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'.Iuly 5J, 1938, > l 2,122,742 D. l-lANr-:sà‘~ PACKER FOR USE IN WELL'S Filed June 12, 1937 BY - ATTORNEY v July 5, 116381.v « D HANES t 2,122,742 udma/FOR USE 1N WELLS _Filed Júne 12, 1937 ' 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 y/3 2/ 22 23. INVENTOR. l Dean Hanes ` ATTORNEY „ July 5, 1938. D. HANES 2,122,742 * PACKERl FORy USE 1N WELLS Filed June 12, 1937 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 i n l BY Íg/QUJ ATTORNEY* _ July 5, 1938.~ 2,122,742 D. HANl-:s y PACKER FOR USÈ IN WELLS Filed June l2, 1.937 .: .1a»„. 4 m. 4 .4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. Bean Hönes ‘ By à ¿_ / „6 ./. A TTORNEY -'Patented July .5, 1938 2,122,742 UNITED ASTATES PATENT OFFICE 2,122,742 „ melma Foa USE 1N WELLS Dean Hanes, Duncan, Okla., assignor to Halli lôurton Oil Well Cementing Company, Duncan, kla. Application June 12, 1937, Serial No. 147,913 "‘ 6 Claims.' (Cl. 16B-12) This invention relates to apparatus adapted for use in oil wells or the like, and more particularly A to packers and means for releasably securing the same to the casing of a well. 5 Figure 1A is a vertical view, partially in cross section, of a fragment of the apparatus shown in Figure 1, the section being 'taken at right angles to that shown in Figure 1. . It is o_ften desirable to ñx and seal a valve lFigure 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view of QI or other structure to the casing of an oil well. the lower portion of the cement retaining assem For example, where a well is to be cemented by bly shown in Figure 1, Figures 1 and 2 being con forcing cement slurry under pressure down into tiguous; ` the well through drill pipe or tubing and into` Figure 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the formation of the well, particularly in con a second embodiment of the invention, the parts 10 nection with what is known as a “squeeze being shown in the relative positions which they job”, it is desirable to provide means at the bot occupy while the apparatus is being lowered tom of the tubing which can be ñxed to the cas into the well; ing, thus holding the tubing in place against the Figure 4 is a vertical vcross-sectional view of fluid pressure in the' cement. It is also desirable the lower part of the apparatus shown in Fig ~15 ure> 3, Figures 3 and 4 being contiguous; Figure :5 is Aa diagrammatical vertical cross sectional view in quarter section of the appara the tubing and the casing. ` tus shown in Figures 3 and 4, the diagram illus trating the relative positions of the parts when 20 It. is an object of the vpresentv invention to de 20 vise novel means for temporarily setting a packer the apparatus is set on the casing; on tubing or drill pipe in a well, secure the packer Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 5 but illus in'place and hold the same against movement trating the relative positions of the parts after with respect to the casing. ' ‘ the cement has been placed beneath the appa It is a further object of the invention to provide i ratus and during the Washing out 'operation 25 novel means for removing a packer and securing which follows the placing of the cement; and in such a case to provide a packer or other sealing means around the tubing so as to prevent the passage of cement slurry upwardly between means -fastened to the casing in an oilwell. It is an another object of the invention to de vise apparatus for retaining cement or other 30 fluid under high iluid pressure in place in an oil well and to so arrange the apparatus that it can be readily removed from the well after it has accomplished' its purpose. 40 this pressure. It is still another object to devise a novel method of cementing a well or of securing re taining' means ltherein. as the retaining assembly is released from the casing of the well. ' ' 30 Referring to the drawings in detail, and first to the arrangement of Figures 1 and 2, it will be seen that the casing of an oil well is there illus It is a further object of the invention to devise 35 a cement retaining assembly in which slips are employed in connection with a packer and in which the fluid pressure of the cement is trans mitted to the slips in' such a way that the slips tend to firmly engage the casing as a result of _ Figure 7 is a view similar to Figures 5 and 6 but illustrating the relative positions of the parts ' ~ Other objects and advantages reside in certain 45' novel features of the arrangement and method, as willl be more apparent from a consideration of' the following