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Патент USA US2122705

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Filed Aug. 1, 1936
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 5, 1933-
Filed _Aug. 1, 1936 -
:s Sheets-Sheet 2
Henry l'?md" ,
J4, vu/W
July 5, 1938.
Filed ‘Aug. 1, 1956
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
@?77 Q
’ Patented July 5, 1938
Edgar C. Welborn and Henry J. Smith, Chicago,
Ill., assignors to Mark C. Bates, Chicago, Ill.
Application August 1, 1936, Serial ‘No. 93,782
16 Claims. (Cl. 48--213)
Our invention relates in general to the vapori
zation of relatively heavy liquid hydrocarbons
and similar substances. It concerns itself also
with the utilization of the vapors, preferably pre
‘6 mixed with air, in combustion devices of various
types, although the invention is capable of many
There are many conditions under which va
porization of relatively very heavy liquid hydro
10 carbons is desired, preferably vaporization under
such conditions that the vapors may be premixed
with air for complete blue ?ame combustion or,
for example, preparatory to utilization of the
combustible mixture in internal combustion en
15 gines and the like. While methods of vaporizing
relatively heavy liquid hydrocarbons have been
developed, such methods have had certain limita
tions, principally in that the range over which
they could be operated has not been sufficiently
20 great under extreme conditions, and very heavy
liquid hydrocarbons could not be vaporized suc
cessfully without considerable carbon formation
which required relatively frequent cleaning of
the equipment employed in the process.
The object of our invention is the provision of
an improved method of vaporization.
bustion are passed in contact with the ?lm of
liquid hydrocarbon in a direction opposite to the
direction of movement of said ?lm. More specif
ically, the liquid hydrocarbon is continuously de
livered through the top of a fountain, the amount
delivered through the fountain being such that
the outer surface of the fountain is completely
wetted with the liquid hydrocarbon at all times.
The excess unvaporized liquid hydrocarbon ?ows
from the bottom of the fountain into a pool of
oil which is again delivered to the fountain 16
through a recirculating system. Hot inert prod
ucts of complete combustion are delivered to
the chamber containing the fountains in such a
manner that the hot products of combustion pass
upwardly over the exterior surface of the foun 20
tains and extract vapors from the surface of the
liquid hydrocarbon on the fountain wall. The
mixture of hot inert products of combustion and
the vaporized liquid hydrocarbon are drawn out
of the vaporization chamber, preferably super
heated to some extent either in the vaporiza
tion chamber or on the way to a manifold.
a relatively wide range of operation without im
complete combustion immediately after with
drawal from the vaporization chamber, or they
Another object is to vaporize relatively heavy
liquid hydrocarbons with the formation of sub
hot vapors. may be mixed with air su?icient for
may be mixed with air at a combustion device,
substantially no ?xed resistance which will re
the former method being preferred for most pur
poses. A portion of the combustible mixture may
be burned in a pilot burner, producing a blue
flame, and the hot products of such blue ?ame 35
delivered to the vaporization chamber for c0n~
tact with the surface of the liquid hydrocarbon.
The inert gases utilized for vaporization, however,
may be drawn from a separate source, if desired.
Other details and features will be apparent from
the detailed description taken with the accom
quire variation in operating conditions as the
panying drawings, wherein
quantity of hydrocarbon vaporized is modi?ed.
' Another object is to vaporize a relatively very
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view, partly in
elevation, showing one embodiment of the va
heavy liquid hydrocarbon by a method wherein
substantially no unvaporized liquid will be en
porizing mechanism of our invention;
Fig. 2 is a plan view, partly in section;
stantially no carbon.
Another object is to vaporize relatively heavy
liquid hydrocarbons in such a manner that the
hydrocarbon in the liquid phase is never in con
tact with a surface substantially hotter than the
Another object is ‘to vaporize relatively heavy
40 liquid hydrocarbons by a method wherein there is
trained with the vaporized liquid.
Another object is the provision of a method
whereby heavier hydrocarbons can be vaporized
than have been successfully vaporized heretofore.
Still another object is the provision of appa
ratus whereby heavier hydrocarbons can be suc
cessfully vaporized in accordance with the prin
ciples of our invention.
tirely covered with the liquid hydrocarbon, and
hot inert products of substantially complete com
Another object is to vaporize relatively heavy
liquid hydrocarbons by a method which permits
30 pairment' of the quality of vapors produced.
carbon is moved in the form'of a relatively thin
film over a relatively cool surface which is en
In carrying out the method, the liquid hydro
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on the line 3—3
of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary. sectional view, partly
in elevation, showing a fuel level control device;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary vertical section illus
trating structural features of one form of foun
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 5 showing a
modified form of fountain heads;
Fig. '7 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view
from the bottom of the vaporization chamber
showing the principles of our present invention
employed with modi?ed means for creating a
anddelivered through the chamber 36 to the
fountains II with Just enough pressure to sus
pressure diiferentiai for the purpose of‘ with
5' drawing vapors from a vaporization chamber;
down the outside of the fountains and excess
liquid not vaporized returns again to the pool |2
Fig. 8 is a vertical sectional view showing a
modi?ed fountain type of device utilizing the
features of the present invention.
