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July 5, 12938. J. TJAARDA 2,122,444 AUTOMOBILE BODY Original Filed July 20, 1934 4 Sheets~Sheet l A TT RNE YÖ. July 5, 1938. I J. .TJAARDA 2,122,444 AUTOMOBILE BODY f ï. i. . "u, U, JM @má ' ' ' INVENTOR. BY aguja, Chim@ . A TTORNEYÖ. July 5, 1938. J. TJAARDA 2,122,444 AUTOMOBILE BODY Original Filed July 20, 1934 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 l.). INVENTOR. LTO/777 @barda BY July 5, 1938. ~ J. TJAARDA . 2,122,444 AUTOMOBILE BODY ` Original Filed July 20, 1934 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. E I? i: «Jb/72? Ü'ddrid. BY I vgJQ, Cwlvubq* A TTORNEYÖ. Patented July 5, 1938 2,122,444 _ . UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,122,444 AUTOMOBILE BODY John Tjaarda., Birmingham, Mich., assigner to Briggs Manufacturing Company, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Michigan Application July 20, 1934, Serial No. 736,139 Renewed December 30, 1936 17 Claims. (Cl. 296-428) the frame structure is so designed and arranged This invention relates to automotive vehicles and more particularly to improvements in the as to provide forward and rear bulkheads effective frame and body structure of automobiles where by substantial elimination in weight and better framing. 5 distribution of loads may be secured Without sac to consolidate stresses transmitted through the ' Other objects of this invention will appear in riilcing strength and durability while at the the following description and appended claims, same time permitting the application of full streamlining principles to the design of the body. A further object of the invention is to provide lil a unitary body and main frame or chassis struc reference being had to the accompanying draw ings forming a part of this specification wherein ture so designed and constructed as to cause all load stresses to be transmitted and distributed throughout the entire unit whereby the upper body structure forms with the base or chassis frame members a unitary load carrying carcass, thus permitting the base frame and upper body structure to b_e greatly reduced in Weight while preserving maximum strength. l like reference characters designate corresponding parts in the several views. Fig. 1 is a fragmentary central longitudinal sectional view, shown in perspective, and illus trating a unitary body and frame structure em bodying the invention. Fig. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view taken from the inside of the body looking towards the ' rear end thereof. Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the body, portions of the roof being broken away to illustrate cer A further object of the present invention is to 20 provide an improved automobile body in which the entire side walls and roof of the structure forms with the chassis frame _a unitary part of the stress and load carrying frame of the vehicle. Another object of the invention is to provide 25 improved load carrying framing for an auto taken substantially through lines 5--5 of Fig. 4 mobile wherein the base is in the form of a cen tral longitudinal truss or torque member forked at its rear end to provide a rear engine mount in the direction of the arrows. Fig. 6 is a vertical section taken substantially through lines 6-6 of Fig. 4 in the direction of the ing and constructed at its rear end for support arrows. . of the engine, and wherein torsional stresses and Fig. 7 is a vertical section taken substantially through lines 1_1 of Fig. 4 in the direction ‘forces are transmitted from said truss and in of the arrows. 30 on the rear vehicle Wheels through the medium part absorbed by reinforced bottom, side and top body walls forming with> said truss a unitary load carrying frame. A further object of the invention is to provide a unitary body and frame carcass of relatively great lightness and strength and embodying skel eton framing including a central longitudinal bot 40 tom truss member having transverse rib mem bers rigidly mounted thereon in balanced rela-l tion and in which said rib members form base portions or lower sides of continuous framing extending' around four sides of the tonneau and thus embracing the passenger compartment and functioning with said truss as load carrying units. A further object of the invention is to provide an automobile constructed in improved manner for mounting the engine at the rear end thereof '50 tain parts of the underlying structure. 