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Патент USA US2122641

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July '75, 1938;
I '
‘Filed Nev. 9, 1935
' 2 Sheets—Sheet l
July 5, 1938.
Filed} NOV. 9, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet‘ 2
l daré/lfdwl.v,
V Patented July 5, 1938
Herman ‘0. Frentzel, Jr., Milwaukee, Wis., as
signor to The Hell 00., Milwaukee, Wis., a cor
poration of Wisconsin
rl'he present invention relates generally to im
provements in the art of heating, andrelates
more specifically to'improvements in the con- ,
struction and operation of draft regulators for
.5 controlling the quantity of combustion air admit
ted to the fuel chambers of furnaces, boilers or
the like.
Application November 9, 1935, Serial No. 48,960
4 Claims.
(Cl. 236-45)
A general object of the present invention is
the provision of an improved draft regulator
which is extremely'simple in construction, and
which is moreover automatic, reliable and highly
eilicient in operation.
It is a well established fact that the e?iciency
' of a heating plant is materially affected by un
is desirable variations in ‘the quantity of air de
livered to the fuel combustion chamber, as a re
sult of draft variations. Automatic and accu
rate draft regulation is therefore desirable ‘in
order to maintain most eflicient combustion and
20 to avoid excessive heat losses through the stack,
and numerous types of automatically function
convenient and sensitive adjustment so as to se
cure any desired operation.
Still another specific object of the invention is
the provision of an improved draft regulator
especially applicable to oil fired combustion 5
chambers, which is exceptionally reliable in op
.erationfand which can be manufactured and in
stalled at moderate cost.
An additional specific object of the present in
vention is to provide a damper associable direct- l0
‘ ly with the gas discharge end of a fuel combus
tion chamber, and which fuhctions to simulta
neously vary the cross-sectional area of the com
bustion gas discharge conduit, and to introduce
inversely proportional variable quantities of am- 15
bient air to the smoke pipe beyond the combus»
tion gas discharge opening.
These and other objects and advantages of
the present improvement will be apparent from g
the following detailed ‘description.
A clear conception of several embodiments of
ing draft actuated vcontrol ‘devices ‘associated ' .the invention, and of the mode of constructing
and of utilizing draft regulating appliances built
either with the smoke pipe or with the stack,
.have heretofore been proposed. With some of
in accordance with the improvement, may be had
pipe or stack, without actually varying the ‘nor
lar parts in the several views.
25 these prior draft regulators, more or less fresh by referring to the drawings accompanying and 25
air-from the furnace room is admitted to the ' forming a part of this speci?cation wherein like
smoke and gas conducting conduit of the smoke reference characters designate the same or simi
Fig. .1 is a fragmentary part sectional side ele
mal cross-sectional area of this conduit; while‘
vation of a heating plant comprising a ?re-tube 30
in others the conduit cross-section is varied with
out admitting additional air thereto. Both of boiler, smoke .pipe and stack, showing one of the
these prior types possess some advantages as well improved regulators associated with the boiler
as disadvantages, and under certain ‘conditions of and smoke pipe;
operation it would appear advantageous to com v Fig. 2 is a fragmentary rear view of the boiler
85 bine ‘these prior methods of control-so 'as to se . of Fig. 1, looking toward the draft regulator;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged internal front view of the
cure the benefits of both.
draft regulator shown in Figs. lnand 2;
It is therefore a more-speci?c object of the pres
Fig. 4 is a further enlarged vertical-section
_.ent invention to provide an improved automatic 1
-_ damper which effectively combines the principles through the draft regulating unit, taken along
the line 4-4 of Fig. 3;
L 40 of operation of these two prior types of regula
tors, and 'wherein both throttling and admission.
'of air to the smokepipe or stack, are simulta
neously effected.
,' . Another specific object of this invention is the
45 provision of a compact and durable draft regu
lating appliance for combustion chambers, which
is reliable in operation, and which automatically
- varies the area. of. the gas outlet so as to main
“ tain the supply of air admitted to the chamber,
at the most e?icient value.
A further speci?c object of the invention is to
provide. a, newv and useful 'damper assemblage.
