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Патент USA US2122444

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July 5, 12938.
J. TJAARDA
2,122,444
AUTOMOBILE BODY
Original Filed July 20, 1934
4 Sheets~Sheet l
A TT RNE YÖ.
July 5, 1938.
I
J. .TJAARDA
2,122,444
AUTOMOBILE BODY
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INVENTOR.
BY
aguja, Chim@ .
A TTORNEYÖ.
July 5, 1938.
J. TJAARDA
2,122,444
AUTOMOBILE BODY
Original Filed July 20, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
l.).
INVENTOR.
LTO/777 @barda
BY
July 5, 1938.
~
J. TJAARDA
.
2,122,444
AUTOMOBILE BODY
` Original Filed July 20, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR.
E I?
i:
«Jb/72? Ü'ddrid.
BY
I
vgJQ, Cwlvubq*
A TTORNEYÖ.
Patented July 5, 1938
2,122,444
_ . UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,122,444
AUTOMOBILE BODY
John Tjaarda., Birmingham, Mich., assigner to
Briggs Manufacturing Company, Detroit, Mich.,
a corporation of Michigan
Application July 20, 1934, Serial No. 736,139
Renewed December 30, 1936
17 Claims.
(Cl. 296-428)
the frame structure is so designed and arranged
This invention relates to automotive vehicles
and more particularly to improvements in the
as to provide forward and rear bulkheads effective
frame and body structure of automobiles where
by substantial elimination in weight and better
framing.
5 distribution of loads may be secured Without sac
to consolidate stresses transmitted through the
'
Other objects of this invention will appear in
riilcing strength and durability while at the
the following description and appended claims,
same time permitting the application of full
streamlining principles to the design of the body.
A further object of the invention is to provide
lil a unitary body and main frame or chassis struc
reference being had to the accompanying draw
ings forming a part of this specification wherein
ture so designed and constructed as to cause all
load stresses to be transmitted and distributed
throughout the entire unit whereby the upper
body structure forms with the base or chassis
frame members a unitary load carrying carcass,
thus permitting the base frame and upper body
structure to b_e greatly reduced in Weight while
preserving maximum strength.
l
like reference characters designate corresponding
parts in the several views.
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary central longitudinal
sectional view, shown in perspective, and illus
trating a unitary body and frame structure em
bodying the invention.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view taken
from the inside of the body looking towards the
' rear end thereof.
Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the body, portions
of the roof being broken away to illustrate cer
A further object of the present invention is to
20 provide an improved automobile body in which
the entire side walls and roof of the structure
forms with the chassis frame _a unitary part of
the stress and load carrying frame of the vehicle.
Another object of the invention is to provide
25 improved load carrying framing for an auto
taken substantially through lines 5--5 of Fig. 4
mobile wherein the base is in the form of a cen
tral longitudinal truss or torque member forked
at its rear end to provide a rear engine mount
in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 6 is a vertical section taken substantially
through lines 6-6 of Fig. 4 in the direction of the
ing and constructed at its rear end for support
arrows.
.
of the engine, and wherein torsional stresses and
Fig. 7 is a vertical section taken substantially
through lines 1_1 of Fig. 4 in the direction
‘forces are transmitted from said truss and in
of the arrows.
30 on the rear vehicle Wheels through the medium
part absorbed by reinforced bottom, side and top
body walls forming with> said truss a unitary load
carrying frame.
A further object of the invention is to provide
a unitary body and frame carcass of relatively
great lightness and strength and embodying skel
eton framing including a central longitudinal bot
40 tom truss member having transverse rib mem
bers rigidly mounted thereon in balanced rela-l
tion and in which said rib members form base
portions or lower sides of continuous framing
extending' around four sides of the tonneau and
thus embracing the passenger compartment and
functioning with said truss as load carrying units.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an automobile constructed in improved manner
for mounting the engine at the rear end thereof
'50
tain parts of the underlying structure.
20
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional elevation taken
substantially through lines 4_4 of Fig. 3 in the
direction of the arrows.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged detail fragmentary section
and having fully streamlined characteristics, and
wherein maximum strength and lightness are
secured by providing an‘improved unitary body
and frame carcass designed to distribute load
stresses and forces uninterruptedly through the
55 enclosing frame of the vehicle body, and wherein
Before explaining in detail the present inven
tion it is to be understood that the invention is
not limited in its application to the details of 35
construction and arrangement of parts illustrat
ed in the accompanying drawings, sinceA the in
vention is capable of other embodiments‘and of
being practiced or carried out in various ways.