Referring now to the drawings, we provide a
vaporization chamber l0 within which are vsup
ported a plurality of fountains || adapted, in a
manner to be described, to be wetted at all times
with the liquid to be vaporized. Apool of hot oil
15 I2 is maintained in the vaporization chamber by
level control device |3 which may, for example,
.be an ordinary type of ?oat valve. The vapori
zation chamber is provided with an upper ex
tension |4 connected through a communicating
20 throat |6 to a mixing chamber |‘|. Air is admit
\ ted to the mixing chamber through an air pas
sageway l8, air control means l9 being provided
to adjust the quantity of air admitted. A quality
is provided within the throat l6 for
25 controlling the amount of vapors delivered from
the vaporization chamber to the mixing cham
ber IT. The mixing chamber communicates with
a blower housing 22, an impeller 23 being oper
ated by the motor 24 to withdraw vaporous prod
30 ucts from the mixing chamber l1 and deliver the
same under pressure to a manifold 25%.
tain' the desired rate of flow. The liquid flows
in the bottom of the vaporization chamber. The
pipe 38 extends through the extension 31 and is
provided with a port communicating with the
extension 31. A valve £2, threaded in a boss 10
provided on the extension of the chamber 36,
is adjustable to regulate the opening in the inner
communicating port whereby some of the liquid
can be hy-passed and the amount delivered to
the fountains may be regulated.
We also provide an additional by~pass for the
liquid through a heating chamber 43, a pipe 44
interconnecting the heating chamber 43 and the
intake side of the pump, and a pipe 46‘intercon
necting the opposite side of the heating chamber
and the pressure side of the pump.
A valve 41' is
positioned in the pipe 46 to regulate by-pass of
the liquid through the heater 43, whereby the
liquid oil temperature may be automatically con
According to one form, as illustrated in Fig. 5 ‘
the fountain | I comprises an outer pipe 48 pref
erably having a roughened exterior. One very
advantageous method of treating the exterior is
to provide continuous threads 49 running the full 30
length of the pipe. Within the relatively larger
blower also furnishes the powerfor drawing the
air and vaporous products into the mixing cham
ber from the air passageway and vaporization
35 chamber respectively.
Within the manifold 25 is provided a robber
‘pipe 413 is a smaller pipe 5| which carries the
liquid to the top of the fountain. The pipe 5| is
secured in the bottom of the pipe 48
such a
manner that liquid is permitted. to enter the pipe 35
tube 26 (Fig. 2) whereby a smaii proportion of
the combustible mixture is withdrawn from the
manifold and delivered through the valve 21 to
40 a pilot burner 28. Hot gases from the pilot burn
space’ between the two pipes by reason of the air
?lling the space between the two pipes. The air
er are delivered to a combustion tube 29 which
extends into and through the extension l4 of the
vaporization chamber. rI‘his combustion tube is
provided with an extension 3| which extends into
45 the vaporization chamber and delivers hot prod
ucts of combustion to the bottom of the vapori
zation chamber. In the form of device shown,
an oven 32 surrounds the extension of the vapori
5|, but prevented from entering the annular
space acts as a cushion and serves to equalize the
flow of oil to the fountain head. At the top, the 40
pipe 5| is threaded into a plug 52. The plug 52
is open at the top to permit communication with
a specially designed ring 53, which is capped
with a cup-shaped member 54 which sets within
the top of pipe 48 and is spaced therefrom so as 45
to leave a relatively narrow annulus 56.
port 51 is provided in the cup-shaped member 54v
and communicates with theinside of the ring
member 53, Ports 58 in the ring member 53
zation chamber, the mixing chamber, the air in-~
so take, and the blower, to maintain these parts in communicate with the space above the plug 52 60
- a heated condition whereby to secure certain ad
vantages, some of which are apparent and others
of which will be pointed out subsequently. Ports
33 are provided in the combustion tube 29 for de
155 livering some of the hotyinert products of com
bustion into the oven, whereby to heat the parts
contained in the oven and superheat the com
bustible mixture, without however raising the
temperature sufficiently to cause its ignition or
60 thermal decomposition of the fuel vapor.
The fountains II have a hollow interior and
are specially constructed to deliver the liquid to
be vaporized to the top thereof and to secure
other ‘advantages which will be pointed out.