Fig. 5 is a’similarly enlarged fragmentary in
ternal- front view of a lower corner of the unit
of Figs. 3 and 4; and
Fig; 6 is a vertical section similar to that of
Fig. 4, through a modi?ed type of the improved 45
draft regulating unit.
While the invention has been illustrated herein
as being speci?cally embodied in a heating plant
having a boiler of the ?re-tube type, it is not
intended to unnecessarily restrict the scope by 50
such embodiment, since the improvement is obvi
ously more generally applicable to other types of
furnaces and combustion chambers.
Referring to the drawings, the heating system
56 of furnaces and boilers, and which is capable of . shown. in Figs. v1 and 2, comprises in general a '56
which-may be applied as a unit to various types
boiler 8 having a water chamber 8 and a come
bustion chamber III, the latter of which com
strip 2! and into closed position. In order to
obviate this tendency and to balance the damper
25 upon its pivots 22, the lower depending por
municates with a rear gas discharge space H
through ?re-tubes |2 penetrating 'the water
en 34 thereof is provided with a ?xed elongated
chamber 9; a chimney or smoke stack 1;! ordi
nar?y spaced some distance from the rear- of the
boiler 8; and a smoke pipe ll connecting the ?ue
counter-balancing weight 35 having its center of
of the stack l3 with the boiler space H through
of ,the pivotally suspended elements, other than.
gravity located forwardly of the pivotal axis, the -
weight 35 being of such heft that, static balancing
a gas discharge‘ ori?ce l5 formed in a smoke box
10 or ?tting l6 secured to the rear of the boiler.
All of theseelements are of well known con
struction and are subject to considerable vari
the adjustablev weight 32 and nut 33,-v results.
With this assembiage of elements, it will. be ap-_ 19
ationin form and location, and the combustion
chamber iii may be fired with any suitable fuel
letter will be easily shifted by slight variations in
pressure acting on opposite sides of the upper
portion thereof, ‘whereas adjustment of the weight 15
32 away from the plane of the damper will re-‘
quire increased pressure acting upon the rear
surface ofgthe same in order to swing it away
parent that when the-adjustable weight 32 is _
located as near to the damper 2| as possible, the
such as coal, coke,>oil or gas, being provided
with the usual controllable means for injecting
‘or admitting combustion air to the ignition or
burning zone.
The ?tting I6 which is secured to the rear of
from the sealing strip 29.
During normal operation of the improved draft ~
20 the boiler 8 and widen provides a closurev for the .
gas space H, has a rearwardly extending con-,
regulator of Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive, and when fuel
is being consumed in the combustion chamber iii
of the boiler 8, hot gases of combustion are being
delivered from the ?re-tubes
through the
tinuous rectangular ?ange H. The improved
draft reguiator constituting the present improve
ment, is detachably cooperable with the fiange
25 I ‘I, and comprises generally a closure and sup
space H, ori?ce l5 and smoke pipe I4, toqthe
stack l3. Depending‘ upon the setting of the‘
porting member I8 having a rear tower opening
' l9 and integral laterally spaced ferwardlly pro
mechanism for supplying combustion air, a pre-'
jecting parallel side walls 20 extending into the , determined quantity or volume of gases of com
space H; and a ?at plate-like damper 2| mounted
30 to swing between the walls 20 upon alined end
, pivots 22 carried by the damper 2| and coacting
with bearings 23 secured to the closure member
it, see Figs. 2, 4 and 5. The member Ill-has a
bustion will normally flow through these passages
to the stack I3, but any variations in draft con 30
dtions will’ tend to undesirably increase or de
crease the quantity of combustion air and will
thus tend to reduce the e?iciency either by caus- '
ing incomplete combustion or by overheating the ‘
' peripheral recess 24 which is cooperable with the
liquid. The improved draft regulator may be
'rearedge of the ?ange ' i1, and is swingably sus
pended, from the ?tting l6 by hinges 25, being a conveniently and accurately set'by adjusting the _
weight 32 through the opening 59, so as to auto
normally held in closed position by a latch 26
matically produce any desired condition of oper
ation; When the weight 32 has ‘been properly
as shown ‘in Fig. 2. A eurved wall 21 formed
integral with the member l8, extends upwardly
from the lower edge of the opening i9 to the; adjusted to correspond with a predetermined set 40
lower portions of the front edges of the side walls ting of the fuel and fresh air supply, the damper
20, thereby compelling all air which enters the 2| will automatically adjust ‘itself ‘by’ swinging
epening I9 to pass upwardly and forwardly be
upon its supporting pivots 22, so as to simul=
tween these walls.
