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Патент USA US2122742

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'.Iuly 5J, 1938, >
l
2,122,742
D. l-lANr-:sà‘~
PACKER FOR USE IN WELL'S
Filed June 12, 1937
BY
-
ATTORNEY
v
July 5, 116381.v «
D HANES t
2,122,742
udma/FOR USE 1N WELLS
_Filed Júne 12, 1937
'
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
y/3
2/
22
23.
INVENTOR.
l
Dean Hanes
`
ATTORNEY
„
July 5, 1938.
D. HANES
2,122,742
*
PACKERl FORy USE 1N WELLS
Filed June 12, 1937
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
i
n
l
BY Íg/QUJ ATTORNEY* _
July 5, 1938.~
2,122,742
D. HANl-:s
y PACKER FOR USÈ IN WELLS
Filed June l2, 1.937
.: .1a»„. 4
m.
4
.4 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR.
Bean Hönes ‘
By à ¿_ / „6 ./.
A TTORNEY
-'Patented July .5, 1938
2,122,742
UNITED ASTATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,122,742
„
melma Foa USE 1N WELLS
Dean Hanes, Duncan, Okla., assignor to Halli
lôurton Oil Well Cementing Company, Duncan,
kla.
Application June 12, 1937, Serial No. 147,913
"‘
6 Claims.' (Cl. 16B-12)
This invention relates to apparatus adapted for
use in oil wells or the like, and more particularly
A to packers and means for releasably securing the
same to the casing of a well.
5
Figure 1A is a vertical view, partially in cross
section, of a fragment of the apparatus shown in
Figure 1, the section being 'taken at right angles
to that shown in Figure 1.
.
It is o_ften desirable to ñx and seal a valve
lFigure 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view of QI
or other structure to the casing of an oil well. the lower portion of the cement retaining assem
For example, where a well is to be cemented by bly shown in Figure 1, Figures 1 and 2 being con
forcing cement slurry under pressure down into tiguous;
`
the well through drill pipe or tubing and into`
Figure 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view of
the formation of the well, particularly in con
a second embodiment of the invention, the parts 10
nection with what is known as a “squeeze being shown in the relative positions which they
job”, it is desirable to provide means at the bot
occupy while the apparatus is being lowered
tom of the tubing which can be ñxed to the cas
into the well;
ing, thus holding the tubing in place against the
Figure 4 is a vertical vcross-sectional view of
fluid pressure in the' cement. It is also desirable the lower part of the apparatus shown in Fig
~15
ure> 3, Figures 3 and 4 being contiguous;
Figure :5 is Aa diagrammatical vertical cross
sectional view in quarter section of the appara
the tubing and the casing.
`
tus shown in Figures 3 and 4, the diagram illus
trating the relative positions of the parts when 20
It. is an object of the vpresentv invention to de
20
vise novel means for temporarily setting a packer the apparatus is set on the casing;
on tubing or drill pipe in a well, secure the packer
Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 5 but illus
in'place and hold the same against movement trating the relative positions of the parts after
with respect to the casing. '
‘
the cement has been placed beneath the appa
It is a further object of the invention to provide i ratus and during the Washing out 'operation
25
novel means for removing a packer and securing
which follows the placing of the cement; and
in such a case to provide a packer or other
sealing means around the tubing so as to prevent
the passage of cement slurry upwardly between
means -fastened to the casing in an oilwell.
It is an another object of the invention to de
vise apparatus for retaining cement or other
30 fluid under high iluid pressure in place in an oil
well and to so arrange the apparatus that it can
be readily removed from the well after it has
accomplished' its purpose.
40 this pressure.
It is still another object to devise a novel
method of cementing a well or of securing re
taining' means ltherein.
as the retaining assembly is released from the
casing of the well.