65: These fountains are supported in the bottom of
- the vaporization chamber and communicate with
a lower chamber 36 having a downward exten
sion 31. The lower part of the vaporization
chamber is provided with an opening communi~
70 eating with a pipe 38. A pump 39 has its intake
and exhaust ports so arranged as to withdraw
liquid from the vaporization chamber through
the pipe 38 and deliver the same through a pipe
4| to the extension_3'| of the chamber 36. By
75 this means, liquid is continuously withdrawn
and between the cup-shaped member 54 and the
upper inside surface of the pipe 48.
As a result of this construction, the major por
tion of the liquid delivered through pipe 5|
passes out through ports 58, flows through the 65
annulus 56, and down the outside of pipe 48. A
portion of the liquid, however, is delivered
through port 51 into the inside of cup 54, main
taining this cup full and slightly over?owing at
all times, whereby all of the surfaces at the top Git
of the fountain are kept wet. The separation of
the pipe 5| prevents the incoming oii from hav
ing a cooling effect on a ?lm of oil ?owing down
the outside of pipe 48.
In the simpli?ed form of device shown in Fig.
6, an outside pipe 6| of the fountain is of smaller
diameter than the pipe 48 shown in Fig. 5, but
otherwise has the same characteristics and is
mounted in the same way in the vaporization
chamber. An internal pipe 62 is separated irom 70
the inside of pipe GI and is threaded into a plug
63 secured near the top of pipe 6|. Theplu'g 63
is provided with a port 64 forming a communi
cation between the inside of pipe 62 and the
upper inside portion of pipe 6|. In this form
also, the annular space between the two pipes
preferably is maintained empty. Liquid delivered
through pipe 62 ?lls the upper portion of pipe
GI and flows down the outside thereof. Due to
the relatively small diameter of pipe ii, the sur
face tension of the liquid causes it to take a
convex‘ form slightly above the top of the pipe
and to flow uniformly over the entire upper
annulus. It is unnecessary, therefore, to take
the same precautions to maintain all of the upper
' surfaces in a wet condition.
In Fig. 4, special means visprovidted for main
taining the level of the liquid hydrocarbon in
the bottom of the vaporization chamber. A fuel
level chamber 66 is provided, through the bottom
of which an over?ow pipe 61 is threaded, this
overflow pipe preferably having an enlarged intake
68. The over?ow pipe discharges into-a trap 69.
A fuel level pump 1| withdraws oil from a con
In the operation of the apparatus shown in
Fig. 1, hot oil is withdrawn from the bottom of ‘
the vaporization chamber by the pump 39 and
delivered at such a rate through the fountains
that a. smooth, non-splashing delivery is made to
the outside surface of the funtains, the amount
of 011 being sufficient so that the outside surface _
of the fountains is wetted by the oil to the very
bottom thereof. All exposed surfaces, therefore,
are wet at all times. It has been found that any 10
part which is not constantly covered with the hot
oil in the process will be quickly coated with con
siderable quantities of carbon or coke. The
roughened exterior surface, particularly when in
the form of a continuous thread, improves the 15
distribution around the fountain tube and also
creates su?lcient resistance against gravitational
force so that the oil ?lm does not get too thin at
the base of the fountain where it is subjected to
tainer (not shown) through pipe 12 and delivers
the oil through pipe ‘I3 to the fuel level chamber
66. A pipe 14 connected to the trap 69 near the
top thereof delivers over?ow oil back into the
container for the fresh oil supply. A balance line
the highest temperature. This arrangement is 20
particularly desirable when the temperature of
the incoming vaporizing gases is relatively high
15 forms a communication between the chamber
.It will be noted that the construction of both 25
fountains illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6 is such as
to cut down the speed of ?ow at the fountain
head and thus avoid splashing or spraying of the
oil which would have the effect of projecting
particles of oil out into the path of the hot gases 30
instead of depositing it on the outside fountain
66 and the vaporization chamber, to equalize
pressures and facilitate free functioning of the
level control apparatus. By this means, a con
stant fuel level is maintained without the use of
?oat valves and similar devices which might
readily get out of adjustment when submitted to
the relatively rough usage in a plant to which
equipment of the kind described is often exposed.
It is believed that the method utilized in the
vaporization of the liquid hydrocarbon is in gen
eral clear from the preceding description. In
order to permit those skilled in the art, how
ever, to adapt the method to modi?ed apparatus,
if desired, the method, features of the invention,
and modi?cations thereof will be described more
in detail.