20 Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional elevation taken substantially through lines 4_4 of Fig. 3 in the direction of the arrows. Fig. 5 is an enlarged detail fragmentary section and having fully streamlined characteristics, and wherein maximum strength and lightness are secured by providing an‘improved unitary body and frame carcass designed to distribute load stresses and forces uninterruptedly through the 55 enclosing frame of the vehicle body, and wherein Before explaining in detail the present inven tion it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of 35 construction and arrangement of parts illustrat ed in the accompanying drawings, sinceA the in vention is capable of other embodiments‘and of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation, and it is not intended to limit the invention claimed here in beyond the requirements of the prior art. In the present preferred form of the inven 45 tion, herein illustrated ‘by way of example, the frame structure is designed for a. fully stream lined automobile having the engine thereof mounted in the rear end adjacent the rear driv ing wheels._ The invention is shown as applied toa four door sedan but it will be understood that it may be adapted with suitable changes in design to other types of automotive vehicles. ‘I‘he present'vehicle body is distinguished in at least one importantl respect from conventional 55 2,122,444 types of automotive vehicles by the elimination of the customary chassis and body units in joined together transversely thereof by means « of a belt bar or structural cross piece 35 which which the chassis is designed to receive and car forms the lower edge of the windshield opening 90. Extending from the juncture- of the base member I| and the pillar I4 is an angularly ex tending strut 25. A strut 21 also extends from the juncture of the bar 35 and pillar I4 in con verging relation to the strut „25. In like man ner angularly` extending converging struts 26 and 28 extend from the pillar I5 at the opposite 10v Side of the structure. The struts 25, 26, 21, and 28 extend forwardly in‘converging relation and ry-all load stresses and the b-ody merely forms an enclosure or housing for the passenger com partment. In the present instance the load carrying frame of the vehicle includes as a uni tary structure not only the base frame blut also the framing extending therefroml and which 10 embraces the passenger compartment of the ve hicle, and the stresses are transmitted uninter ruptedly through the framing and consolidated at front and rear bulkheads. Referring to the drawings it will be seen -that 15 there is provided a central longitudinal truss member I0 which is in the form of a torque tube of Wishbone type forming the backbone of the unitary frame structure, this truss member be- - ing bifurcated at its rear end to provide rear 20 forked extensions Illa and Illb forming the rear engine mounting. Rigidly mounted on the lon gitudinal truss member I0 and suitably spaced longitudinally of the vehicle are a series of _transverse struts or ribs ||, I2, and I3, these be 25 ing in the form of structural members of chan nel formation which are fixed centrally thereof to the truss I 0. Extending upwardly from op posite ends of the transverse bar || and rigidly ñxed thereto as by welding are front sloping 30 pillars I4 and I5, the upper ends thereof being joined by a transverse header I6 either integral transverse struts or ribs I I, I2, and I3, respec tively. Extending rearwardly and inwardly from the juncture ofthe pillar 20 and cross-strut I3 is a 30 channel shaped strut 30, and a similar strut 3| ture of the members I3 and 2|. The struts 30 and 3| converge toward the rear and the rear ends thereof are rigidly united as by welding or 35 I8 which are rigidly secured to the ends of the riveting, to the rear end of the forked arms Illa member I2 as by welding, and the upper ends of these pillars or uprights I1 and I8 are joined ends of the pillars 20 and 2| are also rigidly 20 and 2| which are fixed to the opposite ends of the bar I3, as by welding.l The upper ends of 45 the pillars 20 and 2| are rigidly joined together by a transverse bar 22 which may be ñxed to the 65 verse unitary frames which are spaced longi tudinally of the body from front to rear and are 25 secured at their base or bottom portions to extends rearwardly and inwardly from the junc Figs. 1 and 6. Extending upwardly from the 60 The series of transversely arranged struc tural steel members I4, I5, I6; I1, I8, I9; and 20, 2|, 22, provide, in effect, a plurality of trans-v riveting, see Figs. 1 and '7. Extending upward ly _from the transverse base member or rib I2 at opposite ends thereof are center pillars I1 and transverse base member or rib I3 are rear pillars 55 II) forwardly of the frame member II and thus provide a forward bulkhead for the consolidation 20 of forces and stresses at a focal point 29. therewith or secured thereto as by welding or by a transverse cross member I9 welded or 40 otherwise secured to the upper ends thereof, see 50 are united to the forward end of the truss ||I at substantially a common point indicated at 29. These struts are rigidly united as by welding to 15 the pillars I4 and I5 and cross-member I I and are also rigidly united together and to the truss and |0b of the truss member I U.