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June 28, 19u38.
l.. c. MooRE ET AL
2,122,260
DEODORIZING AND BLEACHING OILS
Filed Dec. 6, 1932
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
(klamm
ATTORNEY.
June 2s, 193g.
L, `¢_ MOQRE ET AL
2,122,260
DEÓDORIZING AND BLEACHING OILS
" " ß www
ATTORNEY.
2,122,260
Patented June 28, 1938
UN
2,122,260
f
DEÜDORIZING
Landon C. Moore, Dallas, and Arthur C. Norman,
deceased, late of New Boston, by Smithia S.
Norman, executrix, New Boston, Tex.
Application December 6, 1932, Serial No. 645,882
Ll" BLEACIHIHNG @MJS
7 Claims.
This invention particularly relates to the
bleaching of the vegetable oils, cottonseedy cocoa
nut, soya bean, sesame and corn oils. It further
relates to the bleaching and deodorizing of said
5 oils.
(Ul. 87-12)
bleaching and the deodorizing of said oils. The
operation is eñected in a system, which is closed
to exclude air and which is maintained under
vacuum effect during the operation, (a) by heat
ing the oil to a critical temperature substantially 5
as high as can be employed with substantially
no volatilizing, scorching or change in the essen
at a reduced cost, and to effect the bleaching and tial characteristics of the oil as, for example, by
deodorizing of said oils in a combined and efli- _ polymerization, while an inert gaseous medium
Primary objects of the invention are to ef
fectively bleach vegetable oils specified, to do so
10 cient manner.
It is Well known to those skilled in the art of
producing certain edible vegetable oils that a
crude oil is usually subjected to three general
processing
steps
generally
termed refining,
bleaching and deodorizing. Of these, the so
" called reñning step consists of mixing the crude
oil with an aqueous solution of caustic soda so
as to form probably, sodium salts with the free
acids, tri-glycerides and others of the impurities
present in the crude product and then separat
“
ing the purified oil from the aqueous portion of
the mixture and any precipitated solids so as to
yield a product free from moisture and precipi
tated or solid substances. The so-called bleach
, - ing step consists of warming the reñned oil, em
“
ploying and intimately mixing with it a solid
decolorizing reagent such as fuller’s earth and
then separating the solids'from the oil by means
of suitable filtration apparatus, so as to yield a
30
product of much improved color and free of
solid impurities. The so-called deodorizing step
includes heating the reñned and bleached oil to
and holding it at a temperature of substantially
325 degrees Fahrenheit in a closed vessel under a
. - high vacuum and simultaneously blowing super
`
other solid bleaching reagents together with the
loss of oil attendant to the use of such reagents.
Thus, too, it has for an objective the combin
ing of what has heretofore constituted two sep
arate and distinct and unrelated operations, one
for bleaching and one for deodorizing, into sub
Thus the nature of the invention may be said
to reside in heating the oil to be treated in a 35
closed vessel to a temperature as high as can
jectionable ingredients and to yield an oil of
suitable taste and odor.
The use of a solid decolorizing reagent in the
bleaching step of the prior art process is attend
be done without danger of volatilizing the oil or
burning it, while agitating the oil to disperse an
ed (a) by an appreciable expense for said re
action of a vacuum.
The essence of the present invention may be
said to reside in the employment of heat, under
certain requisite conditions, as the essential ele
ment in effecting the bleaching of the above
speciñed reñned oils; and further in effecting in
a substantially single processing operation the
0
stantially a single operation of steps.
heated steam through the hot oil to volatilize ob
agent which generally is used only once and
then discarded, and also (b) by an appreciable
loss of oil with the discarded reagent.
„-
is continuously introduced into the system and 10
is thoroughly dispersed through or contacted
with the oil within same, and then (b) by re
ducing to and holding for a period of time at a
somewhat lower point, the temperature of the
oil in the system while continuing the main~ 1
tenance of the vacuum and the introduction and
dispersion of the inert gas, and then (c) by ñnal
ly cooling the oil while continuing to maintain
the oil out of contact with the air as by the main
tenance of the vacuum eiîect. The larger por- 20
tion of the decolorizing eiîect with some deodor
izing is effected in the first step of the operation,
and a larger portion of the deodorizing with some
decolorizing is effected in the second step.
