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Патент USA US2122235

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June 28, 1938.
L. D. MILLARD
TURBINE
_
Filed Nov. 20,, 1937
NW
2,122,235
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
June 28, 1938.
L. D. MILLARD
2,122,235 '
TURBINE
Filed Nov. 20, 1937
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
2 June 28, 1938.
|_. D. MILLARD
2,122,235
TURBINE
.Filed Nov. 20, 1937
44 45
462-‘
:IIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIEIIIIIII
41'
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
June 28, 1938.
l__ D‘ M||__|_ARD
2,122,235
TURBINE
Filed Nov. 20, 1937
‘
Z.
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
Mi 11111111
2,122,235
Patented June 28, 1938
UNITED STATES, PATENT OFFiCE
2,122,235
TURBINE
Loren D. Millard, Burlington, Iowa, assignor to
Murray Iron Works Company, Burlington,
Iowa, a corporation of Iowa
Application November 20, 1937, Serial No. 175,707
15 Claims. (Cl. 253-—39)
My invention relates to improvements in tur
bines.
In general, a 360° arc of steam admission,
through a steam turbine wheel is desirable, be
5 cause this makes for maximum efficiency, due to
reduction of windage losses caused by idle blades.
For a given steam ?ow, the blade length de
creases as the arc of admission increases thus
simplifying the mechanical problems connected
10 with blade and rotor construction.
However, the
360° arc of steam admission through the steam
turbine wheel is not ordinarily employed in small
turbines due to certain mechanical problems
which arise.
Practical considerations dictated a
widely used construction, wherein the casing is
split on the horizontal center line of the casing,
with all steam and exhaust pipe connections in
the lower half of the casing, constituting the
base. This allows dismantling without breaking
pipe connections or disturbing alignment. While
this arrangement is not always followed, users’
preference for such an arrangement has forced
its almostuniversal use for small turbines.
A serious objection to this construction wherein
the casing is split on the center line of the eas
ing is the fact that only a relatively small are of
steam admission to the wheel or rotor is possible.
It is frequently found impracticable‘ to get the
required quantity of steam through the wheel
without using an unnecessarily large wheel or
large nozzles and blade heights. Hand valves for
partial load and overload conditions are desirable,
but where the arc of admission is used, as in
dicated, only a small space is available. This
makes it necessary to restrict the number of
hand valves or makes them inaccessible, if pro
vided.
I
The present invention provides a construction
which retains the desirable features of a casing
40 split on the horizontal center line, with all pipe
connections in the lower casing section or base,
and at the same time overcomes the objectionable
features of such a casing. In accordance with
the present invention, the turbine casing is so
constructed that bearings for the shaft of the
wheel or rotor are arranged centrally of the cas
ing, but are not disturbed when it is desired to
have access to the interior of the turbine casing.
The access to the interior of the turbine casing
:1. C) is afforded by a split in the turbine casing well
above the center line, the upper portion of the
casing then serving as a removable cover. This
arrangement provides the lower portion of the
turbine casing extending through a considerably
in bi greater distance than 180°, thus increasing the
arc of steam admission, which now extends for
more than 180°, to a considerable extent, as de
sired. This increase in the length of the arc of
admission can be utilized in either of two ways.
It will permit of adding more nozzles to increase
the steam capacity whereby the output of a given
size turbine can be greatly increased. Further, it
will permit of using more nozzles of a smaller
diameter, thereby producing a turbine of greater
efficiency. The increased length of the arc of ad 1O
mission also makes more room for hand valves
for hand controlled nozzles, where operating con
ditions are such that these hand valves are
needed.
