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Патент USA US2122749

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' July 5, 1938.A
2,122,749
o. |_. MoRRxsl-:TT ‘
PACKER FOR OIL'- WELLS
Filed June 19, 1937
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INVENTOR.
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ATTORNEY
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July. 5, 193.8.
ofl.. MoRRlsETT
2,122,749
PACKER FOR OIL WELLS
Filed June 19, 1957
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BY WMO-dq
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ATTORNEYS.
Patented July- 5, 1938
2,122,749
'i UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,122,749
PACKER, Fon on. WELLS
0. L. Morrisett, Duncan, Okla., assigner to Halli
burton Oil Well Cementing Company, Duncan,
Okla.
Application June 19, 1937, Serial No. 149,111
s claims.' (ci. iss-12)
This invention relates to apparatus adapted for
use in oil wells or the like and more particularly
to packers and means for releasably securing the
same to the casing of a well.
It is often desirable to fix or seal a valve or
Ui
other structure tothe casing of an oil well. For
example, where a well is to be cemented by forc
ing cement slurry under pressure down into the
well through drill pipe or tubing and into the for
10 mation of the well, particularly in connection
with what is known -as a "squeeze job”, it is de
sirable to provide means at the bottom of the
tubing which can be fixed to the casing, thus hold
ing the tubing in place against the fluid pressure
cross-section therein, Figures 1 and 2 being con
tiguous;
Figure 3 is a fragmentary showing of one of the
sleeves used in the assembly of Figure l;
Figure 4 is afragmentary showing of another 5
sleeveused in the assembly of Figure l;
Figure 5 is a diagram illustrating the relative
positions of the parts of the apparatus of Fig
ures l and 2 when manipulated to set the slips on
the casing;
>
10
Figure 6 is a diagram of the apparatus of Fig
ures l and 2 illustrating the relative positions oi'
the parts when the slips and packer are set upon
the casing and during the time that cement is
l5 in the cement.- It is also desirable in such a case . being pumped through the cement retaining as- 15
to provide a. packer or other sealing means around sembly;
Figure 'I is a diagram oi.' the apparatus of Fig
the tubing so as to prevent the passage of cement
slurry upwardly between the tubing and the cas
ing.
20
_
"
It is -an object of the present invention to de
vise novel means for temporarily setting a packer
on tubing or drill pipe in a well, secure the packer
in place and hold the same against movement
with respect to the casing.
25
It is a further object of the invention to pro
'vide novel means for removing a packer and se
curing means fastened to the casing in an oil well.
It is another object of the invention to devise
apparatus for retaining cement or other iluid un
30 der high iluid pressure in place in an oil well and
to so arrange the apparatus that it can be readily
removed from the well after it has accomplished
its purpose.
It is a further object of the invention to devise
35 a cement retaining assembly in which slips are
employed and in which the slips are set and re
leased by movement of an operating member as
sociated therewith.
,
Other objects and advantages reside in certain
40 novel features of the arrangement and construc
tion of parts as will be more apparent from a con
sideration of the following description taken in
` connection with the accompanying drawings, in
which:
45
Figure 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the
casing of an oil well with the upper portion of
cement retaining assembly constructed in ac
cordance with the present invention located
therein, part of the cement retaining assembly
50
being shown in cross-section and part in side
elevation;
Figure 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a
portion oi’ a casing of an oil well with the lower
55 portion of a cement retaining assembly shown in
ures l and 2 showing the relative position of the
parts after the cement has been pumped through
the assembly and during the washing out opera-V go
tion; and
-
Figure 8 is a diagram of the apparatus of Fig
ures 1 and 2 showing the relative positions of the
parts after the slips have been released from the
casing and preparatory to the releasing of the 25
packer from the casing.
-
`
Referring to the drawings in detail, and first
to the structural features shown in Figures l and
2, it will be seen that an oil well casing is there
illustrated at yI I. 'I'he cement retaining assembly 30
to be fastened within the casing includes a cen
trally disposed mandrel I2 screw threaded at its
upper end as shown at I3 and extending down
wardly through nearly the entire portion of _the
assembly. This mandrel constitutes operating 35
means for actuating various parts of the cement
retaining assembly. The mandrel I2 may be con
nected to tubing or drill pipe at its upper end by
means of the threads I3 and constitutes aA sup
port for the remainder oi' the assembly when the ¿n
same is being lowered into the well.