Thus the invention has for a primary objective 2
the elimination of the use of fuller’s earth and
inert gaseous medium thoroughly therethrough,
during which operations, the oil is exposed to the 40
The invention may be carried out by exposing
the oil, or oil bearing mixture being treated,
simultaneously or concurrently to bleaching and
to deodorizing actions without the use in the zone
5
of treatment of solid bleaching agents such as
fuller’s earth, bone char, or activated carbon.
This bleaching and deodorizing is accomplished
by raising the temperature of the oil while under 50
2
2,122,260
the action of a vacuum or vacuum effect, to a
critical bleaching temperature range within
which the color substances are affected without
burning or volatilizing the oil and within which
some portion of the odorous organic substance
is removed by volatilization. The range of oper
ating temperatures within which the decoloriz
ing just referred to is carried out and within ,
pipe line I1 but are iprovided with outlet valves
I8, I8, 20 and 2| respectively. 'There is a pumpÍ
22 in 'the pipe line capable of pumping hot oil
under a vacuum.
From the pump 22 leads a
pipe 23 to the heater II. From the heater, leads
an oil pipe 24 feeding to the kettles with a valved
inlet for each kettle 25, 26, 21 and 28 respectively.
A vacuum pipe-line is indicated by 30 with a
which the substantial decolorizing operations are valved connection 3|, 32, 33, 34 and 35 for each
10 confined, is thus referred to herein as the oper
of the kettles and cooler-respectively. A steam
ative critical bleaching-temperature range. Then lineyis indicated at 26 with a valved connection 10
While still maintaining the oil under vacuum, 31, 38, 39 and 40 for each kettle respectively, and
Washingout volatilizable impurities, odoriferous each such connection is provided with a steam
or otherwise,` from the oil by means of an inert
15 gas, such as steam. And finally cooling the treat
ed oil while still under a vacuum.
gauge 4|, 42, 43 and 44 respectively. 45, 46, 41
and 48 represent a vacuum gauge `on each kettle
respectively; 49, 50, 5| and 52a thermometer;
In the interest of clarity it is herein pointed ' and 53, 54, 55 and 56 a gauge glass and sampler.
The steam line 36 .has a feed inlet pipe 51 and
also a valved outlet 58 to an injection device 59
out that the term “bleaching”, as employed in
describing this invention, may be defined as a
20 change in the color of a refined vegetable oil
essentially the equivalent of that change obtained
when that oil is ‘subjected to the official bleach
ing test as set forth in “Rules Governing 'I‘rans
actions‘Between Members of the National Cot-25 tonseed Producers Association Incorporated, as
adopted at New Orleans, La., May 12-13-14,
1930,” p. 147, rule 275, section 2, paragraphs
a and b, the color of the bleached oil being de
termined as set forth in section 1 of this rule
30 275.
'I‘he bleaching procedure set forth in said rule
275, may be essentially described as follovvsz--A
Using apparatus as set forth in the rule, weigh
adjacent the pump 22.
The oil line I1 has an inlet 60 for new oil to
be treated controlled by a three-way valve 6|.
The oil line |1 terminates at a pump 62 for im
pelling finished oil from a kettle along pipe 63
to the cooler I6. A valve 64 is provided in the 25
pipe 63, >and another valve 65 is provided in
pipe I1. Each kettle has in its bottom a steam
dispensing device such as a spider 66 having
substantially radial pipes 61 through which steam
is fed from steam pipe 31 for instance, and the 30
steam is emitted through apertures in the bottom
or underside of the pipes 61. The cooler I6 -has
an outlet or discharge pipe 68 leading to a filter
300 gms. of refined oil into a refining cup, heat , or filter-press which is not shown. The cooler
35 to 120° C. and add 6 per cent. of oiiicial fuller’s may be provided with cooling coils 69 and an
35
earth. Stir mechanically at 250, R. P. M. (plus
or minus 10) for ?lve minutes, not allowing tem
perature to fall below 105° C'. and filter through
filter paper. After suiiicient oil has passed the
40 filter to insure clearness, collect a sample for color
reading. Cool and read immediately.