taneously throttle the area of the passage be
tween the space H and ori?ce l5, and to admit 45
sufiicient ambient air through the opening l9
directly to the smoke pipe it through the ori?ce
l5, to meet the changing draft conditions within
The plate damper 2| may be formed of rela
tively thin sheet metal, and the alined suspension
pivots 22 for this damper are carried by blocks
28 secured to the medial-portions of the opposite
ends of the- damper, the common, axis of the
the stack i3, without undesirably affecting the
pivots 22 being disposed forwardly of the plane
quantity of combustion air admitted to the cham 50.
ber I0. If the stack draft increases, the throt
tling effect upon the ?ow of gases of cembustion
will be increased and more air will be ‘admitted
through the opening !9, and vice versa; but the
communication between the space H and ori?ce 55
i5 can neverbe entirely interrupted. When the
boiler is not in use, the damper 2| will automati
cally close by engaging the sealing strip 29, and v
the weight 32 may obviously be quickly and con
veniently adjusted to secure any desired condi
of the damper. The upper portion of the damper
2| is automatically swingable about the pivots. 22
' between the parallel side walls 20, from closed
position as shown in solid lines in Figs._ 1 and 4,
55 to open position as shown in dot-and-dash lines,
by the differences‘ in pressure acting upon the
'upper portion of the damper plate and caused by
variations in draft conditions. when completely
closed, the upper portion of the damper 2| coacts
'with a sealing strip 29 secured to the supporting
member i8; and when wide open, the ‘damper
plate coacts with the front end of the curved wall
21. The swingeble damper 2| is also provided
' with a‘ central stud 30 secured thereto between
65 the blocks 28 by clamping nutsf-l , and extending
rearwardly toward the opening I9; and_a weight
32 has screw-thread ceaction withthis stud'30
being adjustabie therealong and adapted to be
fixed in any desired position of adjustment by a
lock nut 33. Because of the fact that the damper
‘plate is disposed rearwardly of its horizontal piv=
otal axis and that the fixed stud 30 also extends
rearwardly with respect ‘to this axis, the o?-set
centersof- gravity of these parts would vnormally
75 tend to swing the damper 2| toward the sealing
tion of draft regulation.
The modi?ed draft regulator of Fig. 6' is quite .
similar in general construction, to the device of'
Fig. 4, but is somewhat different in principle of
operation. In the modi?ed assemblage, the plate 65
damper 2|’ is provided with an arcuate sealing
?ange 36 at the upper swinging end thereof, and
the supporting member I!’ has a rear bulge 31
above the opening I8 for accommodating the
swinging motion of the ?ange 36. The counter
balancing weight 35' is slightly enlarged to com
pensate for the addition of, the flange 36, and this
?ange is adapted to maintain substantially con
stant sealing cooperation with a lip 38 formed
upon the. member i8’ while the sides of the
?cations within the scope of the claims may oc- our to persons skilled in the art.
I claim:
damper 2 I ' have like cooperation with the paral
lel side walls 20’ for all positions of adjustment‘
of the damper plate. The modi?ed dapper?’
is adapted when closed, to seat against sealing
strips 29’ carried by the member l8’, but should
be freely swingable without excessive friction,
1. A draft regulator for a combustion chamber, '~
comprising, a pivotally suspended closure mem- -
ber for the outlet end of the combustion‘ cham
ber, said member having an opening communi
upon its pivots 22, as in the case of the damper
cating with the atmosphere and integral’ paral
lel side walls extending away from said opening
into the outlet end of the combustion chamber, 10
a damper ‘pivotally suspended from said mem
ber and swingable between said walls to control
the admission of air through said opening, said
damper having a balancing weight suspended‘
therefrom within the outlet end of the combus 15
tion. chamber, and an adjustable regulating
weight carried by said damper within said mem
ber and between said side walls, said regulating
During normal operation of the modi?ed draft
regulator of Fig. 6, the damper 2|’ will ‘again
swing back and forth about its pivots 22, as the
draft in the heating system varies, but this
damper will exercise only a throttling effect upon
the gases of combustion, and will not admit am
15 bient air through the opening i9 to the smoke
pipe or stack. The ambient air within the fur
nace room will merely act upon the rear surface
of the damper 2!’ to create a pressure'thereon,
weight being constantly accessible for adjust
ment through said opening.