'
'
30
Referring to the drawings in detail, and first to
the arrangement of Figures 1 and 2, it will be
seen that the casing of an oil well is there illus
It is a further object of the invention to devise
35 a cement retaining assembly in which slips are
employed in connection with a packer and in
which the fluid pressure of the cement is trans
mitted to the slips in' such a way that the slips
tend to firmly engage the casing as a result of
_
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figures 5 and 6
but illustrating the relative positions of the parts
'
~
Other objects and advantages reside in certain
45' novel features of the arrangement and method,
as willl be more apparent from a consideration
of' the following description taken in connec
tion with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of
the upper part of a cement retaining assembly
`constructed in accordance with the principles oi
the invention, the figure illustrating the appara
tus within the casing with the various parts in
the relative positions which they occupy while
56 being lowered into the well;
tratedat il. The cement retaining assembly is
lowered into the casing I I by means of a tubing
or drill pipe designated I2, the lower e'nd of this
pipe being screw threaded or otherwise secured
to a mandrel I3 which is used to operate the
packer and slips as will be described hereinafter.
Slidably mounted upon the mandrel near its 40
upper end is a ring I4 to which drag springs I5
of conventional design are secured. The lower
end of the drag springs I5 are connected to a
swivel ring I6 which is provided with an up
standing sleeve I1 provided with a J-slot I8 which 45
coacts with pins I9 integral with the mandrel
I3 to hold the ring I6 in a dennite and fixed posi
tion on the mandrel until thepins I9 are rotated
out of the J-slots I8.
Swiveled‘within the ring I6 is a collar 20 to
which links 2| are pivoted. The lower end of the
links are connected to an upper set of slips or
casing engaging means 22v provided with teeth
extending in an upwardly and outwardly direc
tion. The teeth engage the casing in such a way 55
2
A
2,122,742
|
that when pressure is exerted on the slips from
i
sleeve 34 terminates at its upper end at a point
below they will 'not slide upon the casing. 'The
inside .and concentric with the upper shoe 29.
known practice the slips 22 are preferably dove
tailedtò the wedge body 23. The arrangement
of which is shown at 35. Due to these pins, the
inner faces of the slips 22 are inclined sov as to A -The sleeve 34 is connected to the mandrel I3 at
' slide upon a wedge body 23. In accordance with vthis point by means of a set of shear pins one
is such ,that as the wedge body moves upwardly
with respect to the slips they will be forced out
wardly to engage the casing and when the wedge
10 body is lowered with respect to the slips they will
be drawn inwardly radially so as to disengage the
casing. The wedge body 23 is screw;r Gthreaded
packer will be held extended longitudinally .while
the apparatus is being lowered into the well, the
lower shoe being held by the pins 35 while the
upper shoe is held by a system of connections
through the slips 21, the wedge body 26,_the sleeve
24 and the shear pins 35.
'I'he lower end of the mandrel I3 extends down
wardly into the interior of the sleeve 34 on the
-lower shoe and is provided with suitable collars
36 for mounting packing materialA 31 thereon.
15 but keyed or splined thereto by some suitable .
The
diameter of the collars 36 and the packing 31
means such as the key I3’ which is'positioned is just
sufficient to form a tight seal within the
within a slot 24’ in the mandrel, as shown ln
portion
of reducedfdiameter at the upper end oi’
Figure lA so that it must rotate with the mandrel.
The sleeve 24 is initially connected to the mandrel - the sleeve 3_4. 'I‘he packing 31 may' thus seal suit
able washout ports 39 in the sleeve 34 during
20 by a number of shear- pins one of which is shown
at 25 near the upper end of the threaded sleeve certain phases of the operation of the apparatus.
Beneath the packing 31 the mandrel is provid
24. These shear pins hold the sleeve 24 and the
upon a threaded sleeve or actuating member 24
`which is slidably mounted upon the mandrel I3
wedge body 23, and hence the slips 22, in the . ed with a number of openings or ports 39 so as to
positions shown in Figure l during the time that allow-huid to flow from the mandrel into the `
sleeve` 34. The lower end of the mandrel is pro
25 the apparatus is being lowered into the well so
that there will be little chance for the slips to vided with a nipple 46 which is connected to the
accidentally engage the casing at some point stem 4I of a valve 42 by means of shear pins 43.
other than the depth at which it is desired' to set II‘he valve 42 is adapted to seat upon the lower
shoe 33 under the iniluence of a coil spring _44.
the same.
f ,
30
The threaded sleeve 24 not only vactuates the Upon pulling up on the mandrel the pins 43 will
wedge body 23 upon rotation but also actuates à shear, Vprovided the shoe 33 is held stationary.
second and lower wedge body 26 which .coacts 'I‘he mandrel will then be free to ride up and
with a lower set of slips 21 similar in design to `down on the valve stem 4I and the valve will
the slips 22 but having their teeth directed down
operate independently of the mandrel.
wardly so that when they engage the casing they
To operate the apparatus shown in Figures 1
and 2, it is lowered into the well with the parts
in the relative position shown. The mandrel may
will resist downward movement.
