the audio range of frequencies. The output ~ the desired frequency variation of transmission to
of microphone M is ampli?ed by the triode sec
compensate for larynx resonances will be ap
60 tion A1 which is coupled to the succeeding stage parent to those familiar with the design of trans— 60
A2 by means of the resistance R2 shunted by the mission systems.
I claim:
‘
series resonant circuit L1, Ci, R1. This circuit is
tuned to approximately 900 cycles and the triode
1. Sound translating apparatus comprising the
stage thus has a transmission characteristic of combination of a mechano-electric transducer
the type shown in Fig. 2. Suitable values of the substantially non-responsive to sound waves in
65
constants are Li=3 henries, Ci=.01 mfd., R1: air and actuated by the vibrations of the body
3000 ohms, Rz=100,000 ohms, R3 is a gain control due to the voice, and mechanical means operative
of resistance of 500,000 ohms. The pentode sec
in the frequency range of from about 200 to 4000
tion A2 is coupledto a succeeding tube T2 by cycles for selectively reducing the current output
30 lines A and B is designed to introduce a loss char
attenuate.‘
means of a composite coupling comprising the
resistance R4 and the resonant transformer
L2—L3. This transformer is resonant at the up
per, end of the frequency range, giving the desired
rising frequency characteristic, as described in
my copending application, and shown by the
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at a frequency of mechanical resonance of the 70
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body.
2. Sound translating apparatus comprising the
combination of a mechano-electric transducer
substantially non-responsive to sound waves in
air and actuated by the vibrations of the larynx 75
3
2,122,191
vibrations, of said transducer means by the
due to‘ the voice, an electrical network working ' the.
body, of means for‘ reducing, the efficiency of at
out of said transducer, said transducer and net
work‘ having an over-all rising frequency transmis
least one of said transducer and transmitting
means at a preselected frequency of about.900
sion characteristic in the range of from about 200
to_,4000 cycles to compensate for the general de
crease in vibratory energy of the larynx towards
the higher frequencies, and means for reducing
the current output at a frequency of mechanical
resonance of the larynx.
3. Sound translating apparatus of the‘ type
10
comprising a throat microphone, and a trans
mission network into which said microphone
works, characterized by the fact that the overall
frequency response curve of said microphone and
‘ network has a region of relatively low transmis
sion efficiency within the frequency range of
from about 200 to 4000 cycles corresponding to a
mechanical resonance frequency of the larynx.
4. Sound translating apparatus comprising a
throat microphone, and an electrical network for
said microphone including a section having a
rising efficiency with increasing frequency in the
range of from about 200 to 4000 cycles and a sec
ond section having a marked decrease in trans
mission efficiency at a frequency of mechanical
resonance of the larynx within the said fre
cycles...
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coupling circuit shunted by a path resonant at
10
a preselected frequency of about 900 cycles.
12. Sound translating apparatus comprising a
mechano-electric transducer substantially non
responsive to sound waves in air and actuated by
vibrations of the larynx due to the voice, means
for producing a relation between output and fre 15
quency which rises with frequency in the range of
from about 200 to 4000 cycles when the. trans
ducer is vibrated at constant velocity, and means
for selectively reducing the output at a frequency
within the said range corresponding to a me 20
' chanical resonance point of the larynx, thereby
to compensate for abnormally large vibrations of
5. Sound translating apparatus comprising a
throat microphone responsive to mechanical
vibrations of the larynx in the frequency range
of from about 200 to 4000 cycles, and an ampli?er
working out of said microphone, said ampli?er
having a coupling circuit shunted by a path
resonant at a frequency of mechanical resonance
of the larynx.
6. Sound translating apparatus comprising a
throat microphone responsive to mechanical
vibrations of the larynx in the frequency range
of from about 200 to 4000 cycles, and a. plurality
40
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a throat microphone, and an ampli?er working
out of said microphone, said ampli?er having a
quency range.
so
_
11. Sound translating apparatus comprising
of cascaded ampli?ers working out of said micro
phone, one of said amplifiers'having a coupling
circuit shunted by a path resonant at a frequency
of mechanical resonance of the larynx, and one
of said ampli?ers having an output circuit
45 resonant at a relatively high audio frequency.