The oiiicial fuller’s earth prescribed above is
to be obtained from the secretary of the Ameri
can Oil Chemists Society as set forth in the rule
45 (120° C. is equivalent to 248° F.-105° C. is equiva
lent to 221° F.).
.
-
The invention may be carried out in different
apparatus but only one arrangement thereof is
illustrated in Fig. 1 of the accompanying draw
50 ings and even that arrangement is shown more
orv lessrdiagrammatically. The curve A-B--C
of Fig. 2 of the accompanying drawings illustrates
substantially a type of temperature-time rela
tionship employed in effecting the invention by
55 the combined steps of bleaching and deodorizing
and as Vapplied ,to cotton seed oil.
The curve
D--E-F of Flug. 2 substantially illustrates the col
or-time relationship resulting from the use of
the time temperature relationship illustrated by
60 the curve A-B-C.
The curve M--N-O of Fig. 3 of the accom
panying drawings is embodied herein to illus
trate an application of the invention as applied
’ to cottonseed oil, wherein the bleacher step is
65 the main feature involved. The curve X--Y-Z
of this Fig. 3 substantially illustrates the corre
sponding color-time relationship illustrated by
the curve M-N-O.
In the drawings there, are shown an oil heater
70 II of any mutable type, a primary oil yheating
tank or kettle I2 and a.v plurality of secondary
oil treating tanks or kettles I3, It and I 5, usu
ally similar to kettle I2. And associated with
the kettles, is a cooler I6 `of any emcient type.
75 .The kettles Yare all connected to an oil discharge
agitator 10, although other types of coolers may
be used.
The operation of this apparatus‘on refined cot
ton seed oil, for instance, is as follows: Through
oil inlet 60, oil is fed to the system including pri 40
mary kettle I2 and heater II until kettle I2 is
about half full.
,
The vacuum line 30 is opened to the kettle I2
and its contents by means of valve 3| so there is
a vacuum of approximately 29" acting on the oil
in the kettle.
.
The pump 22 causes continuous'circulation of
the oil from the kettle I2 through the heater |I
and back to the kettle through pipes 24 and 25.
Thus the oil in kettle I2 is gradually heated to 50
the desired temperature which for cotton seed oil
is about 460“ F.
In this connection see curve
A-B-C of Fig. 2 which is illustrative of the steps
described in this paragraph and the immediately
following portions of this specification. During
this circulation of oil from kettle to heater and
return, it is helpful to inject steam into the oil
going to the heater, for instance by injector 5B
or other similar device, located preferably ahead
0f the pump. This steam has several functions 60
but the prime one is to keep the oil in motion in
flowing through the heater so that none of it
will stagnate in the heater and be burned, in
other words, there is caused continuous circula
tion of the oil whereby it repeatedly flows through 65
the zone where the heating thereof is most in
tense and during which flow of the oil through
or past said zone there is effected suiiìcient mo
tion so that as indicated none of the oil being
heated will stagnate or become pocketed in the 70
heater or in any section thereof and thus be
burned or scorched.
Then this hot bleached oil is conveyed to a sec
ondary kettle I3 by closing valve 25 and opening 75
3
2,122,260
valve 26, since the pump 22 causes the necessary
circulation. During this transfer, the tempera
ture of the oil in the secondary kettle I3 falls to
about 435° F. superheated steam is diffused or
dispersed through the oil or in other words is
caused to iiow into the oil on its way through the
oil, by means of valved connection 38 and its asso
ciated spider and arms. representatively indicated
at 66 and 6l. The oil may stayin kettle I3 for an
interval as long as three hours. meanwhile being
exposed to action of a vacuum through pipe 30
and valve connection 32. The time of detention
in the secondary kettle depends upon the degree
of deodorization required of the ñnished oil,
since deodorization goes on progressively. The
temperature is indicated on thermometer 50,
the steam pressure on gauge 42 and the vacuum
on gauge 46. After a suitable time the steam
supplied to kettle I3 may be lessened while in
creasing the vacuum, if possible in order to cool
the oil down to say 350° F. Then the oil is
pumped through pump 62 and pipe 63 to the
cooler I6 by a suitable manipulation of the var
ious valves. Here the oil while still .under a vac
therethrough aids this action. AThe use of the
vacuum aims to prevent oxidation of the oil
at the high temperatures to which it is heated.