description taken in connec tion with the accompanying drawings, in which: Figure 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the upper part of a cement retaining assembly `constructed in accordance with the principles oi the invention, the figure illustrating the appara tus within the casing with the various parts in the relative positions which they occupy while 56 being lowered into the well; tratedat il. The cement retaining assembly is lowered into the casing I I by means of a tubing or drill pipe designated I2, the lower e'nd of this pipe being screw threaded or otherwise secured to a mandrel I3 which is used to operate the packer and slips as will be described hereinafter. Slidably mounted upon the mandrel near its 40 upper end is a ring I4 to which drag springs I5 of conventional design are secured. The lower end of the drag springs I5 are connected to a swivel ring I6 which is provided with an up standing sleeve I1 provided with a J-slot I8 which 45 coacts with pins I9 integral with the mandrel I3 to hold the ring I6 in a dennite and fixed posi tion on the mandrel until thepins I9 are rotated out of the J-slots I8. Swiveled‘within the ring I6 is a collar 20 to which links 2| are pivoted. The lower end of the links are connected to an upper set of slips or casing engaging means 22v provided with teeth extending in an upwardly and outwardly direc tion. The teeth engage the casing in such a way 55 2 A 2,122,742 | that when pressure is exerted on the slips from i sleeve 34 terminates at its upper end at a point below they will 'not slide upon the casing. 'The inside .and concentric with the upper shoe 29. known practice the slips 22 are preferably dove tailedtò the wedge body 23. The arrangement of which is shown at 35. Due to these pins, the inner faces of the slips 22 are inclined sov as to A -The sleeve 34 is connected to the mandrel I3 at ' slide upon a wedge body 23. In accordance with vthis point by means of a set of shear pins one is such ,that as the wedge body moves upwardly with respect to the slips they will be forced out wardly to engage the casing and when the wedge 10 body is lowered with respect to the slips they will be drawn inwardly radially so as to disengage the casing. The wedge body 23 is screw;r Gthreaded packer will be held extended longitudinally .while the apparatus is being lowered into the well, the lower shoe being held by the pins 35 while the upper shoe is held by a system of connections through the slips 21, the wedge body 26,_the sleeve 24 and the shear pins 35. 'I'he lower end of the mandrel I3 extends down wardly into the interior of the sleeve 34 on the -lower shoe and is provided with suitable collars 36 for mounting packing materialA 31 thereon. 15 but keyed or splined thereto by some suitable . The diameter of the collars 36 and the packing 31 means such as the key I3’ which is'positioned is just sufficient to form a tight seal within the within a slot 24’ in the mandrel, as shown ln portion of reducedfdiameter at the upper end oi’ Figure lA so that it must rotate with the mandrel. The sleeve 24 is initially connected to the mandrel - the sleeve 3_4. 'I‘he packing 31 may' thus seal suit able washout ports 39 in the sleeve 34 during 20 by a number of shear- pins one of which is shown at 25 near the upper end of the threaded sleeve certain phases of the operation of the apparatus. Beneath the packing 31 the mandrel is provid 24. These shear pins hold the sleeve 24 and the upon a threaded sleeve or actuating member 24 `which is slidably mounted upon the mandrel I3 wedge body 23, and hence the slips 22, in the . ed with a number of openings or ports 39 so as to positions shown in Figure l during the time that allow-huid to flow from the mandrel into the ` sleeve` 34. The lower end of the mandrel is pro 25 the apparatus is being lowered into the well so that there will be little chance for the slips to vided with a nipple 46 which is connected to the accidentally engage the casing at some point stem 4I of a valve 42 by means of shear pins 43. other than the depth at which it is desired' to set II‘he valve 42 is adapted to seat upon the lower shoe 33 under the iniluence of a coil spring _44. the same. f , 30 The threaded sleeve 24 not only vactuates the Upon pulling up on the mandrel the pins 43 will wedge body 23 upon rotation but also actuates à shear, Vprovided the shoe 33 is held stationary. second and lower wedge body 26 which .coacts 'I‘he mandrel will then be free to ride up and with a lower set of slips 21 similar in design to `down on the valve stem 4I and the valve will