- The upper joined to the rear ends of the truss members Illa and Illb through the rear roof rails 52h by means 40 of struts 32 and 33 which also incline inwardly in converging relation. It will thus be seen that the framemembers I0a, Illb, 3|), 3|, 32, and 33 are all united at the rear end of the vehicle at substantially a common location, indicated in 45 general at 34, providing a bulkhead for the >con solidation of forces and stresses.> A upper ends of the pillars by welding. The pil A forwardly sloping dash 35a is secured to the lars are preferably stamped or pressed from sheet steel blanks into channel or -other struc-v belt bar 35. The forwardly sloping streamlined hood is in part supported by means of the inwardly tural form. The roof of the~ Vehicle thus includes the extending curved brace members 36 which are se transverse structural frame members I6, |19, and cured at' their rear ends to the front pillars I4 and I 5, the forward flanged ends of the braces 36 being 22 preferably of channel formation which` rigid ly unite the upright pillarsof the body, and these joined by a cross bar `(not shown). As disclosed in my prior application Serial No.- 700,444 the 55 top cross-members are braced by means of di agonal struts 23 and 24.` The struts 23 ext-end front wheels of the vehicle are carried by a from the junctures of the frame members I 4, I6, ' mounting unit, indicated in general at 31, secured and 2|, 22; and the diagonal struts 24 extend to the ends of a transverse leaf spring unit 38, from the junctures of the frame members I5, I6, these wheels being independently sprung in the and 20, 22. These diagonal struts are prefer-- manner- shown-and described in said application. 60 ably uni-ted at their points of intersection with 'I'he mounting unit 31 for each independently each other and with the frame member |ï9 at a sprung front wheel includes a vertical spindle or point 69 centrally of the vehicle roof. It will king pin which is supported at thel outer end of a also be seen that the upper ends of the pillars I4 transverse truss member 39. 4'I'he member 39 at its center has a socket to 65 and |1 and-the pillars | 5 and I8 are joined to gether by longitudinal rails or header members receive and seat the tubular beam | 0 andy together with an upper socketed clamping block 4| forms a 61, these headers being rigidly united to the' up per ends of the pillars-as well as the top frame yoke embracing the tube |0, the parts being rig members I6 and I9 as by welding. In like-man idly united by bolts. Diverging tie rods 4U con ner the upper ends of the pillars I1 and 20 and the pillars |B and 2| are rigidly joined together by longitudinal rails or headermembers 63. The upper roof rails 61 and 68 are preferably con tinuous integral members :at each side of the 75 body. The front pillars I4 and I5 are also nect the upper end of each'stee'ring spindle or 70 king pin to the flanges 4|a of the clamping block 4|, as shown and described in my aforesaid appli cation. The_leaf spring assembly 38 is clamped to the block 4| by U-bolts. Arched struts 42 are `fixed at their rear ends to the outer ends of vthe' 75 3 2,122,444 . truss bar I I. These struts extend over the upper ends of the king pins and the latter are connected ‘ In the present four-door type body the upright struts are transversely united by a tie bar 44. . The side pillars together with the roof rails or headers 61 and 68 define door openings 64 and 65 which thence is downwardly flanged to provide depend ing side aprons 49. The lower ends of the pillars I4, I5, I1, I8, 20, and 2| are splayed at their points of union and are joined by welding with'the pan 46 and cross members I I, I2, and I3, as shown at |1a in Fig. 1, and the joints are reenforcedby welded gusset plates 46h. 25 bar 63. thereto at 42a. The forward ends 43 of these arched struts 42 provide supporting and reenforc ing means for the fenders 45 and also brace the upper ends of the king Ypins or steering spindles. Surmounting the cross bars II, I2, and I3 is a stamped» metal sheet 46 forming the floor pan. 10 This'sheet is welded to the cross bars and, as shown in Fig. 5, is formed adjacent the threshold at each side of the body with a longitudinal reen forcing groove 46a and an upstanding channel shaped rib 41 forming abutments or jamb rails 15 for the lower edges of the doors. 