It also assists in volatilizing and removing from
the place of volatilization the odorous impurities
of the oil being treated.
The various vegetable oils listed lend them
selves to this deodorizing and bleaching treat
ment, which eliminates the use of bleaching
agents such as i'uller's earth or carbon. But each
oil seems to have different requirements as to
temperature that must be reached for best re
sults. Each oil must be raised to a tempreature
as high as possible without reaching its liash
point, for it is imperative that during treatment
the oil is not volatilized. To determine this, the
flash point of the oil to be treated is observed
and a factor of safety is deducted from that point.
This factor has to be determined by tests to be
sure of it. Some oils which respond to this treat
ment and their effective temperatures are:
Degrees Fahrenheit approximately
Cotton seed oil ______________________ __ 450-470
Seya. bean oil _______________________ __ 475-480
uum is cooled to approximately 150° F. where
upon it is discharged through pipe B3 to a ñltra
tion stage. The quicker the cooling takes place,
the better for the flavor of the treated oil.
While oil in the kettle I3 is being treated, pri
30 mary kettle I2 is refilled with oil which is heated,
as the ñrstlbatch was. and then it is transferred
to secondary kettle I4 for further treatment as
put. The bleaching takes place in a critical
range of high temperatures whereas the deodor
described for the batch in kettle I3. Still an
other batch is heated in primary kettle I2 and
ization takes place concurrently but over a much
longer period of time during which the oil is
then transferred to secondary kettle I5.
After kettle I3 has been emptied by having its
treated oil pumped to the cooler I6, it is then
maintained at elevated temperatures but lower
than those in the bleaching range. If the oil is to
ready to have a fresh batch of heated oil from
kettle I2 pumped to it, and so on, each sec
Ll
ondary kettle I3, I4 and I5 having heated oil
from primary kettle I2 pumped thereto respec
tively, and from each kettle to the cooler. Thus
by using a battery of kettles individually batch
operated, the battery as a whole gives continuous
treatment of oil.
In order to insure that the bleached oil is
free of solid impurities which may be therein it
is manifest that it may be filtered after the cool
lng.
This treatment simultaneously or concurrently
bleaches and deodorizes the oil. Such action is
Sesame oil __________________________ __ 460-470
Cocoanut oil ________________________ __ 400-410
Corn oil ____________________________ __ 450-460
The time of treatment varies with the oil and
with the use to which the finished oil is to be 30
be used for non-edible purposes, it need not be
deodorized so completely and therefore for not
so long a time as if it were to be eaten.
A curve
indicative of this process is illustrated in Fig. 3 40
and is indicated M-N--O. But taking cotton
seed oil for an example and as shown by commer'
cial scale operation typiñed by the curve A--B-C
of Fig. 2, a satisfactory time of treatment is an
hour in the primary heater to reach bleaching
temperatures and three hours in the secondary
kettle at the lower deodorizing temperatures.
After such treatment, the cotton seed oil has its
color changed from a red substantially towards
white and the treated oil is neutral in flavor and
produced by raising the temperature of the oil to
odor.
In order that a reader of this patent may have
a point within a range at which bleaching is
ready reference for comparative purposes to flash
effected without fundamentally affecting the oil
in any deleterious manner as by volatilizing, poly
point temperatures for certain oils there are in
serted in this specification certain tables found
merizing. or oxidizing the oil, then maintaining
on page 211 of Volume II, First Edition of “Inter- .
the oil at elevated but lesser temperatures for a
national Critical Tables” prepared by the Na
tional Research Council and published for said
council by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.. 60
New York, 370 Seventh Ave., in 1927.
period to produce deodorization, meanwhile ex
posing the oil to the action of a vacuum and dis
persing through the oil superheated steam. The
high temperature causes precipitation or change
in the color imparting substances. These are
washed out or eliminated from the oil by dis
persing the superheated steam through the body
of the oil. Their removal from the oil is facilitat
ed by means of the vacuum. The maintained tem
peratures, which may be somewhat lower than
the higher temperature range last above-men
tioned, further-s volatilization of odorous free
fatty acids and other impurities, but not of the
oil. The temperature range within which this
substantial deodorizing is carried out may be re
ferred to as the deodorizing-temperature range.