the slips 22 but having their teeth directed down operate independently of the mandrel. wardly so that when they engage the casing they To operate the apparatus shown in Figures 1 and 2, it is lowered into the well with the parts in the relative position shown. The mandrel may will resist downward movement. ' It will be seen from an inspection of Figure 1 - that the sleeve 24 is provided with two ‘separate - then be rotated to turn the pins I9 out of the threads. The upper threads which coact with J-slots I8 and then pulled upwardly so that the the wedge body 23 may be left hand threads and pins I9 move above the upper end of the sleeve the lower threads which coact with the wedge I1. The drag springs I5 prevent the sleeve I1 body 26 may be right hand threads. Thus, if from-rotating while turning out of the J-slots. the bodies 23 and 26 are held against rotation and With the parts in this position the mandrel is the sleeve> 24 is turned to the right, as viewed pulled upwardly, causing the wedge body 23 to. from the top, by rotation oi the mandrel I3, the move the slips 22 out into engagement withl the wedge bodies 23 and 26 will be drawn toward or -casing II. When the slips engage, the wedge approach each other. To insure that the wedge body 23 cannot move any farther upwardly and bodies 23 and 26 operate in the proper manner since the wedge body is screw threaded onto the upon this rotation, a number of vertically ex tending rods 28 are screw threaded into the top of the wedge body 26 and pass upwardly through holes in the upper wedge body 23. The lower set of slips 21 have their lower ends dovetailed into a member 29 which constitutes the upper shoe of the packer 39. The shoe 29 is of suflicient length to provide a space in the interior thereof through which a collar 3| iixed upon the mandrel I3 may move. The collar 3l is so de signed, however, that when the mandrel is lifted 60 as during certain phases of the operation of the apparatus, it will engage the lower end ofthe threaded sleeve 24 lifting this sleeve and hence the wedge 26, slips 21 and upper shoe 29 of the packer to raise the same. In this connection, it should be noted that the dovetail between the wedge body 26 and the slips 21 is provided with a stop so that when the wedge 26 is lifted a certain distance above the slips 21, further upward move 70 ment of the wedge will lift the slips. The upper shoe 29 of the packer is provided with- suitable washout ports one of which is shown at 32. The lower shoe 33 for the packer is provided with an upwardly extending sleeve 34 within the 75 packer but on the outside of the mandrel, This sleeve 24 the pins 25 will shear. At the same time thevpins 43 connecting the bottom of 'the mandrel to the valve stem 4I will shear. - After the pins 25 and.43 have sheared, tension in the drill pipe is transmitted through the shear pins 35 to the lower shoe of the packer, raising this shoe` to expand and set the packer. At the same time this force is transmitted through the packer to the upper shoe which forces the lower set of slips 21 out into engagement with the cas ing. As this stress is increased the pins 35 shear andthe mandrel' moves upwardly until the upper collar 36 abuts against the upper end of the .sleeve 33. Maintaining the drill pipe in tension thus maintains the packer and slips in set posi tion and cement slurry or other huid may then be pumped down through the drill pipe and man drel into the space below the lower shoe 33 of the packer, the valve d2 opening under the iiuid pressure to allow the passage of fluid there through. ' Y , . ` -v Aíter the cement slurry or other _ñuid has‘bee'n placed below the assembly as just described, the pressure on the pumps at the surface isl relieved, _thus allowing the .valve 42 to seat. TheLpressure of the iluíd below the assembly then holds` this 3 2,123,742 valve shut and also holds the'packer and the slips in set position on the casing. _ Especially in cementlng operationsit is im portant to provide means for washing out above the packer and around the slips to insure against cementlng the apparatus to the casing. The washing out operation may be accomplished at this time _by lowering the mandrel I3 so as to provide for the passage of lfluid through the 10 openings 39 in the lower part of the mandrel, around the packing 31, through the ports 38 at the upper end of the sleeve 34 and out through the ports 32 in the upper shoe 29. It should be noted here that in setting the packer the sleeve 15 34 moves upwardly sufficiently with respect td the upper shoe 29 to bring the ports 38 