'I'he pan 46 is extended beyond the door jambs to provide longi tudinal ledges 48 serving as running boards, and 20 ends thereof are joined by a transverse channel The rear end of the passenger compartment or tonneau terminates, in the present instance, at the locality of the cross member I3 and is separated from the rear engine compartment by an upstand 30 ing stamped metal panel 50 welded at its lower flanged edge to thel channel bar I3 and also welded ' at its ends tothe rear pillars. This panel may be are closed by means of stamped metal doors 66. 'I'he construction and mounting of the doors is shown and described in my application Serial No. 699,895. The roof or top of the tonneau proper com 10 prises a pressed metal sheet 18 which may either be an integral continuation of the rear deck panel 68 or a separate panel butt welded to the rear edge of the panel 68 to provide a smooth finished joint. The roof panels 68 and 16 are 15 suitably arched to produce full streamlining ef fect and the sides 10a of the roof panel 10 are sloped uniformly 4to the side rails or headers 61 and 68 and are welded thereto. The roof panel is also welded to the cross members |6,~ I9, and 22 20 and to the diagonal braces 23 and 24. Thus, the side and roof panels of the body form continuous Walls which are substantially an integral part of the bottom, side and top framing of the body. Hence, it will be seen that load stresses will be 25 transmitted from the base frame members I8 |3 directly through the side and top walls as well as through the upright pillars and upper connecting members. Transmitted forces will, furthermore, be consolidated at front and rear 30 äc‘ical points constituting the bulkheads 29 and provided with openings, as shown in Fig. l, for ‘ In its preferred form the central truss member ventilation purposes. or torque tube I0 comprises semi-circular The rear forked or splayed ends Illa and Illb of 35 the central torque tube are designed to straddle pressed steel sections 15 and 16 having depend the cylinder block of the engine and these ends are joined at the rear bulkhead by means of an ' arch 5I which extends over the engine block and 40 is bolted thereto. The details of this construc tion are shown and described in my application Serial No. 719,656. Thus the rear end of the torque tube or beam I8 and connected frame parts at the rear bulkhead are supported on the engine 45 block which in turn, as shown in said last~named application, is hung from the center of a trans verse leaf springunit to the ends of which the rear driving wheels are connected, as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 4. 50 ' Extended rearwardly from the rear pillars 2|) and 2| are frames, generally designated at 52, which support the rear quarter panels and which define the rear quarter window openings. 'I'he lower sides 52a of these frames are joined by weld ing at 52e to the upper converging ends of the ‘ struts 32, 33, and 53. The upper sides 52h form continuations of roof rails and are braced by a transverse tie bar 54 having bent ends 55 welded thereto. Reenforcing rib or strut members 56, 51, 60 and 58, secured to the framing 52, extend rear wardly therefrom, as shown in Fig. 2, and a rear cross strut 59 joins these ribs at `their points of juncture. 'I'he rear sloping deck of the roof, com prising a continuous stamped or pressed metal 65 sheet, is mounted on the cross members 22, 54, and 59 and is welded thereto. The rear side or quarter panels, comprising stamped metal sheets, are integrally joined to the roof panel 68 and are reenforced by the bracing members 52, 53, 56, 51, 70 and 58 welded thereto. These rear side' panels are also secured, as by welding, to arched struts 6| extending rearwardly from the junctures of the pillars 20, 2| and the cross member I3. These struts support and reenforce the rear fenders 62, being 4integrally connected thereto, and the rear ing flanges 11 and 18 respectively, see Fig. 6. The upper longitudinal edges of the sections have inturned ñanges 19. Interposed between the opposed flanges of the sections is a longitudi nal plate 80 welded to the upper ñanges 19. Each 40 of the cross members II, I2, and I3 has a central arched portion 8| embracing the upper half of the tube. Curved brackets 82 embrace the lower half of the tube and have their flanged ends secured to the flanged portions 11 and 18 and 45 plate 80 by common through bolts 83. The oppo site ñanged ends of the brackets are bolted at 85 to the lower flanges of the channel members and to welded reenforcing U-pieces 84. From the foregoing it will be seen that an au 50 tomobile carcass constructed in accordance