75 Agitation oi- the oil by the steam being diffused
On said page 211 thereof one ñnds the flash
point temperature for cottonseed oil according
to one portion of the table as having an average
value of 523.0 degrees F. or 272.7 degrees C.,.with
extreme values given as 500 degrees to 540 de
grees F. or 260 degrees to 282.22 degrees C., while
according to another portion of the table the flash
point of cottonseed oil is listed as 582 degrees
F. or 305.6 degrees C.
For linseed oil in the same table-probably raw
oil-_the flash point is given as 378 degrees F. or
192 degrees C., while for linseed oil boiled the
flash point temperature is given as 419 degrees F.
or 215 degrees C.
4
'
areaaeo
`
The tables referred to and which are being
quoted read as follows:
the flashpoint temperature thereof whereby, dur
FLASH PorN'rs or OILS AND FA'rs
1. Closed test
Average value E53-âge
Oil or iat
10
°F.
Olive ................................... ._ 437. 5
Arctic sperm _____ __
446. 2
Southern sperm ..... __
457. 5
°C.
225. 2
230. 0
236. 3
°F.
410-465
390-485
420-485
Rape, Black Sea renne
464. 4
240. 2
430-490
N eat’s
470. 3
243. 5
410-540
White whale __________ _ _
476. 0
Rape, E Indian refined__
_______ __
Cottonseed _____________________________ __
478.6
523.0
246. 4
248. l
272. 7
410-510
50G-540
__________ __
430-530
Flash
point
Fire
point
Oil or fat
25
378
419
192
215
Maize (com)_ ____________________________ _
Sperm, No. 2__
_
Prime lard _ . _ _
35
572
468
300
242
468
242
518
523
541
270
273
283
'i-ìëâ-ì- “2537
574
302
_
644
340
Cottonseed ______________________________ __
644
340
This invention can be used to effect the required
bleaching of the oil while either completely or
incompletely deodorizing it. Or it can be used
on already partially bleached oil whereby com
pletion of the required bleaching and the deodor
40 izing can be carried on simultaneously.
The process of this invention can be carried out
on the reñned oils listed; on mixtures thereof or
any of said oils listed or mixtures thereof with
hydrogenated or semi-hydrogenatecl products
45 thereof; and on mixtures of said oils in or any of’
said oils or products thereof on the one hand and
stearin on the other. 'I'he process can be carried
out in other apparatus than that shown herein so
long as the temperature, time, gas and vacuum
50 requirements are met. By way of example, the
seed oil lies between approximately 450 and ap
proximately 470 degrees Fahrenheit, maintaining
the temperatures of the oil within said range for 10
a period of time which is insuñiciently long for
the oil being so heated to be changed funda
mentally as by volatilization, polymerization, or
burning, but long enough so that by virtue of said
heat treating there .is effected a bleaching action
in which the objectionable color characteristics
of the oil are substantially destroyed; and which
method also comprises subsequently cooling the
'
-,
2. The method of treating refined cottonseed 20
oil and analogues thereof as defined in and by
claim 1, and further carried out in such a man
ner that it comprises cooling the oil to a deodoi’-,
izing-temperature range extending between ap
proximately 15 and approximately 120 Fahren 25
heit degrees below the temperatures employed
within said bleaching-temperature range, main
taining the oil at temperatures within said de
odorizing-temperature range for a period of time
sufilciently long to eiîect substantial reduction in 30
the odorous characteristics of the oil, maintain
ing the oi-i under vacuum effect while substan
tially free from the influence of gases of oxidizing
nature during said last mentioned period, and
also during said last mentioned period flowing an 35
inert gaseous medium as superheated steam into l _
and through said oil; which said operations, here
by deflned as being carried out while the oil is
at temperatures within said deodorizing-tem
perature range, precede what is defined in said 40
claim l as cooling the oil before exposure to air.