'7. Sound translating apparatus comprising a
throat microphone, including a vibratory member
actuated by the mechanical vibration of the
throat, and mechanical means for selectively
damping said member at a frequency of mechani
the body at such frequencies.
13. The invention as claimed in claim 12 where
in the said reducing means is foperative in the 25
frequency region of the order of 500 to 2000
cycles.
14. The invention as claimed in claim 12 where
in the said reducing means is operative at a fre
quency of approximately 900 cycles.
a 30
15. Sound translating apparatus comprising
a mechano-electric transducer substantially non
responsive to sound waves in air and actuated by
vibrations of the larynx due to the voice, means
for producing a relation between output and fre 35
quency which rises with frequency in the range
of 200 to about 4000 cycles when the transducer
is vibrated at constant velocity, and mechanical
means for selectively reducing the output at a
frequency within the said range corresponding 40
to a mechanical resonance point of the larynx,
thereby to compensate for a normally large vi
brations of the body at such frequencies.
16. In a sound translating system, the combi—
nation with a throat microphone of the type hav 45
ing an output characteristic which rises progres
sively with frequency from 200 to 4000 cycles
when vibrated at constant/velocity, of means for
selectively reducing the output at a frequency
corresponding to a mechanical resonance point 50
of the‘ larynx, thereby to compensate for ab
cal resonance of the throat.
8. In the process of converting mechanical
normally large vibrations/of the body at such
vibrations of the body due to voice into intelligible
sounds, the steps which comprise converting the
mechanical vibrations of the larynx in the range
of from about 200 to 4000 cycles into electrical
currents, and selectively reducing the currentout
put at a frequency of mechanical resonance of
the larynx of the order of from 500 to 2000 cycles.
9. In the process of converting mechanical
vibrations of the body due to voice into intelligible
sounds, the step of converting mechanical vibraé
tions within the voice frequency range of from
about 200 to 4000 cycles into electrical currents,
and the step of transmitting the electrical cur
rents, the efficiency of one of said steps varying
with frequency and being less at about 900 cycles
than at adjacent frequencies.
17. In the process of converting mechanical
vibrations of the larynx due to voice into intel 55
ligible sounds, the steps which comprise convert
ing the mechanical vibrations of the larynx into
10. Sound translating apparatus comprising
the combination with mechano-electrical trans
ducer means substantially non-responsive to
sound waves in air and actuated by the vibrations
of the body due to voice within the frequency
range of from about 200 to 4000 cycles, and means
for transmitting electrical currents resulting from
frequencies.
/
electrical currents, transmitting the electrical
currents with an e?iciency which increases with
60
frequency in the range of from about 200 to 4000
cycles, and selectively reducing the current out
put at a frequency of mechanical resonance of
the larynx in said frequency rangefthereby to
compensate for abnormally large vibrations of 65
the larynx at such resonance frequency.
18. The process of reproducing speech which
comprises producing from mechanical vibrations
of the body due to the voice electrical currents of
the useful voice frequencies with an efficiency
which rises with frequency in the range of about "
200 to 4000 cycles, and selectively reducing the
electrical current output at a frequency corre
sponding to a mechanical resonant point of the
body, thereby to compensate for abnormally large
vibrations of the body at such resonant frequency.
4
2,192,101
19. The process of reproducing speech which
said range correspondinz'to a mechanical reso
comprises producing from mechanical vibrations
hate point of the body, thereby to compensate for
or the body due to the voice electrical currents of
abnormally large vibrstions oi’ the body at such
the useful voice frequencies in the'mnge of about ‘ resonant frequency.
5 200 to 4000 cycles and selectively reducing the
electrical current output at a frequency within '
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STUART BALLAN'I'INE,
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