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Патент USA US2122440

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July 5, 193s.
L. M. SAM UELS
SCALE DUPLICATOR
Filed June 28, >193'?
2.5'
.
INVENTOR
./.50y M SAM/ELS
BY
@QM
ATTORNEY
Patented July 5, 1938
2,122,440
UNITED >STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,122,440
SCALE DUI’LICATOR
Leo M. Samuels, Alexandria, Va.
Application June 28, 1937, Serial No. 150,780
4 Claims.
(Cl. 33--76)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757)
My invention relates to a scale duplicator and along a straight edge of the master scale to be
more particularly to a geometrical drafting in
duplicated. A graduation indicator arm is asso
strument for transferring to a drawing surface ciated with the base member and is so construct
a duplicate or a facsimile of a master scale.
ed that the free end thereof and the gradua
'5 ~ In cartographie work it is common practice to tions of the scale to be duplicated may be juxta 5
employ a well-known, standard diagonal scale posed. By successively juxtaposing the free end
for constructing the geographic coordinates of a of the indicator arm and the various scale grad
map or chart, the scale deriving its name from uatio-ns and using the straight edge not in slid
the diagonal graduations at one end thereof ing engagement with the master scale to draw
>10 which enable the measurement of distances with lines corresponding to each juxtaposition, the 10
increased accuracy. This standard diagonal scale desired scale may be readily and expeditiously
is usually inscribed on a suitable metallic bar reproduced. When it is desired to employ the
having straight edges to thus provide a master scale duplicator for producing a facsimile of a
scale. It is the custom in the construction of master diagonal scale as used in cartographic
f charts or maps to transfer to the drawing sur
work, the base member is also provided with a 15
face a duplicate or facsimile of the master scale
plurality of apertures, the number and spacing
and then take various measurements from the
scale so transcribed, Ythus avoiding any inaccu
racies in construction that would otherwise oc
of which correspond to the number and spacing
of the horizontal lines forming a part of the di
agonal scale, thus enabling their reproduction.
20 cur because of the inevitable shrinkage or con
In the light of the foregoing, it is among the 20
several objects of my invention to provide a
drafting device of great simplicity by means of
which a desired scale may be easily and expedi
employin-g beam Compasses,> dividers and tri-_ tiously reproduced on a drawing surface; to pro
25 angles for taking oiï intercepts from the stand
vide a device for transferring to a drawing
ard or master scale. This procedure has neces
surface a duplicate or facsimile of a master
sarily been time consuming and tedious and re
scale such, for example, as employed in car
quired an amount of time far in excess of that tographie work; and to provide a device of
traction of the drawing surface.
The transcription of diagonal scales to maps
and charts has been accomplished heretofore by
employedfor laying out the geographic coordi
l30 nates of >the map or chart.
.
With a view to decreasing the time necessary
for duplicating the master scale, as well as ob
viating the tedium attendant thereto and in
creasing the accuracy of reproduction, I have
the character described wherein the graduation
indicator arm is so arranged that the free end 30
thereof may be accommodated to scales of vary
ing thickness that are to be duplicated.
Other objects and many of the attendant ad
vantages of this invention will be readily ap
devised the scale duplicator of the present inven
preciated as the same becomes better under
tion. By its use a great saving in time is eiïected
stood by reference to the following detailed de
since a scale may be readily reproduced o-n a
scription when considered in connection with the
accompanying sheet of drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of the scale duplicator
drawing surface from a guide or master scale in
one quarter of the time required by the prior art
a() method and with increased accuracy. Further
more, the scale duplicator and the master scale
are the only articles required for transferring
the desiredv scale to the drawing surface, thus
dispensing with any computation and the use of
45 the various drafting instrumentalities herein
beforeV described. The device of the present in
vention is particularly useful in the ñeld on poly- Y
conic projections where, as a rule, scales of charts
are identical with the survey equipment scales or
50 of such ratio that the instrument may be utilized
to great advantage.
which, is shown for illustrative purposes on a 40
drawing surface and in sliding engagement with
a master scale, a facsimile of which has been re
produced;A
Fig. 2 is a view in side elevation of the assem
bly of Fig. l as seen from the free end of the 45
graduation indicator arm; and
_
Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view of the scale
duplicator and master scale taken on the line
3--3 of Fig. l, all parts being shown on an en
larged scale so that certain of the constructional 50
two straight edges at right angles to each other,
features of the duplicator may be clearly under
stood.