Screw threaded onto the upper end oi the man
drel I2 is a collar I4 having a depending sleeve
portion II. Within the sleeve portion and be
tween it and the mandrel l2 a coiled spring I5 45
is mounted. This spring is under compression
and abuts at its upper end against the collar I4
while the lower end is in engagement with a wedge
body or slip actuating member I1.- This wedge
body is mounted for sliding movement upon the 50
mandrel I2. It is provided with a number of
dovetailed slots I 8 adapted to cooperate with coin
plementary dovetails on the slips I9. The slots
Il do not extend the entire length of the wedge
body Il but provide means for permitting the 55
9,122,749
2
slips I8 to move up and down thereon to a limited
extent. The lower ends of the slots I8 provide an
it is desired to set and seal the packer, the drill
stem I2 is lifted and rotated a slight amount to
abutment for lifting the slips during certain the right as viewed from the top/ This brings the '
phases ofthe operation of the tool as will pres - pin 35 into the portion 28 in the slot in the sleeve
23 and into -the portion 32 in the slot in the
ently be described.
The slips I9 may be oi' known construction
and consist of a number of segments the outer
faces of which are provided with teeth as shown
at 20. These teeth are directed outwardly and»
10 upwardly so that when they engage the casing II
sleeve 26. Both of these sleeves are then free tomove longitudinally with respect to the mandrel
_ I2. The drill stem and mandrel I2 are then low
ered or set down so that the pin 35 moves down
wardly in the slots in the two sleeves 23 and 28 10
thereto. The lower ends of the slips I9 are con
and the parts take the position shown in Figure 5.
It will be seen that in Figure 5 the slips I9 have
- nected by means of a'dovetail 2I 'to a ring 22 con
been brought into engagement with the casing.
nected by means of an outer sleeve 23 to the up
This occurs due to the fact that the drag springs
36 offer sufficient resistance to downward move
ment to prevent the slips from moving While the
mandrel I2 is lowered. As the mandrel is
they will resist upward movement with. respect
15 per shoe 24v of the packer 25. Telescoped between
the outer sleeve 23 and the mandrel I2 is an in
termediate sleeve26. This sleeve is screw thread
ed at its upper end into the wedge body I1. The
`lower end of the sleeve 26 is not connected to
20 anything, but terminates a short distance above
the upper shoe 24 of the packer. Both of the
sleeves 23 and 26 are operated and controlled by
manipulation of the mandrel I2 through slot and
pin connections. The slots in the sleeves are not
identical but are as shown in Figures 3 and 4.
, The slot in the sleeve 23 includes an off-set por
tion 21, a vertically' extending portion 28 andan
enlarged lower portion 29 the upper end of which
-'terminates in _a recess 30. In the -sleeve 28 the
slot' includes an offset portion 3i identical in
shape with the portion“ 21 in the sleeve 23, a
longitudinally extending upper portion 32 and. a
lower portion 33 which terminates in a recess 34.
A pin or a key 35 is made integral with the man
drel i2 and is disposed within the slots in the
sleeves~23 and 26. It will be understood that
while only one pin has beenl :shown in the draw
ings and only one slot in each of the sleeves 23
and 2B, two or more oi' these combinations may
be employed to give strength to the assembly.
As mentioned above, the ring 22 is made inte
'gral with the sleeve 23. In addition, this ring also
carries a number of drag springs 36v of conven
_ tional design. The lower end of the drag springs
may be connected with a ñoating ring 31.
The upper shoe- 24 of the packer which is con
nected to the ring 22 by means of the sleeve 23 is
provided with a number of wash out ports 38 the
purpose of ,which will be described hereinafter.