The vaporization medium employed is a hot
inert gas, such as products of complete com
It has been found that when a rela
tively heavy liquid hydrocarbon is vaporized by
means of hot gases, and out of contact with
‘ surfaces which may cause cracking, carboniza
tion, and the like, the vaporized products mixed
with hot inert gases may be intimately premixed
with air sufficient for a complete combustion, and
the premixed products may be burned with a blue
?ame, and such complete combustion obtained
that substantially all of the products of com
bustion are C02, H20 and nitrogen (disregard
55 ing, of course, rare gases, relatively stable sul
phur compounds and possibly other products
and the viscosity of the oil is correspondingly
reduced so as to ?ow more freely than usual.
tube. According to the form shown in Fig. 5, the
cup 54 is filled with oil through the ori?ce 51 to
over?owing, and the oil overflowing from cup 54
so mingles with the oil passing upwardly through 35
the annulus 56 that a smooth even flow takes
place around and over the upper edge of pipe 48.
In the form shown in Fig. 6, the discharge from
the smaller pipe 62 is sufficiently below the top of
pipe 6| so that a relatively slow moving body 40
of oil is provided at the top, which spills over the
edge uniformly slowly and in an annularly shaped
The hot gases delivered to the bottom of the
vaporization chamber through the extension 3| 45
of the combustion tube strike the upper surface
of the pool of oil I2 and then ?ow upwardly
around the plurality of fountains. While un
questionably there is some vaporization from the
surface of the pool of oil, the greater portion of 50
the vaporization takes place when the gases come
in contact with the ?lm of oil on the fountains,
because the surface is so much greater and the
duration of contact is also much longer. The
counter-?ow principle results in the gases, when 55
in the hottest condition, coming in contact with
which may be present in minute quantities).
oil more dif?cultly vaporizable because of the
- The combustion products so produced, therefore,
previous'removal of relatively lighter fractions;
while at'the higher portions of the fountains.
are substantially inert, particularly when allowed
60 to cool to 1600 degrees F. or below-that is to say,
if allowed to cool to temperatures where disso
ciated CO2 and H20 are reduced to a minimum.
The resulting hot inert gases are utilizable for
vaporization purposes and, when employed ac
65 cording to the present invention'and by a method
when the hot gases have already been cooled 60
somewhat, the lighter, more readily vaporizable
fractions can still be removed. The maximum
area of the fountains over which vaporization
takes place is determined in large part by the
amount of hot gases delivered to the vaporization
chamber, particularly if the hot gases are always
always present, will produce a very satisfactory ~‘of the same temperaturejwhich is the desired
method of operation. The maintaining of more
vaporized product.
The fuel product to the vaporization of which area than is necessary assures satisfactory oper
70 the present invention is particularly directed is ation, even when maximum demands are made 70
a relatively heavy liquid hydrocarbon, that is, on the equipment and assures a constant quality
wherein an excess of a liquid hydrocarbon is
one heavier than kerosene or having a Baumé
gravity of 40 or less. Other vaporizable liquids,
however, may be vaporized‘ by the apparatus
75 with which the method is practiced.
vapor at extremely low and extremely high out
When operating the specific device shown, the
blower withdraws vapors from the vaporization 75
chamber (mixed with hot gases) and also with
draws ;air through the air intake I 8. Both the
vapor and air intake valves are adjustable auto
matically by suitable means such as shown, for
example, in the copending application of Clyde
B. Faverty, Serial No. 710,971, ?led February 12,
1934. The air and vapor mixed in the mixing
. chamber I l are drawn into the blower where they
are further mixed by the action'of the impeller,
10 and are thence delivered under pressure to mani
fold 25. A portion of these vapors, as noted, is
withdrawn from the manifold, burned in the pilot
burner, and the hot. products of combustion of
the pilot burner delivered back through the com
15 bustion tube vinto the vaporization chamber.
As the oil is vaporized, additional oil is deliv
ered to the vaporization chamber, where it mixes
with the hot oil already contained therein, and
this mixture is continuously withdrawn from the
20 vaporization chamber and fed back to the foun
For convenience, the embodiment shown in Fig.
1 is illustrated as being operated on the suction
principle, as described in the copending applica
25 tion, identified hereinabove. It should be under
stood, however, that when the vapors are to be
mixed with air and delivered to a combustion de
vice, it is only necessary that a pressure differ
ential exist sufiicient to cause the mixing action
30 and deliver the premixed products of combustion
to a point of use. If desired, for example, the
novel features of our invention may be utilized in
carrying out'the method described in the co
pending application of Charles A. French, Serial
35 No, 47,910, ?led November 1, 1935, and, in gen
the calculated amount, vaporization would still
continue without difficulty. In addition, the fuel
level maintained by the fuel level control system
is not critical.
For example, the height of the
liquid in the vaporization chamber might, through
faulty operation of the fuel level maintaining
mechanism, be raised or lowered considerably and
it would not prevent satisfactory operation.