' It will be seen from an inspection of Figure 1
-
that the sleeve 24 is provided with two ‘separate - then be rotated to turn the pins I9 out of the
threads. The upper threads which coact with J-slots I8 and then pulled upwardly so that the
the wedge body 23 may be left hand threads and pins I9 move above the upper end of the sleeve
the lower threads which coact with the wedge I1. The drag springs I5 prevent the sleeve I1
body 26 may be right hand threads. Thus, if from-rotating while turning out of the J-slots.
the bodies 23 and 26 are held against rotation and With the parts in this position the mandrel is
the sleeve> 24 is turned to the right, as viewed pulled upwardly, causing the wedge body 23 to.
from the top, by rotation oi the mandrel I3, the move the slips 22 out into engagement withl the
wedge bodies 23 and 26 will be drawn toward or -casing II. When the slips engage, the wedge
approach each other. To insure that the wedge body 23 cannot move any farther upwardly and
bodies 23 and 26 operate in the proper manner since the wedge body is screw threaded onto the
upon this rotation, a number of vertically ex
tending rods 28 are screw threaded into the top
of the wedge body 26 and pass upwardly through
holes in the upper wedge body 23.
The lower set of slips 21 have their lower ends
dovetailed into a member 29 which constitutes the
upper shoe of the packer 39. The shoe 29 is of
suflicient length to provide a space in the interior
thereof through which a collar 3| iixed upon the
mandrel I3 may move.
The collar 3l is so de
signed, however, that when the mandrel is lifted
60 as during certain phases of the operation of the
apparatus, it will engage the lower end ofthe
threaded sleeve 24 lifting this sleeve and hence
the wedge 26, slips 21 and upper shoe 29 of the
packer to raise the same. In this connection, it
should be noted that the dovetail between the
wedge body 26 and the slips 21 is provided with
a stop so that when the wedge 26 is lifted a certain
distance above the slips 21, further upward move
70 ment of the wedge will lift the slips. The upper
shoe 29 of the packer is provided with- suitable
washout ports one of which is shown at 32.
The lower shoe 33 for the packer is provided
with an upwardly extending sleeve 34 within the
75 packer but on the outside of the mandrel, This
sleeve 24 the pins 25 will shear.
At the same
time thevpins 43 connecting the bottom of 'the
mandrel to the valve stem 4I will shear.
- After the pins 25 and.43 have sheared, tension
in the drill pipe is transmitted through the shear
pins 35 to the lower shoe of the packer, raising
this shoe` to expand and set the packer. At the
same time this force is transmitted through the
packer to the upper shoe which forces the lower
set of slips 21 out into engagement with the cas
ing. As this stress is increased the pins 35 shear
andthe mandrel' moves upwardly until the upper
collar 36 abuts against the upper end of the
.sleeve 33. Maintaining the drill pipe in tension
thus maintains the packer and slips in set posi
tion and cement slurry or other huid may then
be pumped down through the drill pipe and man
drel into the space below the lower shoe 33 of
the packer, the valve d2 opening under the iiuid
pressure to allow the passage of fluid there
through.
'
Y
,
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`
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Aíter the cement slurry or other _ñuid has‘bee'n
placed below the assembly as just described, the
pressure on the pumps at the surface isl relieved,
_thus allowing the .valve 42 to seat. TheLpressure
of the iluíd below the assembly then holds` this
3
2,123,742
valve shut and also holds the'packer and the
slips in set position on the casing.