into the chamber in the upper shoe 23 to which the ports the drill pipe, the mandrel of the apparatus and the drag spring assembly, J-slot connection and slips are identical with that shown in Figure 1 and are similarly designated.. Thelwedge body 45 of Figure 3 is similar to the wedge body`23 of Figure 1 except that it does not have holes there in to accommodate rods like those shown at <28 in Figure 1. The wedge body 45 is screw threaded upon a sleeve' 46 splined to the mandrel I3 and this sleeve is connected to the mandrel by means 10 of shear pins 25 as in Figure 1. The lower end of the threaded sleeve 46 is swiveled upon the upper shoe 41 of the packer 48 by a suitable ball bearing arrangement shown at 49. A suitable sleeve 50 is made integral with the wedge body 15 45 and passes downwardly therefrom over the swivel connecting members as illustrated in Fig 32,oonnect. ure 1 to protect the threads upon the sleeve 46 After the washing out operation the drill stem and to prevent cement from clogging in these 20 may be disconnected from the mandrel and threads. The lower shoe 5I of the packer 43 is 20 moved upwardly _some distance or entirely re provided with an upwardly extending sleeve 52 moved from the well to prevent any possibility which fits within the packer and around the of it becoming stuck while the cement is hard mandrel I3, this sleeve extending upwardly into ening. This may be accomplished by 'the use of the upper shoe. The packer is held in position 25 threads which may be easily disconnected at shown in Figure 4 while it is being lowered into 25 the point where the drill pipe connects to the the wellby means of a shear pin 35 which serves mandrel or. by other suitable means. If, how the same purpose as the shear pin 35 in Figure 2. ever, it is felt that the packer has-not `leaked ' The lower portion of the mandrel in Figure 4 any cement, the drill pipe\may remain connected is similar in construction to that illustrated in 30 onto the mandrel until the cement has hardened. If the drill pipe has been disconnected from the mandrel it will be necessary to again lower it and connect it onto the mandrel to remove the assembly from the well. >In order to release the slips 22 and 21 from the casing all that is necessary is-that the mandrel I3 be rotated to the right when viewed from the top. This rotation will be transmitted to the sleeve 24, drawing the wedge bodies 23 and 40 26 toward each other as previously described, which will in turn draw the slips inwardly radial ly since they are dovetailed to the wedge bodies. Since the sleeve 24 is free to slide up and down upon the mandrel I3, during the initial rotation of the mandrel the wedge body 26 does not move upwardly but the sleeve 24 and the upper wedge body 23 move downwardly until the sleeve 24 abuts against the ring 3|. When this action takes place, the wedge body 26 has to move up 50 wardly. 'I'he sets of slips 22 and 21 are thus re leased from the casing successively. After the wedge body 26 is moved upwardly a certain dis tance it pulls on the slips 21 upwardly and this force is transmitted to the upper shoe 28 of the Figure 2, being provided with collars 36 and pack 30 ing 31 as well as having openings 39 beneath the packing 31 and being connected to a valve 42 by means of shear pins 43. 'I'he operation of the tool of Figures 3 and 4 can best be explained by referring to diagrams 35 of Figures 5, 6 and 7, and since these diagrams illustrate the principles of the invention they will also serve to some extent to clarify the oper ation ofthe arrangement of Figures l and 2. As previously mentioned, the parts of the apparatus of Figures 3 and 4 are in the relative positions shown in these figures while the appa ratus is being lowered into the well. When the desired location is reached, circulation of mud or water may be effected to condition the hole, this 45 fluid - flowing through the open valve 42 and around the packer and slips. After the well is conditioned, the mandrel I3 is rotated until the pins I 9 pass into the longitudinally extending portions of the J-slots I8, after which the man 50 drel is pulled upwardly to set the slips and packer, the parts then taking the position shown in Fig ure 5. It will be seen from an inspection of this figure that the collar 36 has moved up into en packer so that the packer is disengaged from s gagement with the abutment on the upper end of 55 the casing by pulling upon the upper shoe. The entire apparatus may then be removed from the well. In the arrangement of Figures 1 and 2'just de scribed, it will be noted that