The embodiments of the invention hereinabove
described utilize the suction principle for pro 11
moting flow of vapors from the vaporization
chamber into the mixing chamber, and a'?ow
of the resulting combustible mixture into the
manifold. Any means for producing such a
pressure differential in parts of the apparatus
employed so as to cause this identi?ed flow of
vapors, air and mixture thereof to the manifold,
and wherein the pressure within the manifold
is su?iciently great to cause a ?ow of the mixture -
from the manifold to combustion apparatus may
be utilized. For a further understanding of the
application of our present invention to further
modi?cations in apparatus, we illustrate in Fig
ure 7 a form of the invention wherein movement
of the gases and vapors is caused primarily by 25
incoming air pressure from air pressure appara
tus such as a conventional rotary type of blower
(not shown).
Referring now to Figure 7, the embodiment
there illustrated comprises a vaporization cham 30
ber ‘I6 carrying a plurality of fountains ll similar
in general structure to the fountains previously
described. A constant‘ level offuel to be vapor- '
ized 78 is maintained in the vaporization chamber
by means of suitable level control apparatus 19 35
eral, the equipment disclosed by French for with
drawing vapors from the vaporization chamber
which may be a ?oat operated mechanism if de
sired. A pipe 8i leads from the level control
and mixing the same with air may be utilized.
The equipment shown in Fig. 1 or other em
apparatus 19 to a fuel supply tank. The vapor
ization chamber has a bottom 82 in which the
fountains are secured and through which the 40
interior of the fountains communicate with a bot
tom chamber 83. Oil is withdrawn from the
40 bodiments of the invention utilizing substantially
the same principles may be started in a number
of ways. According to one method, oil may be
delivered to the vaporization chamber .and circu
lated through'the heater 43, or heated by other
suitable means, until it reaches a temperature
where su?icient vaporization occurs to start the
pilot burner; thereafter the equipment can be
run in the usual manner, although some short
time may be required before vaporization has
550 progressed to a point where the vapors can be
burned satisfactorily in a combustion device. An
other method is initially to substitute or ‘mix a
small quantity of gasoline or other highly volatile
fuel with the oil and immediately start oper
65 ations, utilizing vapors from the readily vapor
izable gasoline constituent. As the unit comes
up to temperature, the gasoline supply may be
gradually reduced until it is ?nally cut off en
tirely, vaporization then being continued on the
regular oil. Still other methods of starting may
be employed which it seems unnecessary to de
tail. One of the simplest methods of starting is
to burn a commercial gas ?ame or hold a torch
so that the hot products of combustion enter the
66 downcomer. vaporization may be started very
quickly and, as vapor- is generated, the gas ?ame
or torch may be extinguished.
One advantage of the present method of
vaporization is that the amount of oil delivered
70 either through the fountains or to the vaporiza~
tion chamber during any given period is not
critical. For example, more oil is delivered
through the fountains than can be vaporized at
supply 18 through a pipe 8& being pumped there
from by a pump 86 and delivered back under
pressure through a pipe 81 to the chamber 83
whence the fuel oil is delivered to the top of
the fountains ‘H and '?ows down the sides thereof
in the manner previously described.
The vaporization chamber has a top extension
~8i! communicating through a throat 89 with 'a 50
Venturi tube 91. Air under pressure is delivered
to the Venturi tube through a forcing nozzle 92
whereby to withdraw‘ vapors through the throat
89 and mix the same with air to form a com
bustible mixture, which combustible mixture is 55
delivered to a manifold 93.
A robber tube 94 is set in a manifold or at
a suitable place in the path of the combustible
mixture to withdraw such combustible mixture
and deliver the same to a pilot burner 96. The 60
robber tube is connected to a T 91, one remaining
arm of which is connected to deliver combustible
mixture to the pilot burner 96 and the other of
which is connected to a pipe 98 supplied with
a valve 99. Under suitable conditions, if desired, 65
additional air may be admitted through pipe 98,
or if desired in starting the apparatus the pipe
98 may be connected to a commercial gas line to
initiate combustion at the pilot burner. The pilot
burner delivers hot products of combustion to a
downcomer tube I01 whichIextends to the lower
part of the vaporization chamber, terminating a
sufficient distance above the level of fuel oil in
any one time and, even if the amount delivered. the vaporization chamber to avoid splashing
were increased or decreased considerably from thereof onto the downcomer tube. The down
comer, however, should be brought down to a low
enough position in the vaporization chamber
whereby to cause hot products of combustion to
' sweep upwardly over as much of the area of the
fountains as is conveniently possible within the
limitations of ordinary design. I
The operation, functions and advantages of the
embodiment shown in Figure '7 are in general
substantially the same as those described in con
10 nection with the previous ?gures. The movement
of hot products of combustion is counter to the
?ow of fuel oil down the outside of the fountains.
The productsof combustion in this form of the
invention are also substantially inert and the
15 e?iciency in the vaporization of the fuel oil as
well as'the elimination of carbon is very marked.