' and as the stack draft varies, this pressure will
cause the damper plate and the ?ange 36 to
.20 move
back and forth and to thereby vary the
2. A draft regulator for a combustion chamber,
comprising, a removable closure member for the
outlet end of the combustion chamber, said mem
ber having a lower opening shielded by a wall
formed integral with said member and also hav
effective area of the ori?ce I5 leading to the
smoke stack. The adjustable‘ weight 22 of‘the
modi?ed device functions preciselyv the same as
25 previously described, and when the combustion
of fuel ceases, the modi?ed damper 2U will close
ing integral side walls extending upwardly from
by engaging the sealing strips 29'.
said shielding wall and from said opening and
From the foregoing description it- will be ap~ " into the combustion chamber, a damper pivotaliy
parent that the present invention provides an suspended from said member near the inner end
of said shielding wall and swingable between said 30
30 automatic damper or draft regulator which is
extremely simple, compact, and durable in con- ' side walls to control the admission of air through '
struction, and which is moreover highly eilicient
and reliable in its operation. The ‘draft regula
said opening, and adjustable regulating means
for said damper housed within'said member and
tor may be readily applied as a unit to any type
of combustion chamber and may be conveniently
adjusted to produce any desired predetermined
operation. The various elements of the im
proved assemblage are ‘thoroughly protected
against accidental disturbance, and the counter
balanced construction of the damper com
bined with thegscrew threaded adjustment of
the weight 32, provides for extremely sen
sitive operation of the mechanism. In large
units it may be preferable to provide anti-fric
45 tion bearings for the pivots '22, but thisis not
constantly accessible for adjustment through said
3. A unitary draft regulator for a combustion
chamber, comprising, a closure member for the
outlet end of the combustion chamber, said mem
ber having an opening communicating with the
atmosphere and integral parallel side walls ex
tending upwardly away from said opening, a
damper plvotally suspended from, saidmember
and swingable between said walls to control the
admission of air through said vopening, said
damper having a balancing weight ?xedly at- 45
tached thereto within said combustion chamber,
and an adjustable regulating weight carried by
said damper within said member and between
necessary in smaller units where non-corrosive
materials may be utilized in the construction of
‘the pivots 22 and of the bearings 23. While the
combined'throttling and air admitting type of said side walls, said regulating weight being ac
50 draft regulator shown in Fig. 4 is thoroughly cessible for adjustment from the outside‘ through
satisfactory in most heating installations, it may said opening.
4. A unitary draft regulator for a combustion
be undesirable to withdraw air from the furnace
room in eifecting the regulation, and under such chamber, comprising, a closure member for the
conditions the draft regulator of Fig. 6 may be outlet end of the combustion chamber, said mem
desirable. The improved draft regulating ber having an opening shielded by a ?xed wall
units can be readily constructed without exces-' formed integral with said member and ‘also hav
sive machining operations, and can therefore be ing integral laterally spaced side walls extend
manufactured-and sold at moderate cost. The ing inwardly away from said opening, a damper
invention has proven highly successful in actual \pivotally suspended from said member near the
operation, especially when ‘applied to oil burning inner end of said ?xed wall and swingable be
heating plants, and has demonstrated its ability tween said side walls to control the admission of
air through said opening, and adjustable regu-v
to insure minimum waste of heat.
It should be understood that it is not desired lating means for said damper housed within said
Q to limit the invention to the exact details of member and being accessible for adjustment
said opening.
construction and to the precise mode of operation
65 herein shown and described, for various modi from the outside through 0. mm, Jr.
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