_ Especially in cementlng operationsit is im
portant to provide means for washing out above
the packer and around the slips to insure against
cementlng the apparatus to the casing. The
washing out operation may be accomplished at
this time _by lowering the mandrel I3 so as to
provide for the passage of lfluid through the
10 openings 39 in the lower part of the mandrel,
around the packing 31, through the ports 38 at
the upper end of the sleeve 34 and out through
the ports 32 in the upper shoe 29. It should be
noted here that in setting the packer the sleeve
15 34 moves upwardly sufficiently with respect td
the upper shoe 29 to bring the ports 38 into the
chamber in the upper shoe 23 to which the ports
the drill pipe, the mandrel of the apparatus and
the drag spring assembly, J-slot connection and
slips are identical with that shown in Figure 1
and are similarly designated.. Thelwedge body
45 of Figure 3 is similar to the wedge body`23 of
Figure 1 except that it does not have holes there
in to accommodate rods like those shown at <28
in Figure 1. The wedge body 45 is screw threaded
upon a sleeve' 46 splined to the mandrel I3 and
this sleeve is connected to the mandrel by means 10
of shear pins 25 as in Figure 1. The lower end
of the threaded sleeve 46 is swiveled upon the
upper shoe 41 of the packer 48 by a suitable ball
bearing arrangement shown at 49. A suitable
sleeve 50 is made integral with the wedge body 15
45 and passes downwardly therefrom over the
swivel connecting members as illustrated in Fig
32,oonnect.
ure 1 to protect the threads upon the sleeve 46
After the washing out operation the drill stem and to prevent cement from clogging in these
20 may be disconnected from the mandrel and
threads. The lower shoe 5I of the packer 43 is 20
moved upwardly _some distance or entirely re
provided with an upwardly extending sleeve 52
moved from the well to prevent any possibility which fits within the packer and around the
of it becoming stuck while the cement is hard
mandrel I3, this sleeve extending upwardly into
ening. This may be accomplished by 'the use of the upper shoe. The packer is held in position
25 threads which may be easily disconnected at shown in Figure 4 while it is being lowered into 25
the point where the drill pipe connects to the the wellby means of a shear pin 35 which serves
mandrel or. by other suitable means. If, how
the same purpose as the shear pin 35 in Figure 2.
ever, it is felt that the packer has-not `leaked '
The lower portion of the mandrel in Figure 4
any cement, the drill pipe\may remain connected is similar in construction to that illustrated in
30 onto the mandrel until the cement has hardened.
If the drill pipe has been disconnected from
the mandrel it will be necessary to again lower it
and connect it onto the mandrel to remove the
assembly from the well.
>In order to release the slips 22 and 21 from the
casing all that is necessary is-that the mandrel
I3 be rotated to the right when viewed from
the top. This rotation will be transmitted to
the sleeve 24, drawing the wedge bodies 23 and
40 26 toward each other as previously described,
which will in turn draw the slips inwardly radial
ly since they are dovetailed to the wedge bodies.
Since the sleeve 24 is free to slide up and down
upon the mandrel I3, during the initial rotation
of the mandrel the wedge body 26 does not move
upwardly but the sleeve 24 and the upper wedge
body 23 move downwardly until the sleeve 24
abuts against the ring 3|. When this action
takes place, the wedge body 26 has to move up
50 wardly. 'I'he sets of slips 22 and 21 are thus re
leased from the casing successively. After the
wedge body 26 is moved upwardly a certain dis
tance it pulls on the slips 21 upwardly and this
force is transmitted to the upper shoe 28 of the
Figure 2, being provided with collars 36 and pack 30
ing 31 as well as having openings 39 beneath the
packing 31 and being connected to a valve 42
by means of shear pins 43.
'I'he operation of the tool of Figures 3 and 4
can best be explained by referring to diagrams 35
of Figures 5, 6 and 7, and since these diagrams
illustrate the principles of the invention they
will also serve to some extent to clarify the oper
ation ofthe arrangement of Figures l and 2.
As previously mentioned, the parts of the
apparatus of Figures 3 and 4 are in the relative
positions shown in these figures while the appa
ratus is being lowered into the well. When the
desired location is reached, circulation of mud or
water may be effected to condition the hole, this 45
fluid - flowing through the open valve 42 and
around the packer and slips. After the well is
conditioned, the mandrel I3 is rotated until the
pins I 9 pass into the longitudinally extending
portions of the J-slots I8, after which the man 50
drel is pulled upwardly to set the slips and packer,
the parts then taking the position shown in Fig
ure 5. It will be seen from an inspection of this
figure that the collar 36 has moved up into en
packer so that the packer is disengaged from s gagement with the abutment on the upper end of 55
the casing by pulling upon the upper shoe. The
entire apparatus may then be removed from the
well.
