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Патент USA US2122573

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'July 5, 1938.
Filed Aug. 14, 1935
Patented July 5, 1938
Frank E. P. Klages, Park Ridge, Ill., assignor to
The VPowers Regulator Company, Chicago,
Application August 14, 1935, Serial No. 36,062
2 Claims.
f This application is a continuation-in-part of
my application Serial No. 736,823, filed July
My invention relates to apparatus for evolving
5 water vapor, and particularly to a simplified form
of apparatus by means of which a relatively large
body of water vapor may be developed in appa
ratusof small dimensions and moderate cost.
An object of my invention is to provide for
'10 adequate production of water vapor at a greatly
reduced cost of apparatus and reduction in space
required for installation.
In air conditioning, in cases where water is to
be added to the air, some means must be pro
15 vided for breaking up the Water in order to facili
tate its mixture with air. The simplest form of
humidiñcation is to supply the water in the form
of vapor and this is commonly accomplished by
heating a body of Water to a temperature at
20 which it gives off vapor. However, in order to
produce an adequate volume of vapor, a relatively
large volume of water must be-heated with its
surface open for the escape of Vapor. Further
more, such a body of water is sluggish in action
25 and considerable time is required to raise it to
a Steam producing temperature, and an equal
time to lower its temperature to a point at which
it does not give off vapor.
I have found that a highly desirable result can
O be secured with a relatively very small body of
water and a compact heat exchange element.
I providea small pan and mount a steam pipe
horizontally therein, the pipe having a large
number of closely adjacent, vertical fins there~
g5 on;- .By means of a ñat controlled valve I
maintain a Water level in the pan at such point
that about one half of the pipey and fins are ex
posed above the Water. This provides a highly
efficient vapor evolving apparatus, but still greater
40 eiliciency is secured where the ends of the spaces
between adjacent ñns are closed, thus providing
very narrow, confined spaces open at top and
bottom. Furthermore, I have found that if the
said confined space is extended upwardly a sub
45 stantial distance, the result is more satisfactory
and a, substantial increase in the quantity of
water vapor evolved results therefrom, because
the rate of heat transfer at these points Where
vaporization is actually taking place is higher
50 than at points Where no vaporization is taking
place. This is accomplished by surrounding the
iin structure with a continuous wall extending a
substantial distance thereabove. ~~.fI‘his has the
effect of isolating the body of bubbles from the
55 water in the tank and permits the ebullient mate
(Cl. 257-198)
rial to rise to a height a substantial distance, not
only above the Water level, but above the tops
of the ñns.
In “Heat Transmission” by McAdams it is
“The vapor bubbles that form in a boiling liquid
do not spontaneously originate at all points
in the liquid but at favored points on asolid
At a given temperature, the vapor pres~
sure from a concave liquid surface, such as the 10
surface formed by a steam bubble in water, is
less than the vapor pressure from a iiat liquid
surface. Hence, for a given pressure, a liquid
must be hotter to evaporate into a small bubble
of vapor than to evaporate into the vapor space 15
above the liquid. The vapor pressure at a given
temperature decreases with increase in curvature
of the concave liquid surface, i. e., with the de
crease in size of the» vapor bubble.
The difficulty
in forming vapor bubbles then becomes apparent,
since the curvature of the liquid surface of a O
newly formed bubble is very great and the Vapor
pressure is reduced, requiring a higher tempera
ture than the saturation temperature correspond
ing to the pressure. Therefore it is not surpris- -25
ing that vaporization occurs only from favored
spots on the heating surface where temperature
and nature of the surface are favorable.”
In the operation of devices for evolving Water
vapor, there is a tendency toward the formation
of scale or salt deposits on the heat transfer 30
structure, particularly where the water that is
used is not treated or softened and my invention
contemplates the provision of automatically op
erating means for supplying measured quantities
of a chemical that will act to precipitate the ln
soluble salts and prevent the deposits on the heat
transfer elements such as the pipes and fins.
Also provision for draining off thel mud or sludge
formed by this treatment.
The apparatus will be more readily understood
by reference to the accompanying drawing in
Fig. l is a plan view of such apparatus;
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectional View showing 45
controlling apparatus, and
Fig. 3 is a sectional view on the line 3_3 of
Fig. l.
In the drawing I have shown a shallow pan l0
having a drain Illa and an adjacent float cham- 50
ber Il containing a valve controlling float I2 by
means of which a constant level of Water, in
dicated at I3, may be maintained in the pan.
