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Патент USA US2122750

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July 5, 1938.
Filed July 5, 1954
2 Sheets-Sheet l
July 5, 1938.
Filed July 5, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
I ‘I
a»? \
Patented July 5, 1938
PATENT orrics
Alexander McLean Nicolson, New York, N. Y.,
assignor to Communication Patents, Inc., New
York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Application July 5, 1934, Serial No. 733,705
‘'1 Claims. (Cl. 178--7.1)
invention relates to television systems and
fect, such as is now obtained with scanning
particularly 7 to certain fundamental elements
systems which scan from top to bottom, is elim
inated. Also by the use of two concentric circu
lar rows, the other terminals forming a solid ?eld,
two-way transmission and reception is easily ac
, I An object of the invention is to transmit pic
tures of objects or their images at a rate to pro
duce the illusion of motion.
I Another object of the invention is to transmit
and receive pictures of objects or their images
without mechanically moving elements. '
' I0:
1A further object of the invention is to reduce
the linear motion of an ionized or light beam
into a solid surface or two-dimensional ?eld.
1A still further object of the invention is to
transmit pictures ofrobjects or their images in
15: two directions over common apparatus.
- In‘ several of my television systems such as
those-‘disclosed in Patent No. 1,863,278, issued
I T June 14, 1932 and Patent No. 1,839,696, issued
January 5, 1932, I utilize an electrical discharge
or are movable by the force of a magnetic ?eld
in which. it is disposed. ‘The present invention
utilizes a simpli?ed‘modi?cation of such an elec
trol-dynamic are system, as well as an ionized
cathode ray beam, such as disclosed in my Patent
. No. 1,470,696, issued'October 16, 1923.
~~ It has been found that‘ a cathode ray beam or
a. movable electrode discharge can be propa
gatedrin a continuous path of substantially circu
larform in a very e?icient manner.
With this
type of propagation, the control of the ionized
'path is simpli?ed both with respect to modula
tion and synchronism. The present invention
utilizes these features by translating the ring
scanning path into a two-dimensional or solid
?eld.- It is particularly adaptable to two-way
communication as will be disclosed hereinafter.
i The speci?c manner of transposing the hol
' low. pattern into a solid ?eld is by means of a
stationary mechanical structure having ?xed
terminating paths, one group of terminals being
in the form of a circle or ellipse or other geo
metrical pattern
a :surface. That
a solid surface
terminals in the
and the others in the form of
is, small tubes transmitting in
are distributed at‘ the. other
form of a continuous ring of
1 single units. .As the scanning medium is propa
The invention itself, however, both as to its
method of operation and its fundamental prin
ciples, together with additional objects and ad
vantages thereof, will best be understood from 1O
the following description-of certain speci?c em
bodiments, when read in conjunction with the
accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 shows a transmitter using an electrical
discharge scanning system;
Fig. 2 shows a receiving system for the trans
mitter of Fig. 1;
.Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6, inclusive, show various
modi?cations of the translator;
Fig. 7 shows a two-Way communicator utiliz
ing a cathode ray tube;
Fig. ‘8 shows another embodiment of the two
way television system using an electrical dis
charge scanning system, and
Fig. 9 is a detail View of an element of Fig. 8.
Referring now to Fig. l, a simple arc rail sys
tem 5 comprises electrode rails 6 and a ?eld wind
ing shown as a single turn ‘I, the?'eld winding
being supplied with energy from a source 8 under
control of a rheostat 9. The are rails 6 ‘are sup
plied with energy from a direct current source
[2 under control of a rheostat I3. ' In the same
circuit with source l2 and rheostat I3, is the
secondary of a transformer I4.
This are system is a simple form of the are (u)
used in my above-mentioned patents and is one
in which the speed and intensity of the are are
easily controlled. The light produced by the are
as it is propagated along the rails 6 is focused
by lens 16 on the terminals of the light tubes of
translator l8, the tubes being formed in a circle
at l9, and in a solid ?eld surface at 20. Light
from the are arriving at the terminals 20 is pro
jected upon an objectO through a lens2| in
the usual manner. Reflected light from the 4,5
object O is detected by a photo-electric cell or
gated along the terminals arranged in the con
similar photo-sensitive device 25, which trans
tinuous path, light is propagated through the
tubes to the terminals arranged in the solid pat
forms the varied light intensities into electrical
50. tern. ,The terminals forming the surface may be
, . distributed in any manner'desired or may have
various shapes, inasmuch as the scanning rate
is sufficient to. maintain the appearance of a
lighted ?eld at all times. With the possibility
55 Of such avaried distribution, the “waterfall” ef
currents. These currents are ampli?ed in- ampli
?er 26, the output thereof being impressed upon 5.0.
a transmitter 21 for transmission over an an
tenna 28 or wire lines. A portion of the energy
from the photo-electric cell 25 is fed back to the
arc rails 6 through the transformer I4 for pur
poses of synchronism, this method of synchronism 55
being the subject-matter of a patent application
?led by Henderson C. Gillespie, Serial No. 584,7 97,
?led January 5, 1932.