In the arrangement of Figures 1 and 2'just de
scribed, it will be noted that two sets _of slips are
employed for holding the apparatus against
movement >either up or down in the casing.
It
is within the purview of »the invention to dis
pense with the lower set of slips and utilize the
ñuid pressure of the cement or other fluid
pumped below the assembly to prevent down
' ward movement of' the apparatus.
Such an ar
rangement is shown in detail in Figures 3 and 4
of the drawings and diagrammatlcally in Figures70 5, 6 andv 7.
Referring ñrst to the structural arrangement
of this embodiment of the invention, it will be'
seen that in Figures 3 and 4 certain parts of the
apparatus are similar to the embodiment shown
75 in Figures 1 _and 2. The 'casing of the well,
the sleeve 52 integral with the lower shoe of the
packer. This movement cannot take place until
the pins 25, 35 and 43 have sheared and these
pins are caused to shear because of the fact that
the slips 22 have engaged the casing and con 60
stitute an abutment preventing upward move
ment of the wedge body 45, the threaded sleeve
46 and the upper ishoe 41 ofthe packer. As
stress is placed upon the lower shoe of the packer
it is expanded into engagement with the casing 65
as shown in Figure 5 so that the apparatus is
ready for the cementlng operation.
As cement is pumped downwardly through
the drill pipe and mandrel I3 it flows outwardly
through the bottom of the mandrel and through 70
lthe openings 33 therein and downwardly through
the valve 42. The iiuid cannot flow through the
washout portsA 38 inthe sleeve*_52 at this time
because these ports are sealed oil by the pack
in‘g
31.
'
'
anziana
4
If the apparatus is being used ‘in a'squeeae
job,y the cement will be forced into the formation
as it is pumped out through the valve 42 under
high pressure. The casing above the cement
retaining assembly will not be subjected to this
fluid pressure, however, since the packer 48 will
effectively seal voil and 4prevent the passage of
fluid into the“ annular space between the drill
pipe and the casing thereabove.
After the desired amount ofv cement has been
lo forced
through the cement retaining assembly
the pressure at the surface may be relieved and
the valve 42 will close. »The drill pipe and man
drel may then be lowered so that the parts as
15 sume the relative positions shown in Figure 6 and
the washing out operation may then be begun.
Water or other fluid may be forced downwardly
through the drill pipe and mandrel flowing out
through the ports 39 and thence upwardly and
20 outwardly through the ports 38 in the sleeve 52
and the ports 32 in the upper shoe 41 and thence
upwardly around the slips as indicated by the
arrows in Figure 6.
This washing eut will re
move any cement in the man-drei and in the other
25 parts of the appare-tus.
The drill pipe may then be removed from the
mandrel as explained in connection with Fig
ures 1 and 2, or allowed to remain connected
thereto.
use in a “squeeze job” of l oil well cementing
which includes a central mandrel, drag springsy
on the mandrel, slips connected to the drag
springs, said slips having lnclined inner sur
faces, a wedge'body eo-acting with said slips and
having inclined- surfaces complementary to the
inclined surl‘aces on the slips, the arrangement
of slips and wedge body being such that upon
upward movement of said wedge body, the slips
will engage the casing of the well, a packer lo 10
cated below the slips and wedge bedy, a sleeve
mounted upon the vmandrel and threaded tc the
wedge body and means for transmitting force
from the packer' tc the sleeve and‘hence to the 15
wedge body to engage the casing.
>
2. A cement retaining assembly adapted for
use in a “sdueeze job” of oil well cementing which
includes a central mandrel, drag springs on the
mandrel', slips connected to the drag springs,`said
slips having inclined inner surfaces, a wedge body 20
coeacting with said slips and having inclined
>surfaces complementary te the inclined surfaces
on the slips,~ the arrangement of slips and Wedge
body being such that upon upward movement of
said wedge body, the slips will engage the casing 25'
of the Well, a packer located below the slips and
wedge body, a sleeve mounted upon the mandrel
and threaded to the wedge body, means for trans
mitting force from the packer to the sleeve and
hence to the wedge body to engage `the casing
and means for rotating said sleeve to cause the
wedge body to move downwardly to cause the
slips to disengage the casing.