Preferably the level will be maintained about
midway of the height of the pipes, four of which 55
are indicated at I4.
These pipes are mounted
in suitable headers and have a steam inlet con
nection I5 and an outlet connection I6 provided
with a steam trap I‘I. A hygrostat is indicated
generally at I8, this instrument controlling, by
means of air under pressure, a diaphragm valve
The form and arrangement ofthe parts is rel
atively unimportant, the only essentialA being a
heat supplying conduit and means for maintain
ing a constant level of water, the conduit being
partly immersed and partly exposed. The depth
of the body of water is unimportant.
I9 in the steam' supply pipe.
It should be noted that the heat that is sup
In order to automatically supply a scale-pre
plied for changing the liquid into vapor is ap
venting chemical, I provide a container 20 con ' plied only to the top surface of the body of water
10 nected by a pipe so as to deliver the liquid to and there is no necessity for equally heating the 10
the pan, the pipe containing a diaphragm valve entire body of water in order to produce water
2 I. This valve is operated by air released by the vapor. Consequently, the action of supplying
hygrostat through the pipes 22--23, the pipe 22 and discontinuing the supplyrof vapor is almost
leading to the diaphragm steam valve, the pipe instantaneous, following the turning on and off
15 23 being a branch thereof. 'I'he arrangement'is of the steam.
such that as the hygrostat is a re
While I have referred to a hygrostat for use in
duction in moisture content of the surrounding controlling the emission of water vapor, it will
medium, air will be released to actuate valve I9 be understood that other forms of regulating in
and supply steam to the apparatus, and to open struments may be used, such as a dew-point ther
mostat, a wet bulb thermostat, etc.
20 the diaphragm valve 2| to supply chemical, by
drops, to the pan; thus the chemical is supplied
I have described the apparatus in connection
only when water vapor is being evolved.
with its use for evolving water vapor. It should
Preferably the pipes I4 are provided with eX
be understood, however, that the apparatusrwith
tended surfaces or ñns 24 shown as square in this
25 instance.
However, the form of the extended
surfaces is unimportant except that they should
Many forms of the apparatus other than that
shown in the drawing will suggest themselves to
those skilled in the art, and I do not wish to be
be of such dimensions as to provide for immer
sion of a portion beneath the level of the water
and the projection of the remaining portion above
limited except as indicated in the appended
the level of the water.
In order to increase the eiliciency of the appa
ratus I provide side walls 25 that serve to close
the otherwise open ends of the narrow spaces be
tween adjacent iins 24 and I extend the side walls
35 a substantial distance above the top-edges `of the
slight modifications can be used as an evaporator
in many commercial processes.
This provides a conñned space closed at the
I claim:
l. In combination, a pan, a pipe having closely
adjacent, vertically projecting
mounted horizontally within said pan, means for
automatically maintaining a fixed level of water 35
in said pan at such height that a substantial por
sides by the walls 25 and at the ends by extend
ing the end fins vertically as at 26 to correspond
tion of said pipe and fins project above the water
when heat is not being supplied to the pipe, side
to the height of the side walls. Within this con
ñned space the bubbles pile upto a substantial
height, due to the greater heat within the con
iined space and as the bubbles arerprevented from
spilling over the sides and as the water level is at
a point substantially below the confined space the
walls for closing otherwise open ends of the spaces
between adjacent fins, and means for providing a
controlled supply of heat to said pipe.
2. In combination, a container, a steam pipe
located horizontally therein, a plurality of ver
45 evolution is very rapid. Furthermore, by main
taining the water level at a point only midway
'of the height >of the ñns, the violent agitation of
the water within the narrow space between the
ñns has the eiïect of constantly wetting the eX
50 ` posed surface of the fins with a thin ñlm of water
that is almost instantaneously changed into va
por. The anti-scale liquid chemical employed
may be any one of several that are used for the
purpose. Such chemicals act as a colloid and are
,5.5 sometimes called “thermal colloids”.
tical, closely adjacent heat exchange elements
mounted on and encircling said pipe, means clos, 45
ing the otherwise open ends of the spaces between
adjacent heat exchange elements, automatic
means for maintaining a substantially constant
level of water in said spaces at such'height that
a substantial portion of said pipe and heat ex 60
change elements project above the water, and
walls extending above said elements, thereby pro
viding a coniined space above said elements and
above the level of water in said spaces.
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