3. In the treating of refined cottonseed oil in
order to overcome objectionable color character
istics thereof and in order to realize a decoloriz
ing process according to which the objectionable 45
color characteristics are overcome Without the
employment as an essential part of the decolor
izing process of a solid bleaching agent such as
fuller's earth, bone char or activated carbon, the
method which comprises heat treating the oil 50
l oil in the primary kettle may be heated indirectly
while agitating it, While dispersing therethrough
instead of directly, and instead of primary and
a flow of an inert gaseous medium as steam, while
secondary kettles, a single kettle can be used if
the volume of oill to be treated does not warrant
55 more than one kettle.
What is claimed is:
1. In the treating of refined cottonseed oil and
analogues thereof such as are deñned herein in
order to overcome objectionable color character
60
istics thereof and in order to realize a decoloriz
ing process according to which the objectionable
color characteristics are overcome without the
employment as an essential part of the decolor
izing process of a solid bleaching agent such as
65 fuller’s earth, bone char or activated carbon, the
method which comprises heat treating the oil
while agitating it, while dispersing therethrough
a flow of an inert gaseous medium as superheated
steam, while maintaining thereon' a vacuum
70 effect, and While maintaining the oil substantially
e
ing said treating as carried out, there is substan
tially avoided volatilizing, polymerizing or burn 5
ing of the oil during said heat treating, which
critical range as employable for reñned cotton
oil before exposure to air.
2. Methods not stated
20
Linseed ................................. _.
Linseed, boiled __________________________ _.
high as possible but which provides a factor of
safety for the particular oil being treated below
maintaining thereon a vacuum eiîect, and while
maintaining the oil free from the inñuence of
gases of oxidizing nature, which said heat treat 55
ing involves heating the oil to temperatures with
in but not above an operative critical bleaching
temperature range extending between approxi
mately 450 and approximately 470 degrees
Fahrenheit, maintaining the temperature of the 60
oil Within said range for a period of time which
is insuñiciently long for the oil being so heated
to be changed fundamentally as by volatilization,
polymerization, or burning but long enough to
effect a bleaching action the result of ywhich is 65
that the objectionable color characteristics of
the oil are substantially destroyed but at the most
with only a slight concomitant reduction in the
odorous characteristics of the oil; and which
method also comprises subsequently cooling the 70
free from the influence of gases of oxidizing na
oil before exposure to air.
ture, which said heat treating involves heating
4. The method of treating refined cottonseed
oil as defined in and'by claim 3, and further
carried out in such a manner that it comprises
the oil to temperatures within an operative criti
cal bleaching temperature range having as its
uppermost operative temperature one which is as
cooling the oil to a deodorizing-temperature 75
5
2,122,260
range extending between approximately 435 and
approximately 350 degrees Fahrenheit, main
taining the oil at temperatures within said de
odorizing-temperature for a period of time suffi
ciently long to effect substantial reduction in the _
odorous characteristics of the oil While maintain
ing the oil under vacuum eiîect and substantially
free from the inñuence of gases of oxidizing
nature, and while dispersing an inért gaseous
10 medium as superheated steam throughout the oil
by flowing the same into and through said oil;
which said operations, hereby defined as being
carried out while the oil is at temperatures with
in said deodorizing-temperature range, precede
15 what is defined in said claim 3 as cooling the oil
before exposure to air.