Also it is to be understood that the phraseology
or terminology employed herein is for the purpose
of description and not of limitation, and it is
not intended to limit the invention claimed here
in beyond the requirements of the prior art.
In the present preferred form of the inven 45
tion, herein illustrated ‘by way of example, the
frame structure is designed for a. fully stream
lined automobile having the engine thereof
mounted in the rear end adjacent the rear driv
ing wheels._ The invention is shown as applied
toa four door sedan but it will be understood
that it may be adapted with suitable changes in
design to other types of automotive vehicles.
‘I‘he present'vehicle body is distinguished in at
least one importantl respect from conventional 55
2,122,444
types of automotive vehicles by the elimination
of the customary chassis and body units in
joined together transversely thereof by means «
of a belt bar or structural cross piece 35 which
which the chassis is designed to receive and car
forms the lower edge of the windshield opening
90. Extending from the juncture- of the base
member I| and the pillar I4 is an angularly ex
tending strut 25. A strut 21 also extends from
the juncture of the bar 35 and pillar I4 in con
verging relation to the strut „25. In like man
ner angularly` extending converging struts 26
and 28 extend from the pillar I5 at the opposite 10v
Side of the structure. The struts 25, 26, 21, and
28 extend forwardly in‘converging relation and
ry-all load stresses and the b-ody merely forms
an enclosure or housing for the passenger com
partment. In the present instance the load
carrying frame of the vehicle includes as a uni
tary structure not only the base frame blut also
the framing extending therefroml and which
10 embraces the passenger compartment of the ve
hicle, and the stresses are transmitted uninter
ruptedly through the framing and consolidated
at front and rear bulkheads.
Referring to the drawings it will be seen -that
15 there is provided a central longitudinal truss
member I0 which is in the form of a torque tube
of Wishbone type forming the backbone of the
unitary frame structure, this truss member be- -
ing bifurcated at its rear end to provide rear
20 forked extensions Illa and Illb forming the rear
engine mounting. Rigidly mounted on the lon
gitudinal truss member I0 and suitably spaced
longitudinally of the vehicle are a series of
_transverse struts or ribs ||, I2, and I3, these be
25 ing in the form of structural members of chan
nel formation which are fixed centrally thereof
to the truss I 0. Extending upwardly from op
posite ends of the transverse bar || and rigidly
ñxed thereto as by welding are front sloping
30 pillars I4 and I5, the upper ends thereof being
joined by a transverse header I6 either integral
transverse struts or ribs I I, I2, and I3, respec
tively.
Extending rearwardly and inwardly from the
juncture ofthe pillar 20 and cross-strut I3 is a 30
channel shaped strut 30, and a similar strut 3|
ture of the members I3 and 2|. The struts 30
and 3| converge toward the rear and the rear
ends thereof are rigidly united as by welding or 35
I8 which are rigidly secured to the ends of the
riveting, to the rear end of the forked arms Illa
member I2 as by welding, and the upper ends
of these pillars or uprights I1 and I8 are joined
ends of the pillars 20 and 2| are also rigidly
20 and 2| which are fixed to the opposite ends
of the bar I3, as by welding.l The upper ends of
45 the pillars 20 and 2| are rigidly joined together
by a transverse bar 22 which may be ñxed to the
65
verse unitary frames which are spaced longi
tudinally of the body from front to rear and are 25
secured at their base or bottom portions to
extends rearwardly and inwardly from the junc
Figs. 1 and 6. Extending upwardly from the
60
The series of transversely arranged struc
tural steel members I4, I5, I6; I1, I8, I9; and 20,
2|, 22, provide, in effect, a plurality of trans-v
riveting, see Figs. 1 and '7. Extending upward
ly _from the transverse base member or rib I2 at
opposite ends thereof are center pillars I1 and
transverse base member or rib I3 are rear pillars
55
II) forwardly of the frame member II and thus
provide a forward bulkhead for the consolidation
20
of forces and stresses at a focal point 29.
therewith or secured thereto as by welding or
by a transverse cross member I9 welded or
40 otherwise secured to the upper ends thereof, see
50
are united to the forward end of the truss ||I at
substantially a common point indicated at 29.
