Патент USA US2122481код для вставки
July 5, 1938. A_ 5, LYNCH 2,122,481 METHOD OF MAKING A TUBULAR PRODUCT Filed Dec. 2. 1935 3 / 57//// /îßß%/ 4 5 w/ /777/ /W 2. | i | ' YW 3' // I // /Zzf Patented July 5, 1938 _ UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,122,481 nm'rnop or MAKING A mums raonuc'r Albert S. Lynch, Beaver, Pa., assigner to Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application December 2. 1935, Serial No. 52,481 3 Claims. (Cl. 29-156) This invention relates broadly to tubular prodInward upsetting therefore has an important ucts and the manufacture thereof, and more »particularly to the formation of tubular products by upsetting. It relates still more particularly 5 to a method of forming a pipe section having an integral coupling portion and to a novel pipe section of such character. It has been proposed to make pipe in sections with integral coupling portions on the respective 10 sections by upsetting the pipe ends to form the integral coupling portions. Pipe of this character is especially well adapted for use as drill pipe for drilling wells. In my copending appli__ cation Serial No. 739,122, filed August 9, 1934, L’ there is disclosed and claimed a. method of form- ing a tubular product of the character above mentioned and a drill pipe section having certain novel features. ` A disadvantage of pipe sections having integral gg upset coupling portions as heretofore produced is the constriction of the bore of the section paused by upsetting. It is not possible in a single up‘setting operation in which the metal is caused to ilow only outwardly. or away from the pipe axis, advantage in reduction of the cost of producing the upset pipe. 'I'his advantage is so important that it is from the commercial standpoint neces sary to produce pipe sections having integral coupling portions by inward upsetting.> Sections produced by outward upsetting only could never r be sold at a price even approaching their cost, so that this method is commercially worthless. However, inward upsetting has the disadvantage l0 above mentioned of constriction of the bore. This is highly undesirable as it seriously impedes the ?ow of fluid through the pipe and greatly reduces the eñiciency of the pipe. Moreover, in upsetting pipe a mandrel is em- 15 ployed which during the upsetting extends Within the pipe and assists in shaping the upset metal. In order to enable withdrawal of the mandrel without damage to the work the mandrel is made tapered. Ordinarily the mandrel forms a part of ‘20 the upsetting tool and passes into the pipe to be upset` ahead of the portion of the tool which contacts the end of the pipe to perform the up setting operation, the mandrel being tapered to minimum diameter at its forward extremity. 'I'he 25 g5 to increase the wall thickness over about 30 per cent. An attempt to do so results in a grain structure in the metal which is unsatisfactory, and a product thus produced is of no practical value. On the other hand, it is possible in a 30 single upsetting operation in which the metal is caused or allowed to iiow inwardly, or toward the of the mandrel ci' relatively great diameter, re sulting in constriction of the bore toward the forward extremity of the mandrel. This con- 250 striction is in many cases highly undesirable and pipe axis. to increase the wall thickness up to or slightly over 150 per cent. and still produces. strong commercially satisfactory product having f3y Cri the proper grain structure. Consequently, in the production of pipe of the character here concerned with it is not feasible to upset externally only. as a considerable number of upsetting operations and intermediate re40 heatings would be necessary which would increase the cost of the pipe out of all proportion to its value. Therefore, internal upsetting is resorted to. A satisfactory pipe section having an integral upset coupling portion _can be 45 produced in this way by a comparatively small number of upsetting operations. as, for example, disadvantageous, not only because it impedes fluid how through the upset pipe. but also because, due to the conditions imposed in upsetting, the wall thickness of the upset pipe at the point of mini- 3 ci mum diameter of the mandrel may be consider ably greater than desired. FOI' example. it iS not possible by any com mercially practicable method heretofore em Dloyed to form a pipe section having an integral 40 upset coupling 1301121011 having the desired in ¿2mal Rnd external Shape and the desired wall thickness Bt all POintS M0118 the tapered mandrel. It has not been possible to produce commercially drill pipe with integral upset coupling portions 45 and 0f unifOI‘m bOI‘e. Which is and has fOr years one, two or three. It is preferable to use either two or three upsetting steps, but this compares favorably with the number of steps which would mandrel is designed so that the upset product will have the desired wall thickness at the portion been recognized BS being the most highly desir able form of drill pipe. The problems above mentioned have long been „o be required if an attempt should be made t0 form