In this form of the invention a salient difference
is that air under relatively high pressure is em
ployed in place of an ordinary type of suction
20 fan which requires less power input particularly
under certain operating conditions. While the
embodiment of Figure '7 is not capable of the ex
tremely low turndown. which is possible when
utilizing, for example, the embodiment shown in
25 Figure 1, there are instances where for other
delivered to the outside of the cup-shaped mem
ber I08. The oil so delivered spills over the upper
annular edge of the cup-shaped member and flows
down the inner wall thereof which is preferably
provided with a roughened interior, for example,
by being provided with inner threads. The
amount of oil delivered is such that the inner
surface of the cup-shaped member is‘ wet at all
times. The hot products of combustion from the
pilot burner are delivered to the bottom portion 10
of the vaporization chamber, whence they pass
upwardly along the surface of the oil and vaporize
a portion thereof. The vaporous mixture is then
delivered to a mixing chamber either of the gen
eral type illustrated in Fig. 1 or of the general
type illustrated_in Fig. 'I. It is, of course, obvious
that the speci?c treatment applied to the vapor
ous products after they leave the vaporization
chamber depends to a considerable extentrupon
conditions, the type of installation, the character 20
of the combustion device, etc. The skirt I26 is by
no means necessary, but it serves the function of
bringing the hot gases into more intimate contact
with the 011 film, and also of preventing too great
an application of radiant heat to the 011 while 25
reasons, unnecessary to detail, the form of Figure
7 may be preferred.
Figure 8 shows a modi?ed form of device which
in a liquid condition.
It should be understood that in all of the em
vmay be termed a fountain wherein the liquid
tion, shape, position and other characteristics of
bodiments of the present invention the construc
will be made clearer, however, from a speci?c
the fountains may be modified considerably with 30
out departing from the spirit and scope of the
invention. An important feature is the counter
flow of the hot products of combustion of the fuel
oil with the results and advantages detailed
throughout a vprevious portion of the speci?ca 35
Some of the features of our present invention,
particularly with respect to the lack of carbon
discussion of the embodimentof Figure 8.
A vaporization chamber I06 is provided of sub
formation and e?iciency in the vaporization of
relatively heavy liquid hydrocarbons may be
stantially the same character and construction
as the vaporization chamber described in con
pointed out for the bene?t of those skilled in the
30 hydrocarbon is ?owed over a surface which is
maintained in a wet condition at all times, and
hot gases are passed over the surface of oil in a
direction counter to the direction of
of the oil. In this form of device,
35 either the suction type of blower, as
in Figure 1, may be employed, or the
blast type
' as illustrated more particularly in Figure 7. This
preceding embodiments.
vaporization chamber has an upper extension I0‘I
45 through which hot vaporous products are deliv—.
ered to a manifold (not shown). Within the
vaporization chamber is a cup-shaped member
I08 spaced from the side walls and bottom of the
vaporization chamber to provide a space for liquid
50 hydrocarbon I09. The spaced relation between
the cup-shaped member I08 and the inner wall
of the vaporization chamber I06 is maintained by
a ?ange I I I, provided with apertures I I2 through
which liquid hydrocarbon is adapted to pass. A
pump I I3 is provided which withdraws liquid, hy
drocarbon through a passageway H4 from the
bottom of the vaporization chamber and delivers
the same through a passageway II6 to the space
between the wall of the vaporization chamber and
A pool of oil is
maintained in the bottom of" the vaporization
60 the cup-shaped member I08.
chamber at constant level by a levelling device
The invention has its inception largely in the
discovery that by employing hot products of com
bustion in combination with an excess of liquid 45
fuel, a vaporous mixture may be produced which
is readily combinable with air , in proportions
capable of producing complete combustion in the
form of a blue flame so that even under prac
tically operable conditions the hot products of 60
such blue ?ame comprise substantially only car
bon dioxide, water and nitrogen, disregarding
negligible proportions of rare gases found in the
air and relatively very small amounts of organic
and sulphurous materials calculated to be present 56
but not detectable by the usual analytical
Such products of combustion being substan»
tially inert will not produce carbon, sludge, and
the like, when they are, while in a hot condition, 80
brought into contact with the heavy liquid oil,
and this may be compared to the deleterious re
indicated generally by the reference :haracter
“1, fresh oil being delivered to the vaporiza
65 tion chamber through a pipe I I8 and to the level
sults which follow if hot chemically active gases
should be brought in contact with the liquid fuel
oil. While it is known that at extremely high 65
maintaining device from a fuel tank (not shown)
through a pipe H9. The usual balance line I2I
is also provided. A pilot burner I22 ?res into a
downcomer I23 extending into the vaporization
70 chamber and having an extension I24 which may
be provided with a bell shaped skirt I26 near
temperatures even gases like H2O vapor and C0:
are dissociated and therefore contain active C0,
02 and H2 constituents, we prefer to bring the
hot products into contact with the oil at a tem
its lower end.