two sets _of slips are employed for holding the apparatus against movement >either up or down in the casing. It is within the purview of »the invention to dis pense with the lower set of slips and utilize the ñuid pressure of the cement or other fluid pumped below the assembly to prevent down ' ward movement of' the apparatus. Such an ar rangement is shown in detail in Figures 3 and 4 of the drawings and diagrammatlcally in Figures70 5, 6 andv 7. Referring ñrst to the structural arrangement of this embodiment of the invention, it will be' seen that in Figures 3 and 4 certain parts of the apparatus are similar to the embodiment shown 75 in Figures 1 _and 2. The 'casing of the well, the sleeve 52 integral with the lower shoe of the packer. This movement cannot take place until the pins 25, 35 and 43 have sheared and these pins are caused to shear because of the fact that the slips 22 have engaged the casing and con 60 stitute an abutment preventing upward move ment of the wedge body 45, the threaded sleeve 46 and the upper ishoe 41 ofthe packer. As stress is placed upon the lower shoe of the packer it is expanded into engagement with the casing 65 as shown in Figure 5 so that the apparatus is ready for the cementlng operation. As cement is pumped downwardly through the drill pipe and mandrel I3 it flows outwardly through the bottom of the mandrel and through 70 lthe openings 33 therein and downwardly through the valve 42. The iiuid cannot flow through the washout portsA 38 inthe sleeve*_52 at this time because these ports are sealed oil by the pack in‘g 31. ' ' anziana 4 If the apparatus is being used ‘in a'squeeae job,y the cement will be forced into the formation as it is pumped out through the valve 42 under high pressure. The casing above the cement retaining assembly will not be subjected to this fluid pressure, however, since the packer 48 will effectively seal voil and 4prevent the passage of fluid into the“ annular space between the drill pipe and the casing thereabove. After the desired amount ofv cement has been lo forced through the cement retaining assembly the pressure at the surface may be relieved and the valve 42 will close. »The drill pipe and man drel may then be lowered so that the parts as 15 sume the relative positions shown in Figure 6 and the washing out operation may then be begun. Water or other fluid may be forced downwardly through the drill pipe and mandrel flowing out through the ports 39 and thence upwardly and 20 outwardly through the ports 38 in the sleeve 52 and the ports 32 in the upper shoe 41 and thence upwardly around the slips as indicated by the arrows in Figure 6. This washing eut will re move any cement in the man-drei and in the other 25 parts of the appare-tus. The drill pipe may then be removed from the mandrel as explained in connection with Fig ures 1 and 2, or allowed to remain connected thereto. use in a “squeeze job” of l oil well cementing which includes a central mandrel, drag springsy on the mandrel, slips connected to the drag springs, said slips having lnclined inner sur faces, a wedge'body eo-acting with said slips and having inclined- surfaces complementary to the inclined surl‘aces on the slips, the arrangement of slips and wedge body being such that upon upward movement of said wedge body, the slips will engage the casing of the well, a packer lo 10 cated below the slips and wedge bedy, a sleeve mounted upon the vmandrel and threaded tc the wedge body and means for transmitting force from the packer' tc the sleeve and‘hence to the 15 wedge body to engage the casing. > 2. A cement retaining assembly adapted for use in a “sdueeze job” of oil well cementing which includes a central mandrel, drag springs on the mandrel', slips connected to the drag springs,`said slips having inclined inner surfaces, a wedge body 20 coeacting with said slips and having inclined >surfaces complementary te the inclined surfaces on the slips,~ the arrangement of slips and Wedge body being such that upon upward movement of said wedge body, the slips will engage the casing 25' of the Well, a packer located below the slips and wedge body, a sleeve mounted upon the mandrel and threaded to the wedge body, means for trans mitting force from the packer to the sleeve and hence to the wedge body to engage `the casing and means for rotating said sleeve to cause the wedge body to move downwardly to cause the slips to disengage the casing. 