These struts are rigidly united as by welding to 15
the pillars I4 and I5 and cross-member I I and
are also rigidly united together and to the truss
and |0b of the truss member I U.- The upper
joined to the rear ends of the truss members Illa
and Illb through the rear roof rails 52h by means 40
of struts 32 and 33 which also incline inwardly in
converging relation. It will thus be seen that
the framemembers I0a, Illb, 3|), 3|, 32, and 33
are all united at the rear end of the vehicle at
substantially a common location, indicated in 45
general at 34, providing a bulkhead for the >con
solidation of forces and stresses.>
A
upper ends of the pillars by welding. The pil
A forwardly sloping dash 35a is secured to the
lars are preferably stamped or pressed from
sheet steel blanks into channel or -other struc-v belt bar 35. The forwardly sloping streamlined
hood is in part supported by means of the inwardly
tural form.
The roof of the~ Vehicle thus includes the extending curved brace members 36 which are se
transverse structural frame members I6, |19, and cured at' their rear ends to the front pillars I4 and
I 5, the forward flanged ends of the braces 36 being
22 preferably of channel formation which` rigid
ly unite the upright pillarsof the body, and these joined by a cross bar `(not shown). As disclosed
in my prior application Serial No.- 700,444 the 55
top cross-members are braced by means of di
agonal struts 23 and 24.` The struts 23 ext-end front wheels of the vehicle are carried by a
from the junctures of the frame members I 4, I6, ' mounting unit, indicated in general at 31, secured
and 2|, 22; and the diagonal struts 24 extend to the ends of a transverse leaf spring unit 38,
from the junctures of the frame members I5, I6, these wheels being independently sprung in the
and 20, 22. These diagonal struts are prefer-- manner- shown-and described in said application. 60
ably uni-ted at their points of intersection with 'I'he mounting unit 31 for each independently
each other and with the frame member |ï9 at a sprung front wheel includes a vertical spindle or
point 69 centrally of the vehicle roof. It will king pin which is supported at thel outer end of a
also be seen that the upper ends of the pillars I4 transverse truss member 39.
4'I'he member 39 at its center has a socket to 65
and |1 and-the pillars | 5 and I8 are joined to
gether by longitudinal rails or header members receive and seat the tubular beam | 0 andy together
with an upper socketed clamping block 4| forms a
61, these headers being rigidly united to the' up
per ends of the pillars-as well as the top frame yoke embracing the tube |0, the parts being rig
members I6 and I9 as by welding. In like-man
idly united by bolts. Diverging tie rods 4U con
ner the upper ends of the pillars I1 and 20 and
the pillars |B and 2| are rigidly joined together
by longitudinal rails or headermembers 63. The
upper roof rails 61 and 68 are preferably con
tinuous integral members :at each side of the
75 body. The front pillars I4 and I5 are also
nect the upper end of each'stee'ring spindle or 70
king pin to the flanges 4|a of the clamping block
4|, as shown and described in my aforesaid appli
cation. The_leaf spring assembly 38 is clamped
to the block 4| by U-bolts. Arched struts 42 are
`fixed at their rear ends to the outer ends of vthe' 75
3
2,122,444 .
truss bar I I. These struts extend over the upper
ends of the king pins and the latter are connected
‘
In the present four-door type body the upright
struts are transversely united by a tie bar 44. . The
side pillars together with the roof rails or headers
61 and 68 define door openings 64 and 65 which
thence is downwardly flanged to provide depend
ing side aprons 49.
The lower ends of the pillars
I4, I5, I1, I8, 20, and 2| are splayed at their points
of union and are joined by welding with'the pan 46
and cross members I I, I2, and I3, as shown at |1a
in Fig. 1, and the joints are reenforcedby welded
gusset plates 46h.
25
bar 63.
thereto at 42a. The forward ends 43 of these
arched struts 42 provide supporting and reenforc
ing means for the fenders 45 and also brace the
upper ends of the king Ypins or steering spindles.