While in the descriptive matter that will now
follow the scale duplicator is described for illus
55 one'of which is adapted for sliding movement
trative purposes as used in the production of a
Briefly, the scale duplicator of the present in
vention comprises a base member provided with
35
2
2,122,440
facsimile of a master diagonal scale such as is
used
understood
in cartographie
that the duplicator
Work, I wish
is it
notto tobe'clearly
be lim
is beveled or chamfered at its edge to facilitate
cation it may be employed in reproducing face
apertures 2'! the duplicator is ìslid alorig‘the en
tire length of the master scale 5 thus V'reproducing
with the pencil the eleven long horizontal lines
285’ corresponding to those numberedg28 on the
the insertion of a sharp pointed pencih
t'
If it is now desired tc duplicate the master
ited to` this use. YjIt should be at once evident to i diagonal scale ?5 on a map ornchart 6"the scale
those skilled in the art that the duplicator of duplicator is placed with its straight edge Yi)
against the straight eglge Il oi the master scale
the present invention may be used for duplicat
5 and with a pencil successively inserted in the
ing any linear scale; and that
slight modiii
similes of other scales.
Y
Y
L'
Turning now to the drawing, there is shown in
Fig. 1 thereof the scale duplicator identified in
10
then piv
general VJoy the reference character ¿à in a posi-îY Amaster scale. " The indicator arm I5
tion to 'duplicate the master diagonal scale 5 o-nV otally adjusted by manipulation of the screW'I'I
a drawing surfaceV 6. Il‘he duplicator #includes and its length ñXed such that theV stylus or
the rectangular base member 1, the edges'ß, 9 andr needle-point 2| may travel along and make inti
I0 of which are straight edges and is preferably mate contact with the upper divisions or gradua
fabricated from anyrsu'i'table transparent mate
tions of the ¿inaster scale. Aiter this initial ad
rial known to the priorl'art. The edge 9 of the' justment, the stylus 2l is caused to make inti
duplicator is adapted for sliding movement along , mate'contact with each of the eleven graduations
the straight edge II or” the master scaleY 5 to be
? duplicated.
l
A pedestal IZiïs rigidly secured to the base memì
straightedgeîzß -has'been selected, small >dashes
ber 'I in any suitable manner and has the upper
end thereof provided with a bifurcation I3 Ato reS
horizontallines 28’.Í The vertical intercepts 3i)
a ceive the shank »lil of the graduation-indicator
arm identified in general by the reference char
acter I5. A screw I6 eìrtends through the shank
I4 of the arm;Y I5 and the bifurcation i3 of the
pedestal I2 to
provide a pivotal mounting for
the graduation indicator arm I5. The screw
threads are preferably of such extent that 'oy
proper vadjustment of the screw It a slight fric
tional engagement between the shank Vist and bi
furcation »I3 is insured to thus facilitate the
29’ are drawn across the tcp vand »bottom long
of the .master scaleïare transferred ?and drawn 2.5
directly _upoînth'e surface 6 asV lines 3G' by Ácon
tacting the lístylus point 2i with the uppermost
graduations of the master'scale 5 and usingtthe
straight edge »26 of the slot 2liv for apencil guide
in thesame manner as it Wasemploîyed in draw
ingfthe dashesx29’ corresponding to the gradua
tions §19.4 As a> ñnal step in,V completing _'theiac
simile of the master scale [tithe proper points
of intersectionfof the dashes 29.-’ with thetopand
maintenance ofthe anni I5 in Yany of its positions
bottom,.horizontalvlines 23’ are connected in the
of 4pivotal adjustment.
mannerishnwn byusing one of the .straight edges
For adjustingY the indi
cator arm Iìabout its point of pivotal support
there is lprovided the vertical screw I'I having the
knurlíed head I3 and threadedly engaging the
arm i5 in the `manner shown. - By suitable adjust
ment'of the screw I'I it is evident that the arm
ofgthe duplicator. il', thus iorming'ïthe diagonal
« ¿recording tof the provisions oi the patentstat
utes-«I-have set Vforth the principle and mode of op 40
eration of my invention anelhave illustrated and
described what {[„now‘consider?to represent'its
commodate the free end thereof to master scales
best embodimentif; However, I desire to havef-it
Y Í
'
i
"
i
The arm I5 is also adjustable in length and
comprises the part i9 which is grooved at 20 .to
receive the needlepoint or stylus 2i. The stylus
2l
shown passes through> an aperture in ¿one
4endgof a threaded stud 22, the otherV end offï'the
50 studi-threadedly engaging a knurled lcircular nut
23. yBy; this arrangement >the arm I5 is rendered
adjustablein‘length so that the free er stylus end
thereof-andthe graduations of thescale to be
duplicated may be juxtaposed. After the ’arm I 5
has lbeen adjusted to proper length by loosening
the nut 23, the nut is then tightened thus insur
ing a secure andv frictional engagement between
the! stylus 2l and the part I9.