The improved construction also allows
the cover to be small and light and easily re
15
movable for inspection within the interior of the
turbine casing without disturbing any other part
of the turbine and this cover can also be readily
sealed to the base by a gasket joint. A further
advantage in the new construction is that with 20
the split between the cover and the lower casing
section or base being arranged well above the
true center line of the turbine casing, absolute
center line support for the turbine casing is ob
tainable, which is essential if the turbine is to A
be free from misalignments, due to- the expansion
of the casing by the heat of the steam or the
like. In addition to these advantages, the im
proved construction greatly simpli?es the ma
chine work required for the turbine casing. A
further advantage of the improved construction
is that the wheel, shaft and carbon gland rings,
upon the removal of the cap or upper casing
section may be readily separated from the lower
casing section when desired. A further advan
tage of the improved construction is the excellent
provision it makes for controlled steam flow
through the wheel and from the wheel into the
exhaust.
In the
accompanying drawings forming a part
of this application and in which like numerals
are employed to designate like parts throughout
the same,
Figure 1 is a plan view of a turbine embodying
45
my invention,
Figure 2 is a central vertical longitudinal
section taken on line 2-7-2 of Figure 1,
Figure 3 is an end elevation of the turbine,
viewed from the exhaust end,
Figure 4 is a transverse section taken generally
on line 4—4 of Figure 2,
Figure 5 is an exploded side elevation of a
turbine and the parts in section,
Figure 6 is a horizontal section taken on line
6-—6 of Figure 3,
55
2
2,122,235
Figure '7 is an inner side elevation of the nozzle
carrying chamber, and,
Figure 8 is a section taken on line 8—8 of
Figure 7, the same being ?attened or distorted.
In accordance with the present invention, the
numeral
I0 designates a turbine casing as a
whole, which embodies a lower casing section I I,
having an end or head I2.
The casing I0 is
generally circular in the plane of rotation of the
32 is also rigidly attached, at 34, with a vertical
support 35. The bearing 3I also includes an
upper portion 36, which is detachably secured to
the lower portion 32 by bolts 31 or the like.
Steam is supplied to the casing through an inlet
pipe 38, and enters the casing through a passage
39, Figure 8, in communication with chamber 29
and the supply of steam is controlled by a recip
rocatory valve device 40, operated by a governor
wheel to be described. The closed end I2 is III. The steam is thus supplied in the proper 10
preferable integral with the lower casing sectionv amount to rotate the rotor at a desired speed.
II and has a U-shaped opening or recess‘ I73 After passing through the wheel, the steam dis
formed therein, as shown. The bearing I4 em
charges from the casing I0 through the exhaust
bodies a lower part I5 including an oil well, and pipe 42.
15. this lower part is rigidly attached to the lower
Rotatably mounted within the casing I0 is a 15
part of the gland case, to be described later, by wheel or rotor 43, rigidly mounted upon a hori
spaced webs or walls I6, preferably formed in
zontal shaft 44. This shaft is journaled in the
tegral with these parts. The bearing M includes bearings I4 and 3|. These bearings are split
an upper part I1, which is detachably‘ secured horizontally through their centers, with the upper
to the lower part I5 by bolts I 8 or the like.
portions I‘! and 36 removable, as explained, and
The lower casing section II is attached to a the horizontal centers of these bearings are in
base I9 by a dowel 20 which is a sliding ?t in the
closed end or head l2. This allows the casing to
expand radially from the center line of the tur
25 bine but does not allow it to move horizontally.
This base is rigidly attached‘ to standards 2!
having feet 22. The upper ends of these stand
ards are rigidly secured to horizontal braces 23,
preferably formed integral with the upper por
tion of the end or head I2. These braces being
hollow inside serve as excellent openings for
carrying the exhaust steam away from the wheel.
Since the bearing M is rigidly mounted upon this
end or head I2, thebraces 23 and associated ele—
35 ments serve to stiffen the end or head against
any possible displacement.
The end of the casing section II opposite the
closed end or head I2 will be designated by the
numeral 25. This end 26 has a vertically ar
40 ranged U-shaped opening or recess 28, corre
sponding to‘ the recess I3. The recesses I 3 and
28 are oppositely arranged, are in alignment,
and pass through the tops of the ends or heads
I2 and 25 as shown. The end or head 25 ‘also
45 has a circumferential opening 24 in its face
through which is inserted an arcuate steam ad
mission or nozzle carrying chamber 29. This
nozzle carrying chamber, by means of a ?ange, is
fastened securely to the end 26 by bolts 25 and 2'!
or the like. _This ?ange covers and seals the
opening 24. As better shown in Figures 4 and '7,
the nozzle carrying chamber 29 extends circum
ferentially throughout the casing beyond the cen
ter line and for more than 180°.