with the present invention will -possess maximum strength and durability and full streamline char acteristics while permitting a reduction in weight, without sacrificing strength, of at least 55 vtwenty iive to thirty per cent of the weight of conventional types of frame and body structures. I claim: 1. In an automotive vehicle, a body,and chassis umt comprising a central longitudinal truss 60 member and a plurality of unitary frames each secured at the base thereof to said truss member and surrounding the tonneau, and a plurality of strut members extending rearwardly from the upper and lower portions of the rearmost of said 65 frames and joined to the rear end of said truss member to provide a bulkhead in rear of the tonneau. 2. In an automotive vehicle, a body and chas sis unit comprising a central longitudinal truss 70 member and a plurality of unitary frames each secured at the base thereof to said truss member and surrounding the tonneau, a plurality of strut members extending rearwardly from the upper and lower portions of said frames and joined 4 2,122,444 to the rear end of said truss member to provide a bulkhead in rear of the tonneau, 'and a plurality of strut members extending forwardly from the upper and lower portions of the foremost of said frames and joined to said truss member to jpro vide a bulkhead in advance of said tonneau. 3. In an automotive vehicle, a central longi tudinal truss member and continuous framing members extending around four sides of the ve hicle passenger compartment and rigidly mount ed on said truss member, and brace members extending from the upper and lowerportions oi said framing rearwardly in converging? relation and joined to the rear end of said truss member to provide a bulkhead. 4. In an automotive vehicle, a‘central longi , tudinal truss member and continuous framing members extending around four sides of the ve hicle passenger compartment and rigidly mount 'ed on said truss member, and converging brace passenger compartment, diagonal intersecting braces joining the upper sides of said frames, and a stamped metal roof panel rigidly secured to said upper sides and to said braces. y » 10. In an automotive vehicle, a longitudinal base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced transverse frames ñxed to said base frame and extending continuously around all four sides oi.' the tonneau compartment, longitudinal top rails rigidly joining the upper sides of said frames, a pair of rearwardly extending arched fender car rying truss members extending from the base of the rearmost frame, a transverse structural bar joining the ends of said truss members, and stamped sheet metai roof and rear quarter pan 15 elling forming a continuous streamlined rear deck integrally joining said truss members and bare In an automotive vehicle, a longitudinal. . base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced 20 members extending forwardly and rearwardiy, transverse frames fixed to said base frame and from said framing and joined to the forward and I extending continuously around all four` sides of rear ends of the truss member to provide front the tonneau compartment, iongitudinal top rails and rear bulkheads. y 5. In anautomotive vehicle, a central longi tudinal truss member having mounting ineans at its rear end for an engine, continuous framing members extending around four sides of the ton neau and rigidly mounted on said truss member, 30 and brace members extending rearwardly from said framing members and united to said truss member at the locality of said engine mounting to form a bulkhead. » 6. In an automotive vehicie, a central longi tudinal truss member bifurcated at its rear end to embrace an engine, an arched member con necting the bifurcated ends -of the truss member for mounting the same on an engine block, con- tinuous framing members extending around four 40 sides of the tonneau and rigidly secured to `said rigidly joining the upper sides of said frames, a pair of rearwardly extending arched fender car 25 rying truss members extending from the base of ‘the rear transverse frame, a transverse struc tural bar joining the ends of said truss mernbers, and stamped sheet metal roof and rear quarter panelling forming a continuous streamlined roof 30 and rearwardly sloping rear deck integrally join ‘ing said frames, truss members and bar. ' / 12. In an automotive vehicle, a central longi tudinal truss member, a plurality of longitudi nally spaced transverse frames rigidly secured to said truss> member and extending continuously varound all four sides of the tonneau compart ment, the upright sides of _said frames forming piilars, longitudinai channel members joining the lower ends of said pillars at each side of the 40 truss member, and brace members- ,extending frames, said members being integrally formed rearwardly in converging relation from the vrear in a pressed metal sheet providing the iloor pan of the body. f most of `said framing members and secured to said truss member at the locality of said arched ^ 13. In an automotive vehicle, a central longi 45 member to provide a bulkhead. ` 7. In an automotive vehicle frame, a central tudinal truss member, a plurality of longitudi- .