Surmounting the cross bars II, I2, and I3 is a
stamped» metal sheet 46 forming the floor pan.
10 This'sheet is welded to the cross bars and, as
shown in Fig. 5, is formed adjacent the threshold
at each side of the body with a longitudinal reen
forcing groove 46a and an upstanding channel
shaped rib 41 forming abutments or jamb rails
15 for the lower edges of the doors. 'I'he pan 46 is
extended beyond the door jambs to provide longi
tudinal ledges 48 serving as running boards, and
20
ends thereof are joined by a transverse channel
The rear end of the passenger compartment or
tonneau terminates, in the present instance, at the
locality of the cross member I3 and is separated
from the rear engine compartment by an upstand
30 ing stamped metal panel 50 welded at its lower
flanged edge to thel channel bar I3 and also welded
' at its ends tothe rear pillars. This panel may be
are closed by means of stamped metal doors 66.
'I'he construction and mounting of the doors is
shown and described in my application Serial No.
699,895.
The roof or top of the tonneau proper com 10
prises a pressed metal sheet 18 which may either
be an integral continuation of the rear deck
panel 68 or a separate panel butt welded to the
rear edge of the panel 68 to provide a smooth
finished joint. The roof panels 68 and 16 are 15
suitably arched to produce full streamlining ef
fect and the sides 10a of the roof panel 10 are
sloped uniformly 4to the side rails or headers 61
and 68 and are welded thereto. The roof panel is
also welded to the cross members |6,~ I9, and 22 20
and to the diagonal braces 23 and 24. Thus, the
side and roof panels of the body form continuous
Walls which are substantially an integral part
of the bottom, side and top framing of the body.
Hence, it will be seen that load stresses will be 25
transmitted from the base frame members I8
|3 directly through the side and top walls as
well as through the upright pillars and upper
connecting members.
Transmitted forces will,
furthermore, be consolidated at front and rear 30
äc‘ical points constituting the bulkheads 29 and
provided with openings, as shown in Fig. l, for ‘
In its preferred form the central truss member
ventilation purposes.
or torque tube I0 comprises semi-circular
The
rear
forked
or
splayed
ends
Illa
and
Illb
of
35
the central torque tube are designed to straddle pressed steel sections 15 and 16 having depend
the cylinder block of the engine and these ends
are joined at the rear bulkhead by means of an
' arch 5I which extends over the engine block and
40 is bolted thereto.
The details of this construc
tion are shown and described in my application
Serial No. 719,656. Thus the rear end of the
torque tube or beam I8 and connected frame parts
at the rear bulkhead are supported on the engine
45 block which in turn, as shown in said last~named
application, is hung from the center of a trans
verse leaf springunit to the ends of which the rear
driving wheels are connected, as indicated in
dotted lines in Fig. 4.
50
'
Extended rearwardly from the rear pillars 2|)
and 2| are frames, generally designated at 52,
which support the rear quarter panels and which
define the rear quarter window openings. 'I'he
lower sides 52a of these frames are joined by weld
ing at 52e to the upper converging ends of the
‘ struts 32, 33, and 53. The upper sides 52h form
continuations of roof rails and are braced by a
transverse tie bar 54 having bent ends 55 welded
thereto. Reenforcing rib or strut members 56, 51,
60 and 58, secured to the framing 52, extend rear
wardly therefrom, as shown in Fig. 2, and a rear
cross strut 59 joins these ribs at `their points of
juncture. 'I'he rear sloping deck of the roof, com
prising a continuous stamped or pressed metal
65 sheet, is mounted on the cross members 22, 54,
and 59 and is welded thereto. The rear side or
quarter panels, comprising stamped metal sheets,
are integrally joined to the roof panel 68 and are
reenforced by the bracing members 52, 53, 56, 51,
70 and 58 welded thereto. These rear side' panels
are also secured, as by welding, to arched struts 6|
extending rearwardly from the junctures of the
pillars 20, 2| and the cross member I3. These
struts support and reenforce the rear fenders 62,
being 4integrally connected thereto, and the rear
ing flanges 11 and 18 respectively, see Fig. 6.