_
5. In the treating of refined cottonseed oil
` and analogues thereof such as are‘defìned herein,
in order to overcome objectionable color charac
20 teristics thereof and in order to realize a decolor
izing process according to which the objectionable
color characteristics are overcome Without the
employment as an essential part of the decoloriz
ing process of a solid bleaching agent such as
25 fuller’s earth, bone char or activated carbon, the
method which comprises heat treating said oil
while under a maintained vacuum effect, while it
is substantially free from the iniiuence of chemi
cally reactive gases of oxidizing and deleteriously
30 contaminating nature and while it is under con
ditions of agitation which will prevent excessive
localized overheating, which said heat treating
involves heating the oil to temperatures within
an operative critical bleaching-temperature
range having as its uppermost operative tem
perature one which is as high as possible, but
which provides a factor of safety for the par
ticular oil being treated below the ilashpoint
temperature thereof whereby, during said treat
40 ing as carried out, there is substantially avoided
volatilizing, polymerizing or burning of the oil
during said heat treating; maintaining the tem
peratures of the oil within said range for a period
of time which is insufficiently long for the oil`
45 beingÍ so heated to be changed fundamentally as>
by volatilization, polymerization, or burning, but
long enough to effect in the oil a bleaching action '
the result of which is that the objectionable y,
color characteristics of the oil are substantially'
50 destroyed; and which method also comprises sub
sequently cooling the oil before exposure to air.`
6. The method of treating refined cottonseed'--
oil and analogues thereof, such as are defined
herein, in order to overcome vobjectionable color
55 characteristics thereof, and according to which
method certain objectionable color characteristics
of the oil are- overcome without the employment
as an essential part of the bleaching operation
thereof of a solid bleaching agent such as fuller’s
60 earth, bone char or activated carbon, which said
method comprises heat treating said oil while it
is under the influence of vacuum and is substan
tially free from the inñuence .of chemically re
active gases of oxidizing and deleteriously con
65 taminating nature and under conditions which
will prevent excessive localized heating, which
said heat treating involves heating the oil to
temperatures within an operative critical bleach
ing-temperature range having as its uppermost
operative temperature one which is as high as
possible but which provides a factor of safety
for the particular oil being treated whereby, dur
ing said treating as carried out, there is substan
tially avoided volatilizing, polymerizing or burn
ing of the oil during said heat treating; main
taining the temperatures of the oil within said 10
range for a period of time which is insufiiciently
long- for the oil being so heated to be changed
fundamentally as by volatilization, polymeriza
tion, or burning, but sufficiently long so that
incident to such a heating a bleaching action
follows with a consequent overcoming of cer
tain color characteristics of the oil; and which
method also comprises subsequently cooling the
oil before exposure to air.
'1. In the treating of reñned cottonseed oil and
analogues thereof such as are defined herein, in
order to overcome objectionable color character
istics thereof and in order to realize a decoloriz
ing process according to which the objectionable
color characteristics are overcome without the
employment as an essential part of the decoloriz
ing process of „a solid bleaching agent such as
fuller’s earth, bone char or activated carbon, the
method which comprises heat treating said oil
While it is under the influence of vacuum and
While it is substantially free from the influence
of chemically reactive gases of oxidizing and
deleteriously contaminating nature and while
under _conditions which will prevent excessive
localized heating, which said heat treating in
volves heating the oil to temperatures Within an
operative critical bleaching-temperature range
having as its uppermost operativetemperature
one which is as high as possible but which
provides a factor of safety for the particular oil 40
being' treated whereby, during said treating as
carried out, there is substantially avoided volatiliz
ing, polymerizing or burning of the oil during said
heat treating; maintaining the temperatures of
the/_oil within said range for a period of time 45
which is insufficiently long for the oil being so
heated to be changed fundamentally as by vola
tilization, polymerization, or burning, but long
yenough so that there is effected in the oil a bleach
ing action the result of which is that the objec 50
tionable color characteristics oi the oil-are sub
stantially destroyed; then cooling the oil to a tem
perature which is within a deodorizing tempera
ture range, maintaining the oil for a relatively
long period of time at temperatures within said 55
deodorizing-temperature range, and during this
period maintaining a vacuum eñect and dispers
ing a flowing gaseous medium while intimately
contacting with the oil; and which method also
comprises subsequently cooling the oil before ex-Í 60
posure to air. _
LANDON C. MOORE.
ARTHUR C. NORMAN, Deceased,
By SMITHIA S. NORMAN,
Exccutríœ.
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