‘nally spaced transverse frames rigidly secured to longitudinai truss member terminating in a forized end having spaced branches forming an engine mounting, a plurality of longitudinally 50 spaced transverse frames fixed to said truss member and extending continuously around the said truss member and extending continuously passenger compartment, and> brace members ex tending from the upper and lower portions of each side of the rearmost of said frames longi 55 tudinally in converging relation and joined to said branches. In an automotive vehicle frame, a central longitudinal truss member terminating in a forked end having spaced branches forming an 60 engine mounting, a plurality of -iongitudinally spaced transverse frames fixed to said'truss member and extending continuously around the passenger compartment, brace members extend ing from the upper and lower portions of each 65 side of the rearmost transverse frame longitudi nally in converging relation and joined to said branches, and an arched member joining said around all four sides of the tonneau compart ment, the upright sides of said r‘rames forming pillars, longitudinal channel members joining the 50 lower ends of said pillars at each side of the frames, said members being integrally formed in a pressed metal sheet providing the ñoor pan of the body, and a stamped metal roof panel welded to the upper sides of the frames and extending 55 continuously between the frames. . 14. In an automotive vehicle, a longitudinal base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced transverse metal frames rigidly secured to said base 'frame and extending continuously around .60 all four. sides or" the tonneau compartment, di agonal metal brace members rigidly joining'the upper sides of the frames, and a stamped metai roof panel welded to the 4upper sides of the frames and to said brace members and extending con 65 tinuously between `the frames, arched fender branchestransversely for supporting the frame supporting members connected to said frames, a transverse tie bar joining the ends of said fender on an engine. members, and said roof panel sloping in-stream 9. In an automotive vehicle frame, a central longitudinal truss member terminating in a lined manner to said tie bar and secured thereto. 70 15. In an automotive vehicle, a longitudinal forked end having spaced. branches forming an engine mounting, a plurality of longitudinally7 spaced transverse frames ñxed to said truss 75 member and extending continuously around the base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced transverse metal frames rigidly secured to said base frame and extending continuousiy around all four sides of the tonneau compartment, rear 75 70 5 2,122,444 wardly extending fenders secured to the rearward upright rib members and forming therewith a of said frames, a transverse bar joining the rear ends of the fenders, and a continuous streamlined pressed metal roof panel-supported at its rear stress receiving means. edge by said bar 'and integrally secured to the upper sides of said frames. ' 16. In an automobile, a central longitudinal truss member having a bifurcated rear end pro-` viding a rear engine mounting, longitudinally 10 spaced transverse ribs joined to said truss mem ber in balanced relation, upright rib members and transverse top rib members forming with said transverse ribs a continuous frame enclosing the passenger‘ compartment and in direct load 15 carrying relation to said truss member, and a . 17. In an automotive vehicle, `a longitudinal base frame, a plurality of longitudinally spaced 'transverse frames fixed to said base frame and Si extending continuously around all four sides of the tonneau compartment, longitudinal top rails rigidly joining the upper sides of said frames, a pair of rearwardly extending arched fender car rying truss members extending from the base of the rear transverse frame, a transverse struc tural bar joining the ends of said truss members, and a stamped sheet metal roof forming a con tinuous streamlined rear deck integrally joining said truss members and bar. stamped metal roof panel having top and side walls welded to said top rib members and to said » JOHN TJ AARDA.