I
i
- V`'l’he’base vrr'iernber -I as shown in Fig. 1 is'epro
vided with a rectangular slet 24, the sides 25 and
26 of‘vvhich are ,beveledI te;YV form straight edges
which serve as pencil guides'.l The straight edges
25 and ZP, like strïîaight edges 8 andv i9, are a't
right
angles to the straight edge'ä which slidably
65
engages the edge» ll of the master scale 5îto (be
duplicated.v Any one of the straight edges 8, it,
-25 -or 2,5 may be »used in duplicating a graduation
Se
portion of >thernaster scale described hereinbîefore.
may be pivoted tot a desired position 5to thus ac
of lvarying thicknessf;
70
2s at the'leftend of the master scale 5; and'îfor 20
each oi these graduations,. assuming that the
understood that within the scopeof theappended
claims the invention mayxbepracticed otherwise 45
than as speciñcally illustratedand described.'v
¿ïI'ha‘invention-herein Vdescribed and claimed
may be used and/crfmanufactured;'by or‘for the
Government ofthe United States 'of America for
governmental purposes withoutthe payment of 50
any `royalties >thereon or therefor: ~
«Iclaimïf
.
'
^"
'
‘ ’
'
f
LVA device.fi'orï‘duplicating scales comprising Y
inf combination vai» member‘provided :with 1a ï
rstraight edge adapted forV sliding rmovement -along i
a straight edge "of the scale to beduplicated,A ya
graduation indicator arm pivotally Aassociated»
with said member, means operabieto adjust-the
indicatorfarm about its point of pivotal'support
whereby thefiree end'of the arm maybe accorgi,
modatedtdscales' of varying/thickness that> are
60
to be duplicated; said arm being also adjustable~íîr
in Alengte so that 'the .tree end thereof andthe*
graduations of ¿thescale to be duplicatedîmay ‘be 65
juxtaposed, the aforesaid member being providedV
with a slot at least one side rof fvvhichv is ¿formed
of the master scale, it being only necessary to
as a straightedgeat. iight angles toythe iirstY
mentionedstraight edgeíto thus enable-the dupli
use the samestraight edge selected during the
cationwof4 certain scale -portions >as the free end 70,
duplicating process. The V‘pase member 'I is also
provided with a plurality of apertures 21', the
numberand spacing of which correspond to the
number and spacing of the horizontal lines of the
master diagonal scale 5. Each of the apertures
of the indicator arm and variousl scale graduar-> '
tions >are successively juxtaposed, said vvmember
being also provided with a plurality of apertures
the-number and' spacing of which are determined
by »the-scaleiunderfconsideration whereby the
3
2,122,440
remaining portions of the scale may be dupli
cated.
2. A device for duplicating scales comprising
in combination a member provided with a
straight edge adapted for sliding movement along
a straight edge of the scale to be duplicated, a
graduation indicator arm associated with said
member and adjustable in length so that the free
end thereof and the graduations of the scale to
be duplicated may be juxtaposed, the aforesaid
member being provided with a slot at least one
side of which is formed as a straight edge‘at
right angles to the first mentioned straight edge
to thus enable the duplication of certain scale
15 portions .as the free end of the indicator arm
and various scale graduations are successively
juxtaposed, said member ybeing also provided
with a plurality of apertures the number and
spacing of which are determined by the scale
20 under consideration whereby the remaining por-~
tions of the scale may be duplicated.
3. A device for duplicating scales comprising
in combination a member provided with two
straight edges at right angles to each other one
of which is adapted for sliding movement along
a straight edge of the scale to be duplicated, a
graduation indicator arm associated With said
member and arranged such that the free end
thereof and the graduations of the scale to be
duplicated may be juxtaposed, said member be
ing provided with a plurality of apertures the
number and spacing of which are determined by
the scale to be duplicated.
4. A device for duplicating scales comprising
in combination a member provided with two 10
straight edges at right angles to each other one
of which is adapted for sliding movement along
a straight edge of the scale to be duplicated, and
a graduation indicator arm associated with said
member and arranged such that the free end
thereof and the graduations of the scale to be
duplicated may be juxtaposed, said indicator arm
being pivotally mounted whereby the free end
of the arm may be accommodated to scales of
varying thickness that are to be duplicated, and 20
said member being provided with a plurality of
apertures the number and spacing of Which are
determined by the scale to be duplicated.
LEO M. SAMUELS.
25
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