the section by external upsetting only. At least fourb and probably ilve or six, upsetting steps with intermediate reheatings would be i necessary to form the section by external up- recognized but no satisfactory solution thereto 50 has hel'eÈOfOl'e been f0l1nd~ All example of a theoretical suggestion for the formation of uni form bore integral joint upset drill pipe is the upsetting of the extremities of a drill pipe section 55 setting only. externally only so as to avoid constriction of the` 56 2,122,481 2 bore. However, as explained above, this proposal is not commercially feasible, Pipe produced ac cording to this suggestion could never be marketed. Moreover, I understand it to be the fact that pipe has never been made in accordance vention and .have illustrated certain present pre ferred methods of practicing the same, in which Figure 1 is a central longitudinal cross-sectional view through a portion of an upset blank used in the formation of a pipe section; with such suggestion either commercially or non commercially. Such suggestion simply repre sents a theoretical paper scheme. This sugges tion is of interest, however, as showing recogni Figure 2 is a similar view of the blank shown in Figure l but with a portion of the interior thereof reshaped; and tion of the problem which applicant has solved. In the formation of pipe of the character in question in which the wall thickness of the upset' portion is to be at least 30 per cent. greater than the wall thickness of the pipe it is necessary in commercial operation, as above explained, to up 15 set the metal inwardly or toward the axis of the pipe. I prefer to utilize the method of upsetting disclosed in my said application, ñrst inwardly Figures 3 and 4 are views corresponding re spectively to Figures 1 and 2 showing a different 10 form of structure. Referring now more particularly to the draw ing, Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the formation of an integral coupling portion for the box or female end of a pipe section while Figures 3 and 4 16 illustrate the formation of an integral coupling portion for the pin or male end of the section. The method used in either case is substantially upsetting the metal in either one or two steps the same. and then outwardly upsetting. However, the 20 ultimate upset product has a constricted bore and a wall portion of unnecessarily great thick ness. In certain cases such constricted bore and thick wall portion are not particularly undesir able but in other cases they are highly undesir 26 able, and. it is a purpose of the present invention Referring nrst to the form of Figures l and 2. 20 there is provided a length of pipe of suitable characteristics and whose initial wall thickness may be as shown at the left-hand extremity of Figure l. The end of the pipe length or section is preferably heated for a suitable distance from 25 its extremity, as Well known in the art, and is then subjected to one or more upsetting opera to obviate the disadvantages mentioned. I preferably upset an end of a pipe section whereby to increase the wall thickness and reduce the internal diameter thereof and thereafter re 30 shape the interior of at least _the part of the tions which may be, and preferably are, substan tially the same as or similar to the upsetting operations described and illustrated in my said upset portion which is of least internal diameter to' reduce the restrictive eifect imposed thereby. I preferably accomplish the reshaping by remov copending application. The end of the section or blank after completion of the upsetting is ing material from the interior of the upset por Such removal is preferably effected by a 35 tion. machining operation, and I ilnd it especially de sirable and convenient to bore out at least part of the upset portion. In this manner I am able to render the bore of the upset portion of the section of substantially constant diameter for‘at least a substantial distance longitudinally of the section, and the bore of the upset portion may berendered of substantially constant diameter and, if desired, of the same diameter as the bore of the non-upset portion of the section. In one preferred method of carrying out the invention presently to be described I form in a commercially drill pipe having a substan tially uniform bore throughout. So far as I am aware, this is the first time that upset integral joint uniform bore drill pipe has ever been pro duced either commercially or non-commercially. Heretofore when uniform bore drill pipe has been specified separate couplings have been used which are relatively expensive, far more difficult to as semble and much less satisfactory in use. Pipe made by upsetting and then boring out or ` similarly removing a portion of the material from the interior of the upset portion may readily be identiiied by the machined surface at at least a portion of the bore. Such machined surface is also of advantage in reducing the friction losses suffered by fluid passing through the pipe. _While the friction loss in any one section of pipe may not be great, when it is considered that a large number of sections are coupled together in use the friction loss is an important factor. Other details, objects and advantages of - the invention will become apparent as the following description of certain present preferred embodi ments thereof and certain present preferred ,methods of practicing the same proceeds. In the accom 'Il drawing I haveshown certain present preferred embodiments of the in shown in Figure 1 and is designated generally by reference vnumeral 2. 