The chamber
55 29 is provided with the nozzles 29’, Figure 7,
as is well known in the turbine art, and these
nozzles supply the steam to the wheel to rotate
the same. The nozzle carrying chamber 29 is
curved or arcuate and is provided at suitably
60
spaced points with hand wheels 30, Figure 4,
which are employed to open or close valves 35’ to
control the passage of steam from the chamber
29 to selected nozzles or groups of nozzles 3|’, as
is well known in the art.
At this point, particu
65 lar attention is called to the fact that the nozzle
carrying chamber 29 extends throughout more
than 180°, and, as shown in Figures 4 and '7, its
opposite ends extend well above the center line
of the casing.
70
The numeral 3I designates a bearing, arranged
opposite to and corresponding with the bearing
Ill. Bearing 3| includes a lower portion 32 hav
ing an oil well and this lower portion is rigidly
attached to the lower half of the gland case, to be
discussed later, by webs33. The lower portion
alignment with the horizontal centers of the cas
ing Ill. The numeral 45 designates a gland, sur
rounding the shaft 44. This gland is split hori
zontally making a lower part 55 which is rigidly 25
attached to the lower part of the bearing I5 by
Walls I6 as described before. This lower half 55
of the gland locates in the round part of the U
shaped opening I3, thus locating the gland and
bearing on the center line of the casing. The
lower part of the gland is ?anged and secured
to the end I2 by bolts 56 or the like. The gland
45 includes an upper part 51 which is detachably
secured to the lower part 55 by bolts 53 or the
like. This upper part of the gland 51 is also
?anged and secured to the end I2 by bolts 41 or
the like, thus scaling up the U-shaped opening.
The top of this upper part terminates with a
horizontal ?ange 46.
In a similar manner a gland 48 surrounds the
shaft 44. This gland is split horizontally making
a lower part 59 which is rigidly attached to the
lower part of the bearing 32 by webs 33 as de
scribed before. This lower half of the gland 59
locates in the round part of the U-shaped open 45
ing 28, thus locating the gland and bearing on
the center line of the casing and in line with the
opposite gland and bearing. The lower part of
the gland is ?anged and secured to the end 25 by
bolts 60 or the like.
The gland 48 includes an 50
upper part 6| which is detachably secured to the
lower part 59 by bolts 62 or the like. This upper
part 6| is also ?anged and secured to the end 25
by bolts 50 or the like, thus sealing up the U
shaped opening. The top of the upper part ter
minates with a horizontal ?ange 139. The gland
48 is clearly shown in Figure 4, and the gland
45 is similar to gland 48, as is obvious. It might
be stated at this point that when the upper bear
ing parts I? and 36 are removed and the upper 60
gland parts 51' and GI are removed, the shaft 44
and Wheel 43 are removable as a unit upwardly
through the U-shaped openings I3 and 28. The
glands 45 and 48 hold the usual packing rings 45a
and 48a respectively.
65
The casing I0 is split horizontally a consider
able distance above its center line, and the center
line of the casing is at the center of the shaft
44, whereby the lower casing section II extends
above the horizontal center line for a considerable
distance, as explained. The splitting of the cas
ing horizontally above the center line, as ex
plained, provides an upper casing section or cap
5 I, having a horizontal ?ange 52, detachably con
nected with the horizontal ?ange 53 of the lower 75
3
2,122,235,
casing section by bolts 54. This horizontal flange
52 also fits over the horizontal flanges 46 and d9
of the upper portions of the gland cases 45 and
48. The assembled upper and lower casing sec
tions constitute the entire casing H), as explained.