In the operation of the form of device illus
' trated in Figure 8, oil is continuously withdrawn
75 from the bottom of the vaporization chamber and
perature not substantially higher than 1600 de 70
grees F., that is, essentially below the temperature
of dissociation of the products of combustion so
that the hot gases are truly inert from every
Another feature is that the liquid fuel is at all 75
times prevented from coming into contact with:
metal surfaces at temperatures substantially
“ higher than the temperature 01’ the liquid oil,
although the fuel vapors may be permitted to and
5 tdo come into contact with hot surfacesibut this
jcontactgis by no means detrimental butgactually
fintroduces superheat and substantially inhibits
condensation. Anotherfeature that liquid fuel’
particles are not entrained in the hot gas and
10 vapor flow, but substantially the only oil leav-,
ing the surface’ of thefliquid is substantially of
molecular proportions.
Our invention has been described in detail to
teach those skilled in the art how to practice the
15f same. L'We do not limit ourselves, however, to the
details of our invention except, within the scope
; of the appended claims.
What we claim as new and desire to protect by
Letters Patent of the Cinited States is:
1. In’an oil yaporizer', a, vaporization chamber,
a plurality of fpuntains’disposed vertically in said
vaporization chamber, means for delivering oil to
the tops of each of said fountains in’ quantity
sufficient to how down the outside of said foun
1 531“ tion thereof at?all times, means for withdrawing
tains and maintain a coating of oil'on every por
,. vapors ~from the vaporization chamber, means for
. mixing said vapors with air su?icient for com
plete combustion, means for burning at least a
portion of said? mixture, and means for delivering
hot products
combustion resulting from said
burning to theivaporization chamber at the lower
portion of said fountains.
2. A vaporizer as defined in claim lilincluding
‘ means for maintaining a body of oil in the va
porization chamber, and means for withdrawing
a portion of said oil and delivering the same to
said fountains.
3. A vaporizer‘ as defined in :claim lincluding,
40 in combination therewith, means for superheating
said vapors arid air mixed therewith prior to corn
bustidn thereof thereby inhibiting recondensa
tion of the vapors.
4. In an oiigvaporizer, a vaporization chamber,
45 an oil chamber immediately below said, vaporiza
tion chamber, means "for mahfitainingia body ,of
oil in the vaporization chamber, a generally cy
lindrical fountain having a hollow interior se
cured in the bottom of the vaporization chamber
50 and communijeating with said oil chamber, means
for withdrawing oil from the vaporization chat. her and delivering the same under pressure'to
said oil chamber whereby to force oil to the upper
part of said fountain and cause the same to ?ow
down the outside surface thereof in sufficient
amount to maintain said surface wet with oil at
all times, and means'rfor passing a hot inert gas
over the outside surface of said fountain whereby
to vaporize oil from the surface thereof.
5. VA vaporizer as de?ned in claim 4, including
end thereof and'spaced from the inner wall of the
tubuijar member for delivering oil to the. top
thereof, and means for causing the oil to ?ow
smoothly over the top of the tubular member
whereby to avoid splashing?and to promote a
smooth, even ?ow of oil along the outer surface
of the tubular member.
8. A fountain as de?ned in claim 7 wherein said
last mentioned means comprises a cup-shaped
member having a rim spaced 2. short distance
away? from the tubular member so as to leave an
annular opening at the very top thereof, and pas
sageways communicating with said pipe for de
livering a major portion of the oil through said
annular opening, and a miner proportion of the 15
oil to, the exterior of said cup-shaped‘ member.
9. A fountain as de?ned in elaim 7 wherein the
outer surface of said tubular member is provided
with a relatively coarse thread whereby to con~
trol the flow of oil down the outside thereof,
16, In anoil vaporizer, a vaporization cham
berfa generally cup-shaped member having, an
inner wall, said cup-shaped member being spaced
from the vaporization chamber so as to leave a
generally annular space atgthe outside thereof, 25
means for delivering oil to said annular space
so as to flow the same down the said inner wall,
and means for passing hot gases over the face of
the, oil as it ?ows down said inner wall.