The upper longitudinal edges of the sections
have inturned ñanges 19. Interposed between
the opposed flanges of the sections is a longitudi
nal plate 80 welded to the upper ñanges 19. Each 40
of the cross members II, I2, and I3 has a central
arched portion 8| embracing the upper half of
the tube. Curved brackets 82 embrace the lower
half of the tube and have their flanged ends
secured to the flanged portions 11 and 18 and 45
plate 80 by common through bolts 83. The oppo
site ñanged ends of the brackets are bolted at 85
to the lower flanges of the channel members and
to welded reenforcing U-pieces 84.
From the foregoing it will be seen that an au
50
tomobile carcass constructed in accordance with
the present invention will -possess maximum
strength and durability and full streamline char
acteristics while permitting a reduction in
weight, without sacrificing strength, of at least 55
vtwenty iive to thirty per cent of the weight of
conventional types of frame and body structures.
I claim:
1. In an automotive vehicle, a body,and chassis
umt comprising a central longitudinal truss 60
member and a plurality of unitary frames each
secured at the base thereof to said truss member
and surrounding the tonneau, and a plurality of
strut members extending rearwardly from the
upper and lower portions of the rearmost of said 65
frames and joined to the rear end of said truss
member to provide a bulkhead in rear of the
tonneau.
2. In an automotive vehicle, a body and chas
sis unit comprising a central longitudinal truss 70
member and a plurality of unitary frames each
secured at the base thereof to said truss member
and surrounding the tonneau, a plurality of strut
members extending rearwardly from the upper
and lower portions of said frames and joined
4
2,122,444
to the rear end of said truss member to provide
a bulkhead in rear of the tonneau, 'and a plurality
of strut members extending forwardly from the
upper and lower portions of the foremost of said
frames and joined to said truss member to jpro
vide a bulkhead in advance of said tonneau.
3. In an automotive vehicle, a central longi
tudinal truss member and continuous framing
members extending around four sides of the ve
hicle passenger compartment and rigidly mount
ed on said truss member, and brace members
extending from the upper and lowerportions oi
said framing rearwardly in converging? relation
and joined to the rear end of said truss member
to provide a bulkhead.
4. In an automotive vehicle, a‘central longi
, tudinal truss member and continuous framing
members extending around four sides of the ve
hicle passenger compartment and rigidly mount
'ed on said truss member, and converging brace
passenger compartment, diagonal intersecting
braces joining the upper sides of said frames, and
a stamped metal roof panel rigidly secured to
said upper sides and to said braces.
y
»
10. In an automotive vehicle, a longitudinal
base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced
transverse frames ñxed to said base frame and
extending continuously around all four sides oi.'
the tonneau compartment, longitudinal top rails
rigidly joining the upper sides of said frames, a
pair of rearwardly extending arched fender car
rying truss members extending from the base of
the rearmost frame, a transverse structural bar
joining the ends of said truss members, and
stamped sheet metai roof and rear quarter pan 15
elling forming a continuous streamlined rear
deck integrally joining said truss members and
bare
In an automotive vehicle, a longitudinal. .
base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced 20
members extending forwardly and rearwardiy, transverse frames fixed to said base frame and
from said framing and joined to the forward and I extending continuously around all four` sides of
rear ends of the truss member to provide front the tonneau compartment, iongitudinal top rails
and rear bulkheads.
y
5. In anautomotive vehicle, a central longi
tudinal truss member having mounting ineans
at its rear end for an engine, continuous framing
members extending around four sides of the ton
neau and rigidly mounted on said truss member,
30 and brace members extending rearwardly from
said framing members and united to said truss
member at the locality of said engine mounting
to form a bulkhead.
»
6. In an automotive vehicie, a central longi
tudinal truss member bifurcated at its rear end
to embrace an engine, an arched member con
necting the bifurcated ends -of the truss member
for mounting the same on an engine block, con-
tinuous framing members extending around four
40 sides of the tonneau and rigidly secured to `said
rigidly joining the upper sides of said frames, a
pair of rearwardly extending arched fender car 25
rying truss members extending from the base of
‘the rear transverse frame, a transverse struc
tural bar joining the ends of said truss mernbers,
and stamped sheet metal roof and rear quarter
panelling forming a continuous streamlined roof 30
and rearwardly sloping rear deck integrally join
‘ing said frames, truss members and bar. '
/
12. In an automotive vehicle, a central longi
tudinal truss member, a plurality of longitudi
nally spaced transverse frames rigidly secured to
said truss> member and extending continuously
varound all four sides of the tonneau compart
ment, the upright sides of _said frames forming
piilars, longitudinai channel members joining the
lower ends of said pillars at each side of the 40
truss member, and brace members- ,extending
frames, said members being integrally formed
rearwardly in converging relation from the vrear
in a pressed metal sheet providing the iloor pan
of the body.