From the foregoing description, it is seen that
by removing the top casing section or cover 5|,
access may be had to the interior of the lower
casing section, without in any way disturbing the
nozzles, valves, glands, steam connections, or
other parts of‘the turbine.
It is to be understood that the form of my in
vention herewith shown and described is to be
taken as a preferred example of the same, and
that various changes in the shape, size, and ar
rangement of parts, may be resorted to, without
departing from the spirit of my invention or the
scope of the subjoined claims.
.
.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
20
1. In a turbine, a casing having a center line
and split horizontally a considerable distance
above the center line to provide a lower casing
4. In a turbine, a casing having a center line
and split horizontally considerably above the cen
ter line for providing a relatively large lower cas
ing section and a relatively small upper casing
section, the lower casing section having ends pro
vided with U -shaped openings which pass through
the tops of the ends, stationary bearings arranged
exteriorly of the casing and split horizontally
through their center line and through the center
line of the casing, said bearings including upper 10
removable parts, a shaft held within the bearings
and passing through the center line of the cas
ing, a wheel within the casing and mounted upon
the shaft, an arcuate nozzle chamber for the
lower casing section and extending a considerable
distance above the center line of the casing,
glands arranged upon opposite sides of the wheel
and having ?anges, said glands being movable
downwardly through the U-shaped openings, and
means to attach the ?anges to the ends of the 20
casing.
5. A casing having a center line, said casing
section extending throughout considerably more
having opposite ends, said casing being split gen—
lower casing section and extending about the cen
ter line of the casing for considerably more than
180°, a shaft extending through the lower cas
the opposite ends of the casing thereby providing
erally horizontally for a considerable distance
than 180° and an upper removable casing sec
25 tion, an arcuate nozzle chamber carried by the - above its center line, said split extending through
a body portion extending for considerably more
ing section at the center line of the casing, a
than 180° and a removable cap, a steam chamber
separate from the cap and carried by one end of
30 wheel carried by the shaft and arranged within
the casing, said lower casing section having means
more than 189°, nozzles connected with the steam
to permit of the upward movement of the shaft
from within such lower casing section, means to
prevent the discharge of steam from the lower
35 casing section about the shaft, and bearings for
the shaft and adapted to permit of the upward
movement of such shaft.
2. In a turbine, a casing having a center line
chamber and aranged in a curved group and ex
tending for more than 130° and arranged within
the body portion, valves carried by said end to control the passage of steam from the steam
chamber to certain of the nozzles, said valves be
ing accessible fromthe exterior of the body por
tion, bearings separate from the cap and having
ing section extending considerably beyond 180°
their center lines in alignment with the center
line of the casing, a shaft held within the bear~
ings, and a wheel within the casing and carried
and a removable upper casing section, the lower
by the shaft.
and split horizontally above the center line for
4-0 a considerable distance for providing a lower cas
casing section having openings formed in its ends,
the upper ends of the openings being open, an
arcuate nozzle chamber carried by the casing and
concentric with the center line of the casing and
extending considerably beyond 180°, bearings ar
ranged exteriorly of the casing and. concentric
with its center line, a shaft held within the bear
50 ings at the center line of the casing and passing
through the openings in the ends of the casing,
and gland and bearing housings removably
mounted within the openings in the ends of the
casing and receiving the shaft.
3. In a turbine, a casing having a center line
and split horizontally considerably above the cen
ter line for affording a relatively large lower cas
ing section and a relatively small removable up
per casing section, the relatively large lower cas
60 ing section having ends provided with substan
65
the body portion and extending for considerably 30
,
6. In a steam turbine, a casing having a cen—
ter line, said casing having opposite ends and be
ing split generally horizontally for a considerable
distance above the center line, said split divid
ing the casing into a body portion extending for
considerably more than 180° and a removable cap,
said removable cap constituting a portion of the
periphery of the casing, a curved group of noz
zles carried by one end of the body portion and
separate from the cap, the curved group extend
ing circumferentially for a considerably greater
distance than is obtainable with the same casing
split horizontally through its center and the group
attached to the lower casing section and separate
from the cover, bearings having their center lines
in alignment with the center line of the casing,
a shaft held within the bearings, and a wheel
60
within the casing and carried by the shaft.