This shoe is also provided with an inner chamber
39 adapted to permit a sleeve 30 made integral
.with the lower shoe 4I of the packer to move up
wardly and downwardly therein. The sleeve 40 is
provided with a number ot wash out ports t2 and
.55 slightly above these ports a shoulder 43 is provid
The shoulder is adapted to engage a corre
ponding shoulder on the lower end of the mandrel
i2 so that when the parts are in the position
shown in Figure 2 upward movement of the man
drel i2 will lift the lower shoe 3i and set the
packer 25 upon the casing i I. It will also be seen
in Figure 2 that suitable packing 44 is provided
onthe lower end of the mandrel i2 and is adapt
ed to form a tight seal with a portion of the
sleeve ßlil.
l
- The lower shoe 4I of the packer is provided with
a suitable valve 45 normally' held closed under the
influence of a‘coil spring 36.
A.
To operate the apparatus in the cementing of a
well by forcing the cement to a point beneath the
assembly under pressure, it is operated as fol
lows: Tubing or drill pipe is connected to the
mandrel i2 and the assembly is lowered into the
well with the parts in the positions shown in Fig
ures 1 and 2. ‘Upon reaching the location 'where
lowered, the wedge body I1 forces the slips into
vtight engagement with the casing, the wedge body
being pressed down by the lsleeve I5 and the collar
i4 attached to the mandrel.
'
,
.
'
The slips now being firmly set, the mandrel is
again lifted until movement is transmitted to the
lower shoe 3i of the packer through the shoulder
33, and the sleeve 4I), as previously described,until ze
the'packer 25 is set and the parts are in the '
position shown in Figure 6. The coil spring i6
maintains the wedge body I1 _in position on the
slips during this movement. The apparatus is
now in position to enable the cement to be forced 30
into the well. The packer maintains a seal with
the casing and the'sllps prevent the packer from .
moving upwardly as the cement is forced under
high pressure down through the drill pipe and
mandrel i2 and out below the packer through 35
the valve ¿45. Since the mandrel is lifted at this
time with respect to the lower shoe el, thepack
ing 44 will maintain a seal and will prevent the
cement from iiowing upwardly between the man
drel and the sleeve 40. After the desired amount 40
of cement has been pumped beneath the packerv
assembly, pumping is discontinued and the drill
pipe and mandrel are lowered. When the pump
is discontinued, the valve 45 will seat and the
pressure of the cement Will still be exerted against 45
the lower shoe 4I holding the packer expanded
and sealed onthe casing. When the mandrel is
lowered it is also preferable to rotate it slightly
to the right so as to bring the pin 35 into the re
cess 34- in the slot in the sleeve 26. The parts are
then in the position shown in Figure 7. Any ex
cess cement within the mandrel or drill pipe may
then be washed out, the ñow circuit usually being
downwardly through the drill pipe and mandrel,
upwardly around the lower end of the mandrel, 55
between the mandrel and the sleeve 4Il,voutwardly through the ports 42, which will then be in
alignment with the ports 38 in the upper shoe 23,
upwardly around the slips I9 and upwardly be
tween the drill pipe and the casing ii. > Reverse
circulation can be.eiïected if desired.
The washing out operation may be continued
while the cement is allowed to hardeni-beneath
the assembly or if desired the drill pipe may be
disconnected from the mandrel and moved up 65
wardly in the well some distance to prevent any
possibility of the drill pipe becoming cemented in
the well. If the drill pipe is disconnected it is
later lowered and> again connected on to the
mandrel after the cement has hardened.
To remove the apparatus from the well, the
drill pipe and mandrel i2 are raised, the pin 35
being in the position shown in Figure 7. As the
mandrel is raised, the pin 35 will move freely in
the portion 28 of the slot inthe sleeve 23 but 25
3
2,122,749
since the pin is Within the recess 34 in the slot in
the sleeve 26 the sleeve 26 will be pulled upwardly,
thus forcing the wedge body l1 upwardly with re
spect to the slips I9.