f most of `said framing members and secured to
said truss member at the locality of said arched
^ 13. In an automotive vehicle, a central longi
45 member to provide a bulkhead. `
7. In an automotive vehicle frame, a central
tudinal truss member, a plurality of longitudi- .‘nally spaced transverse frames rigidly secured to
longitudinai truss member terminating in a
forized end having spaced branches forming an
engine mounting, a plurality of longitudinally
50 spaced transverse frames fixed to said truss
member and extending continuously around the
said truss member and extending continuously
passenger compartment, and> brace members ex
tending from the upper and lower portions of
each side of the rearmost of said frames longi
55 tudinally in converging relation and joined to
said branches.
In an automotive vehicle frame, a central
longitudinal truss member terminating in a
forked end having spaced branches forming an
60 engine mounting, a plurality of -iongitudinally
spaced transverse frames fixed to said'truss
member and extending continuously around the
passenger compartment, brace members extend
ing from the upper and lower portions of each
65 side of the rearmost transverse frame longitudi
nally in converging relation and joined to said
branches, and an arched member joining said
around all four sides of the tonneau compart
ment, the upright sides of said r‘rames forming
pillars, longitudinal channel members joining the 50
lower ends of said pillars at each side of the
frames, said members being integrally formed in
a pressed metal sheet providing the ñoor pan of
the body, and a stamped metal roof panel welded
to the upper sides of the frames and extending 55
continuously between the frames.
.
14. In an automotive vehicle, a longitudinal
base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced
transverse metal frames rigidly secured to said
base 'frame and extending continuously around .60
all four. sides or" the tonneau compartment, di
agonal metal brace members rigidly joining'the
upper sides of the frames, and a stamped metai
roof panel welded to the 4upper sides of the frames
and to said brace members and extending con 65
tinuously between `the frames, arched fender
branchestransversely for supporting the frame
supporting members connected to said frames, a
transverse tie bar joining the ends of said fender
on an engine.
members, and said roof panel sloping in-stream
9. In an automotive vehicle frame, a central
longitudinal truss member terminating in a
lined manner to said tie bar and secured thereto. 70
15. In an automotive vehicle, a longitudinal
forked end having spaced. branches forming an
engine mounting, a plurality of longitudinally7
spaced transverse frames ñxed to said truss
75 member and extending continuously around the
base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced
transverse metal frames rigidly secured to said
base frame and extending continuousiy around
all four sides of the tonneau compartment, rear 75
70
5
2,122,444
wardly extending fenders secured to the rearward
upright rib members and forming therewith a
of said frames, a transverse bar joining the rear
ends of the fenders, and a continuous streamlined
pressed metal roof panel-supported at its rear
stress receiving means.
edge by said bar 'and integrally secured to the
upper sides of said frames.
'
16. In an automobile, a central longitudinal
truss member having a bifurcated rear end pro-`
viding a rear engine mounting, longitudinally
10 spaced transverse ribs joined to said truss mem
ber in balanced relation, upright rib members
and transverse top rib members forming with
said transverse ribs a continuous frame enclosing
the passenger‘ compartment and in direct load
15 carrying relation to said truss member, and a
.
17. In an automotive vehicle, `a longitudinal
base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced
'transverse frames fixed to said base frame and Si
extending continuously around all four sides of
the tonneau compartment, longitudinal top rails
rigidly joining the upper sides of said frames, a
pair of rearwardly extending arched fender car
rying truss members extending from the base of the rear transverse frame, a transverse struc
tural bar joining the ends of said truss members,
and a stamped sheet metal roof forming a con
tinuous streamlined rear deck integrally joining
said truss members and bar.
stamped metal roof panel having top and side
walls welded to said top rib members and to said
» JOHN TJ AARDA.
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