tially vertical U-shaped openings passing through
'7. In a steam turbine, a casing having a cen
their tops, an arcuate nozzle chamber connected
with the lower casing section in substantial con
centric relation thereto and extending consid
ter line, said casing being split generally hori
erably beyond 180°, bearings arranged in align
portion extending for considerably more than
ment With the center line of the casing, a shaft
held within the bearings and extending through
the casing, a wheel mounted upon the shaft and
arranged within the casing, glands arranged upon
opposite sides of the wheel and receiving the
shaft therethrough, said glands being movable
in a vertical direction through the substantially
vertical U-shaped openings, and ?anges secured
to the glands and covering the U-shaped open
ings and attached to the ends of the casing.
zontally for a considerable distance above its
center line for dividing the casing into a body
180° and a removable cover, said body portion
embodying ends having generally vertical open
ings which are open at their tops, a curved group
of nozzles carried by the body portion and sepa
rate from the cap, bearings separate from the
cap and having their centers in alignment with
the center line of the casing, a shaft extending
through the casing and held within the bearings,
glands receiving the shaft and removably mount
2,122,235.
ed within the generally vertical openings, and a
wheel within the casing carried by the shaft.
8. In a turbine, a casing having a periphery and
ends, said casing being split generally horizon
tally for a considerable distance above its cen
ter line for dividing the casing into a body por
tion extending for considerably more than 180°
and a removable cap, the cap constituting a por
tion of the periphery of the casing, a curved
10 group of nozzles carried by the body portion and
separate from the cap and extending circumfer
entially for a considerably greater distance than
is obtainable if the casing Were split horizon
tally through its center line, bearings having
15 their center lines in alignment with the center
the bearings released that the wheel may be re
moved from within the body portion without dis
turbing the nozzles.
11. In a turbine, a casing having a periphery
and ends, said casing embodying a body portion
extending considerably beyond 180° above the
center line of the casing and a removable cap for
providing an upper opening in the periphery when
the cap is removed, said body portion being
provided in its ends with generally vertical open 10
ings, a curved group of nozzles discharging into
the body portion and separate from the cap and
extending circumferentially for a considerably
greater distance than is obtainable if the body
portion extended for only 180°, generally hori 15
line of the casing, said bearings having parts
zontally split bearings having their center lines
detachable with relation to the casing, a shaft
in alignment with the center line of the casing,
a shaft extending through the center line of the
casing and the generally vertical openings and
held within the bearings, and a wheel within the
casing and carried by the shaft, the arrange
ment being such that the wheel and shaft may
be removed from in the body portion without dis
turbing the nozzles or the lower portions of the
extending through the center line of the casing
and held within the bearings, a wheel arranged
within the casing and carried by the shaft, means
to prevent the escape of ?uid pressure from the
body portion about the shaft and to permit of the
upward movement of the shaft, the arrangement
being such that when the cap is removed and
25 the detachable parts of the bearings released that
the shaft and wheel may be removed in an up
bearings.
ward direction from the body portion without
disturbing the nozzles.