3. In a cement. retaining assembly adapted for In either case, after the cement has 30 hardened the cement retaining assembly may be removed from the well by pulling upwardly on the mandrel and rotatingA to the right. As 'the mandrel is rotated, the parts will be’brought into the relative position shown in Figure '7. In " use in the cement-ing of an oil well, the combina 35 35 'this figure it will be seen that the slips 22 'nave tion of slips adapted to engage the casing of the not moved vertically from the position they cc .cupied in Figures 5 and 6 but that the wedge ' well and resist upward movement with respect thereto, a wedge body co-acting with tlie slips l to cause the same to engage'the casing when body 45 has been forced downwardly due to the rotation of the sleeve 46. Before the slips are re the wedge body is moved upwardly with respect 40 leased from the casing, however, the sleeve 46 will travel upwardly during the initial part of its rotation until the upper end thereof` contacts the ring 20 and puts some tension in the links 2l. As this sleeve moves upwardly with respect` to the mandrel, the packer 48 is brought yback 45 into its extended position as shown in Figure 'l> and disengaged _from the casing. When the sleeve 46 can no longer move upwardly with re 50 to said wedge body for moving the same down wardly to cause the slips to disengage the cas ing. ` directed teeth and the other havingïdownwardly directed teeth, two wedge bodies, one associated -with each set of slips, for actuating ~the slips, 50 means> operable upon verticalrelative movement ’ sleeve 46 so as to draw the slips 22 inwardly and release the éntire assembly from the casing. The apparatus may then be removed from the well by between the slips and wedge bodieswhiie main taining the wedge bodles a iìxed distance apart for setting the slips and means for drawing the wedge bodies towardv one another to release t'ne 55 . It will be noted that in both embodiments of 55 the invention shnwn and described a wedge body is provided beneath the slips in such a way _ that pressure exerted from below on the packer will ` tend to move the body upwardly to set the slips 60 and cause them to bite into or engage the cas ~ 4. In a cement retaining assembly adapted for 45 use »in the cementing of an oil well, the combina tion of two sets of slips, one set having upwardly spect. to the mandrel the wedgebody e5 will have to move downwardly upon rotation of the ' pulling upwardly on the drill pipe. 40 thereto, and rotary mechanism screw threaded ` slips. _ , ' 5. In a cement retaining,` assembly adapted for , y use in the cementing of an oil well, the combina tion el' two sets of slips, one set having upwardly directed teeth and the other having downwardly ing more ñrmly and that this wedge body is- directed teeth, two wedge bodies, one associated caused to move downwardly ‘with respect to the with each set of slips, for acutating the slips, slips and cause them te bite into or engage the means operable upon vertical relative- movement easing more firmly and that this wedge body is between the slips and wedge'bodies while main taining the wedge bodies a ñxed distance” apart 65 caused to move downwardly with respect to the slips te disengage the same from the casing. It for setting the slips and means for drawing the will be apparent to‘those skilled in the art that wedge bodies toward one another to release the l this operation may be accomplished in various . slips. said wedge drawing means including a` ways other than bythe means illustrated and de- 1,» .member threaded to saidwedge bodies and hav ' ing left hand threads connecting .the same to 70' 70 scribed herein. - Various `changes in this-and one body and right hand threads connecting the other features may therefore be made in the ar-. rangement without departing from the spirit of the invention er the scope of the annexed claims. _ I claim: Y 1. e cement retaining assembly adapted fer same to thecther body.. l 6. In a cement retaining assembly adaptedv for use in the cementing of an oil- wel1,.the comb-ina tion of a 'mandreL a threaded sleeve spiined 2,122,742 ’ I 5 thereon, a wedge body screw threaded on said sleeve, slips connected to the wedge body and ar ranged to be actuated thereby, a. packer having packer to set the packer and from the packer ' to the upper shoe and thence through said swivel means to said sleeve and wedge body to set the' an upper and a lower shoe mounted on the man slips and means for rotating the mandrel and hence the sleeve -to cause the wedge body to re- l drel, swivel means connecting the sleeve to the upper .shoe of the packer, means for transmitting upward force exerted upon the lower shoe to the lease the slips. ' ' ' . DEAN HANES.