1;. A method of providing a; combustible mix
ture of air and a vapor of a fuel oil heavier than
kerosene which comprises maintaining a pool of
fuel oil in the lower part of a vaporization cham
ber, pumping liquid fuel oil from said pool to the
upper part of a surface disposed within said va 35
porization chamber and causing said liquid fuel to
flow downwardly in a relatively thin film over
said surface so as to maintain a coating of oil at
allgtiines on said surface, unvaporized liquid ex
cess fuel being returned to said pool, introducing 49
hot substantially inert‘ products of combustion
into the lower partof said yaporization chamber
and causing said hot products of combustion to
pass upwardly along and in directcontact with
the downwardly ?pwing film of liquid fuel oil 45
whereby oil ,vaporsiare withdrawn therefrom and
pass to thegupper part of said vaporization cham
ber, commingling air with said oil vapors toq'form
a combustible mixture, burning a portion of said
combustible mixture to form hot substantially 50
inert ‘products of combustion, and utilizing the
latter to vaporize additional quantities of liquid
oil from the downwardly ?owing ?lm, said ex
terior surface being substantially unheated, ex
cept for that heat which is conducted thereto by 55
the fuel oii ?owing into direct contact therewith.
12. A method of vaporizing a fuel oil substan
tially heavier than kerosene which comprises pro-v
vi'zling an extended generally vertical exterior
surface within a chamber, ?owing the fuel oil 60
to be vaporized downwardly on said exterior'sur
face and in amounts su?icient to maintain aooat
air, and means for burning a portion
such mix- >
ing of oil at all times on said entire exterior sur
ture, hot inert products of combustion resulting face and passing" a hot substantially inert gas
65 from said burning being utilized as a gas for va
upwardly of said exterior surface and in contact a
porizing oil from théfsurface of said fountain. ~
with said: downwardly ?owing, fuel oil whereby ,
6. A vaporizer as "de?ned in claim 4 wherein
vapors are withdrawn from said fuel oil, the hot
means for withdrawing vapors from the vaporiza
tionichamber, means for mixing said'jvapors with
a plurality of fountains is utilized, and hot prod
ucts of combustion are passed over said plurality
70 of fountains in a direction counter to the direc
tion; of flow of said oil.
7. 'A fountain adapted for utilizatibn in an oil
vaporizer comprising a tubular member having a
roughened exterior surface; a pipe/within said
75 tubular member terminating short of the upper
siibstantially inert gas providing essentially the
sole means for vaporizing the fuel oil and the
said exterior surface being substantially unheated 70
except for that heat which is conducted thereto
by the fuel oil ?owing downwardly thereof.
13. A method :of vaporizing a relatively heavy
fuel oil which comprises maintaining a pool of
oil in the lower part of a vaporization chamber.
delivering oil from said pool to the top of a foun
tain disposed within said vaporization chamber
and causing said oil to ?ow downwardly on the
exterior surface of said fountain‘ in amount suf~
?cient to maintain a coating of oil on all parts
of said exterior surface whereby excess oil con
tinuously flows back into said pool of oil, pass
ing a hot substantially inert gas upwardly of said
exterior surface and in contact with said down
10 wardly ?owing fuel oil whereby vapors are with
drawn from said fuel oil, the hot substantially
inert gas providing essentially the sole means for
vaporizing the fuel oil and the said exterior sur
face being substantially unheated except for that
15 heat which is conducted thereto by the fuel oil
?owing into direct contact therewith.
‘14. In an oil vaporizer, a vaporization cham
ber, means therein providing an extended ex
terior surface whereby liquid oil may be ?owed
20 downwardly thereon, the lower end of said means
being located in the lower part of said'vaporiza
tion chamber, a pipe generally vertically disposed
within said vaporization chamber and the lower
end of which pipe opens near the bottom of said
25 vaporization chamber, vsaid pipe being spaced
from the ?rst-mentioned means, and means for
generating and delivering hot substantially inert
products of combustion into said pipe whereby
said hot products of combustion emerge into the
lower part of said vaporization chamber and then
pass upwardly and in direct contact with the‘
downwardly ?owing liquid oil whereby oil vapors
are withdrawn therefrom.
15. In an oil vaporizer, a vaporization cham
ber, at least one fountain disposed generally ver
tically within said vaporization chamber, means
for delivering oil to the top of said fountain in
quantity sufficient to ?ow downwardly on a sur
face of said fountain and maintain a “coating of
oil on all parts of said surface, a generally ver 10
tically disposed pipe which enters through an up
per part of said vaporization chamber and is
spaced from said fountain and discharges at a
point near the bottom thereof, and means for
delivering hot substantially inert products of 16
combustion into said pipe whereby said hot prod
ucts of combustion emerge into the lower part
of said vaporization chamber and then pass up
wardly and in direct contact with the downward
ly ?owing liquid oil whereby oil vapors are with 20
drawn therefrom.
16. The structure de?ned in claim 15, includ
ing means to mix the oil vapors with air in the
upper part of said vaporization chamber to pro
duce a combustible mixture, means to withdraw 25'
said combustible mixture, and means to burn the
same, the resulting hot substantially inert gases
being conveyed to said pipe.
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