3. In a cement. retaining assembly adapted for
In either case, after the cement has
30 hardened the cement retaining assembly may
be removed from the well by pulling upwardly
on the mandrel and rotatingA to the right.
As
'the mandrel is rotated, the parts will be’brought
into the relative position shown in Figure '7. In
" use in the cement-ing of an oil well, the combina 35
35 'this figure it will be seen that the slips 22 'nave
tion of slips adapted to engage the casing of the
not moved vertically from the position they cc
.cupied in Figures 5 and 6 but that the wedge ' well and resist upward movement with respect
thereto, a wedge body co-acting with tlie slips l
to cause the same to engage'the casing when
body 45 has been forced downwardly due to the
rotation of the sleeve 46. Before the slips are re
the wedge body is moved upwardly with respect
40 leased from the casing, however, the sleeve 46
will travel upwardly during the initial part of its
rotation until the upper end thereof` contacts
the ring 20 and puts some tension in the links
2l. As this sleeve moves upwardly with respect`
to the mandrel, the packer 48 is brought yback
45
into its extended position as shown in Figure 'l>
and disengaged _from the casing. When the
sleeve 46 can no longer move upwardly with re
50
to said wedge body for moving the same down
wardly to cause the slips to disengage the cas
ing.
` directed teeth and the other havingïdownwardly
directed teeth, two wedge bodies, one associated
-with each set of slips, for actuating ~the slips, 50
means> operable upon verticalrelative movement ’
sleeve 46 so as to draw the slips 22 inwardly and
release the éntire assembly from the casing. The
apparatus may then be removed from the well by
between the slips and wedge bodieswhiie main
taining the wedge bodles a iìxed distance apart
for setting the slips and means for drawing the
wedge bodies towardv one another to release t'ne 55
.
It will be noted that in both embodiments of
55
the invention shnwn and described a wedge body
is provided beneath the slips in such a
way
_ that
pressure exerted from below on the packer will
` tend to move the body upwardly to set the slips
60 and cause them to bite into or engage the cas
~
4. In a cement retaining assembly adapted for 45
use »in the cementing of an oil well, the combina
tion of two sets of slips, one set having upwardly
spect. to the mandrel the wedgebody e5 will
have to move downwardly upon rotation of the
' pulling upwardly on the drill pipe.
40
thereto, and rotary mechanism screw threaded `
slips.
_
,
'
5. In a cement retaining,` assembly adapted for , y
use in the cementing of an oil well, the combina
tion el' two sets of slips, one set having upwardly
directed teeth and the other having downwardly
ing more ñrmly and that this wedge body is- directed teeth, two wedge bodies, one associated
caused to move downwardly ‘with respect to the with each set of slips, for acutating the slips,
slips and cause them te bite into or engage the means operable upon vertical relative- movement
easing more firmly and that this wedge body is between the slips and wedge'bodies while main
taining the wedge bodies a ñxed distance” apart
65 caused to move downwardly with respect to the
slips te disengage the same from the casing. It for setting the slips and means for drawing the
will be apparent to‘those skilled in the art that wedge bodies toward one another to release the l
this operation may be accomplished in various . slips. said wedge drawing means including a`
ways other than bythe means illustrated and de- 1,» .member threaded to saidwedge bodies and hav
' ing left hand threads connecting .the same to 70'
70 scribed herein. - Various `changes in this-and one body and right hand threads connecting the
other features may therefore be made in the ar-.
rangement without departing from the spirit of
the invention er the scope of the annexed claims.
_
I claim:
Y
1. e cement retaining assembly adapted fer
same to thecther body..
l
6. In a cement retaining assembly adaptedv for
use in the cementing of an oil- wel1,.the comb-ina
tion of a 'mandreL a threaded sleeve spiined
2,122,742
’
I
5
thereon, a wedge body screw threaded on said
sleeve, slips connected to the wedge body and ar
ranged to be actuated thereby, a. packer having
packer to set the packer and from the packer '
to the upper shoe and thence through said swivel
means to said sleeve and wedge body to set the'
an upper and a lower shoe mounted on the man
slips and means for rotating the mandrel and
hence the sleeve -to cause the wedge body to re- l
drel, swivel means connecting the sleeve to the
upper .shoe of the packer, means for transmitting
upward force exerted upon the lower shoe to the
lease the slips.
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DEAN HANES.
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