'I'he external diameter is increased to the desired extent as shown at 3 and the internal diameter is controlled as de sired at the point l which coincides with the portion of relatively great diameter of the ta pered length of the mandrel used in the upsetting step. The point corresponding with the extrem ity of such tapered length of the mandrel is indicated at E. The diameter of the bore of the upset section is .materially less at the point 5* than at the point l, although this may be unde sirable in the finished product due to the con strictive effect, the relatively'great amount of material iembodied in the section and the in creased weight thereof. I reshape the interior of the upset portion of the section, as explained above, preferably by boring, and the bored-out section is shown in Figure 2. The material included between the chain line B and the inner surface ofthe section has been removed, rendering the bore of the en tire section substantially uniform from end to end. I thus produce integral joint uniform bore drill pipe by a method which is practicable from the commercial standpoint. As stated above, although uniform bore integral> joint drill pipe Vhas been sought for many years, it has never be fore, so far as I am aware, been produced com mercially or even non-commercially. - Figures 3 and 4 are exactly analogous to Fig ures 1 and 2 showing the male end of the sec tion. Parts of Figures 3 and 4 corresponding 65 respectively with parts of Figures l and 2 are - designated by like reference numerals each hav-> ing a prime . The upset pipe as shown in Figures 2 and 4 may be subjected to desired after-operations such as heat treatment, threading and nnishing. Howeve , the pipe formed as above described is of the desired shape and no further modiiication in respect of its shape either internally or exter nelly is n. 2,192,415: 3 _While I have shown and described certain pres ent preferred embodiments of the invention and ly few upsetting and reheating operations as certain present preferred methods of practicing compared with those which would be necessary the same. it is to be distinctly understood that i! the blank were upset outwardly only, increas the invention is not limited thereto but may be ing the external diameter of the blank by such upsetting suiliciently that substantially the otherwise variously embodied and practiced with amount of metal necessary for formation of an in the scope of the following claims. integral pipe joint lies outside a cylinder deñned I claim: 1. A method of making an upset integral -ioint by the original internal diameter of the blank, 10 drill pipe section of substantially uniform bore. and removing material from the interior» of the comprising heating a generally tubular blank. blank at said upset portion to enlarge the reduced internal diameter thereof at said portion to sub upsetting an end portion of the blank both in the internal diameter of the non-upset ternally and externally whereby to decrease its stantially portion of the blank. internal diameter and increase its external diam 3. A method of making an upset integral joint eter. such upsetting operation entailing relatively drill pipe section of substantially uniform bore, 15 few upsetting and reheating operations as com pared with those which would be necessary if comprising heating a generally tubular blank. the blank were upset outwardly only, increasing upœtting an end portion of the blank both inter the external diameter oi the blank by such up-- naliy and externally whereby to decrease its in 20 setting sumciently that substantially the amount of metal necessary for formation of an integral pipe joint lies outside a cylinder denned by the original internal diameter of the blank. and re shaping the blank tc enlarge the reduced internal 25 diameter thereof at said upset portion to sub stantially the internal diameter of the non-upset portion of the blank. 2. A method of making an upset integral Joint 30 ternal diameter and increase its external diame ter. such upsetting operation entailing relatively few upsetting and reheating operations as com pared with those which would be necessary if the blank were upset outwardly only, increasing the external diameter oi the blank by such upset ting suiiiciently that substantially the amount of 25 metal necessary for formation o! an integral pipe `iolnt` lies outside a cylinder denned by the origi nal internal diameter of the blank. and boring out of the blank at said upset portion to enlarge the reduced internal diameter thereof at said por 30 tion to substantially the internal diameter of the non-upset portion of the blank. ALBmT S. LYNCH.