ThisY movement will cause '
the slips i9 to move inwardly radially out of en
gagement with the casing, since the slips I9 are
dovetailed to the wedge body I1. 'I'he parts will
then' be in the position shown in Figure 8. In
this iigure, it will be seen that the packer is still
set on the casing. If now, however, the drill pipe
is pulled still further upwardly, an upward force
will be transmitted to the upper shoe 24 of the
packer either through the wedge body i'l, the slips
i9 and the dovetail connection 2l connected to
15 the ring 22 which is integral with the upper shoe
of the packer, or through the pin 35, the recess 3|0
in the slot in the sleeve 23 and through this sleeve
to the upper shoe of the packer. The apparatus
having been thus disconnected from the casing
slips and packer, said mechanismincluding a
centrally disposed mandrel carrying a pin, two
telescoping sleeves mounted upon the outside of
Asaid mandrel, each having a slot' therein adapted
to cooperate with the pin on the mandrel, the
slots being of different shapes to enable the sleeves
to bevoperated selectively, one of said sleeves be
ing connected to said slips and another of said
sleeves being connected to a wedge body for hold
ing the slips set.
‘
4. Apparatus adapted for use as a cement re
10
tainer in an oil well, including a packer, slips and
operating mechanism for setting and releasing
the slips and packer, said mechanism including
a wedge body associated with said slips and
adapted, when moved downwardly with respect
to the slips, to set the same and prevent upward
movement of the same with respect to a casing, a [y
mandrel, a pair of members having pin and slot
it may be removed from the well after which the
connections to said mandrel, one of said mem
' portion of the cement left in the casing beneath
bers being connected to said slips >and the other
the packer assembly may be drilled out in ac
cordance with the usual practice.
It will be seen that in the arrangement illus
25 trated the wedge body which actuates the slips
as well as the packer itself is set and released from
„the casing by longitudinal movement of the man
drel in cooperation with the sleeves 23 and 26, the
slot and pin arrangement of which constitute
30 means which is practically automatic for per
to said Wedge body, the pin and slot connections
being such that 'the slips and wedge body may be
controlled, by movement of the mandrel, to set
forming the desired functions in operating the
tool.
While only oneembodiment of the invention
has been shown and described herein, it is obvi
35 ous that various changes may be made in the ar
rangement and construction of the parts without
departing from the spirit of the invention or the
scope of the annexed claims.
1. Apparatus adapted for use as a cement re
tainer in an oil well, including a packer, slips
and operating mechanism for setting and rel s
ing- the slips and packer, said mechanism includ
ing a. plurality of members certain of which have
45 slots therein and one of which has a pin adapted
to cooperate with the slots in the other mein
bers to selectively actuate the same.
20
and release the slips.
25
5. Apparatus adapted for use as a cement re
tainer in an oil well, including a packer, slips and
operating mechanism for‘setting and releasing
the slips and packer, said mechanism including a
wedge 4body associated with said slips and
adapted, when moved downwardly with respect to
the slips, to set the same and prevent upward
movement of the same with respect to a casing, a
mandrel, a pair of members having pin and slot
connections to said mandrel, one of said mem
bers being connected to said slips and the other
to said wedge body, the pin and slot connections
being such that the slips and wedge body may be
controlled, by movement of the mandrel, to set
and release the s1ips,»and when the slips are set 40
to enable the packer to be set by pulling against
the slips as an abutment.
l
6. A packer assembly for use with casing in
oil wells or the like, including a packer having an
upper and a lower shoe, means adapted to en 45
gage the casing to form an abutment above the
upper shoe of the packer, means for pulling up
2. Apparatus adapted for use as a cement re
wardly upon the lower shoe of the packer to set
tainer in an oil well, including a packer, slips and
the same against the abutment and means for
50 operating mechanism lfor setting and releasing
the slips and packer, said mechanism including a
_centrally disposed mandrel carrying a pin, two
telescoping sleeves mounted upon the outside cf
said mandrel, each having a slot therein adapted
55 to cooperate with the pin on the mandrel, the
slots being of diiïerent shapes to enable the
sleeves to be operated selectively.
,
3. Apparatus adapted for use as a cement re
tainer in an oil well, including a packer, slips and
60 operating mechanism for setting and releasing the
controlling the abutment forming means to set
the same in engagement with the casing, said set
ting means including a member having a pin and
slot connection‘to a device movable with respect
to said abutment forming means and means for
controlling the abutment forming means to re 55
lease the same fromNengagement with the casing,
said releasing means including a. member having
a pin and slot connection to said device.
O. L. MORRISETT.
60
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