and ends, said casing embodying a body portion
extending considerably beyond 180° above the
9. In a turbine, a casing having a periphery and
30 ends, said casing being split generally horizontal
providing an upper opening in the periphery, said
ly for a considerable distance above its center line
for dividing the casing into a body portion ex
tending for considerably more than 180° and a
removable cap, the cap constituting a portion of
03 O1 the periphery of the casing and affording a top
opening when removed, the body portion being
provided in its ends with upstanding openings, a
curved group of nozzles carried by the body por
tion and separate from the cap and extending
40 circumferentially for a considerably greater dis
tance than is obtainable if the casing was split
horizontally through its center, bearings having
their center lines in alignment with the center
line of the casing, said bearings having releas
45 able parts, a shaft extending through the cen
ter line of the casing and said upstanding open
ing and held within the bearings, means to pre
vent the escape of ?uid pressure through the
upstanding openings and a wheel arranged with
50 in the casing and carried by the shaft, the ar
rangement being such that when the cap is re
moved and the releasable parts of the bearings
released that the wheel and shaft may be re
25
12. In a turbine, a casing having a periphery
center line of the casing and a removable cap for
body portion having generally vertical openings
in its ends, a curved group of nozzles discharg
ing into the body portion and separate from the
cap and extending circumferentially for a con
siderably greater distance than is obtainable if 35
the body portion extended for only 180°, gener
ally horizontally split bearings having their cen
ter lines in alignment with the center line of the
casing, said bearings embodying upper and lower
parts, generally horizontally split glands arranged
40
within the generally vertical openings and em
bodying upper and lower parts, a shaft extending
through the center line of the casing and through
the glands and held Within the bearings, and a
wheel within the casing and carried by the shaft, 45
the arrangement being such that the wheel and
shaft may be removed from within the casing
without disturbing the connections of the nozzles
and the adjustments of the lower parts of the
bearings and glands.
50
13. In a turbine, a casing having a periphery
and ends, said casing embodying a body portion
extending considerably beyond 180° above the
moved from the body portion without disturbing _ center line of the casing and a removable cap for
providing an opening in the periphery, said body 55
10. In a turbine, a casing having a periphery portion having openings in its ends extending to
and ends, said casing embodying a body portion the top of the body portion, a group of nozzles
extending for considerably more than 180° and a discharging into the body portion and separate
removable cap, the cap constituting a portion of from the cap, generally horizontally split bear
the periphery and affording an opening in the ings having their center lines in alignment with 60
periphery when removed, the body portion being the center line of the casing, the bearings having
upper and lower parts, glands arranged within
provided in its ends with generally radial open
ings, a curved group of nozzles carried by the the openings in said ends and split generally hor
body portion and separate from the cap and izontally to provide upper and lower parts, a
65 extending circumferentially for a considerably shaft extending through the casing and through 65
55 the nozzles.
greater distance than is obtainable if the body
portion extended for only 180°, bearings having
their center lines in alignment with the center line
of the casing, said bearings having releasable
70 parts, a shaft extending through the center line of
the casing and through the generally radial open
ings and held within the bearings, and a wheel
arranged within the casing and carried by the
shaft, the arrangement being such that when
75 the cap is removed and the releasable parts of
the glands and held within the bearings, and a
wheel within the casing and mounted upon the
shaft, the arrangement being such that the wheel
and shaft may be removed from within the body
portion without separating the wheel and shaft 70
and without disturbing the connections of the
nozzles or the adjustments of the lower parts of
the bearings and glands.
14. In a turbine, a casing including a body
portion and a removable cap, the body portion 75
5
2,122,235
having ends provided with openings extending
through the top thereof, horizontally split glands
and split horizontally a considerable distance
above the center line for affording a body por
arranged within the openings and embodying up
per and lower parts, horizontally split bearings
arranged exteriorly of the body portion and em
ing, a shaft carrying the wheel, said body portion
having means to receive the shaft and to permit 5
bodying upper and lower parts, means rigidly con
necting the lower part of each gland with the
lower part of the adjacent bearing, a shaft ex
tending through the casing and arranged within
10 the glands and bearings, a wheel within the eas
ing and mounted upon the shaft, and means to
supply ?uid pressure into the casing to rotate the
wheel.
15. In a turbine, a casing having a center line
tion and a removable cap, a wheel within the cas
of the removal of the shaft and wheel as a unit
from within the body portion by upward move
ment of the shaft, means to prevent the escape of
?uid pressure from within the body portion about
the shaft, bearing means for the shaft, and means 10
separate from the cap for supplying ?uid pressure
to the wheel, said ?uid pressure supplying means
extending considerably beyond 180".
LOREN D. MILLARD.
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