The unit I8 may be constructed in several
ways, such as by the use of a plurality of ?ne
end 35. In this case the circularly arranged‘
terminals are adjacent the electrodes 35, this
being a variation of the arrangement shown in
Fig. 1, the two, however, being substitutes for one
quartz or hollow internal re?ecting tubes which
another. That is, as the arc is created between
the rails 35 from an energy source 43 under con
may be uniform or tapered so that the circular
terminal path I3 is smaller than it would be if
the tubes were uniform. These‘ tubes may be
trol of a rheostat 44, the arc is propagated along
the rails by the ?eld 36 passing the immediately
10 arranged by units or grouped together and then
adjacent terminals of the tubes 40.
The light
from the arc could just as well be projected 10
separated by a conical wedge, after which they
are held together by a hardening material like
through a lens similar to the lens H5 in Fig. 1,
wax or bound mechanically. The entire unit may
the terminals l9 placed adjacent the arc path.
One system is shown in Fig. 1 and the other in
Fig. 2 for the purpose of showing the two possible 15
The operation of the receiver is simple in that
the incoming signals impressed across the arc
also be molded by using solid wires inserted in
15 a form, the wires being arranged at one end in
a continuous ring of unit width and grouped at
the other end in any desired form such as'a
circle or square. These wires may have a slight
insulating material thereon such as cloth, paper
20 or grease, which will burn or be destroyed when
the casting material is poured. After the casting
has hardened, these wires are removed and the
holes blown with a ?ne re?ecting dust or liquid.
It is also to be understood that one set of ter
25 minals may form a concave, convex or plane
surface or that the individual terminals may
have similar formations.
The tubes or holes may be circular or have
various shapes, such as triangular as shown in
30 Fig. 6, square or rectangular as shown in Fig. 5,
or vary at each terminal, such as triangular at
one end and square at the other. Furthermore,
they may be arranged so that the tubes forming
a solid ?eld at one end form a plurality of circles
35 at the other end, such as shown in Figs. 3 and 4.
This modi?cation reduces the diameter of the
circles in comparison with the size of the screen.
All the circles may be used for incoming signals
or each circle have a separate function as for
40 two-way television shown hereinafter.
It is believed the operation of the electro
dynamic scanning system of Fig. 1 is obvious to
those skilled in the art, but will be brie?y re
viewed. An electrical discharge is initiated and
45 maintained between electrodes 6 by the voltage
from source l2, and, under the influence of the
magnetic ?eld is propagated along the electrodes
at a speed dependent upon the separation of the
electrode rails, the strength of the ?eld and the
50 current in the discharge.' Rheostats 9 and I3
are adjusted to provide the speed desired. As the
light from the arc is propagated on the ter
minals IQ of the tubes l8 and projected there
from at the terminals 20, the object O is scanned
55 in unit areas as the arc is propagated along the
rails 6. The return of some of the‘ photo-cell
currents to the arc varies the speed thereof in
accordance with the speed of the receiving arc,
which is varied as the incoming signals are im
60 pressed thereon. There is a slight gain in sensi
tiveness due to this regeneration, but it is not
cumulative as has been demonstrated in ex
periments, but produces an excellent control for
the transmitting and receiving arcs.
Referring now to Fig. 2 showing the receiving
system for the above transmitter, an antenna 30
impresses its energy upon a receiver 3|, the out
put of which is ampli?ed inampli?er 32. An are
system 34, similar to the are system 5 of Fig. 1,
70 comprises electrode rails 35 and ?eld winding 36
supplied from an energy source 3'! under control
of a rheostat 38. The same type of tube system
as I8 is shown at 40 comprising a surface ar
rangement of the terminals at 4| and a circular
75 line arrangement to the terminals at the other
or the lens I6 could be illuminated in Fig. 1 and
rails 35 vary'the intensity thereof, these varying
intensities being transmitted to the ?eld terminals 20
4| where they produce a light image of the object
The are may vary somewhat in speed as the
intensity varies, but this variation is also followed
at the transmitter so they remain in synchronism.
Referring now to the two-way television system 25
disclosed in Fig. 7, a similar tube arrangement 48
has its ?eld terminals arranged in the form of a
square of two sections 59 and 5| and its other.
terminals arranged in the .form of two circles .52
and 53. As shown in the drawings, circle 53 is 30
for reception and has its tube terminals in section
5| and circle 52 .for transmission'with its tube
terminals in section 50. It is obvious that the
sections 50 and 5| could be arranged horizontally
or could be separated somewhat without depart
ing from the spirit of the invention. A lens 54
placed between the section 50 and an object 0
projects the image of the object on section 50,
the light being carried through the unit area
divisions to the transmitting ring 52, which has 40
transparent capped terminals coated with a pho
to-sensitive material. The lens 54 does not inter,
fere with the object’s observation of receiving
section 5|. The other ring, namely 53, has the
tubes capped and covered with the photo-lumie 45
nous material which will ?uoresce upon bom
bardment by the electrons in a cathode ray
stream. It is to be understood that the tubes may
all be of the same size or vary in size aswell as
be distributed in serial order according to the type
and quality of picture to be transmitted.
Sealed to the outer edge of the circularly ar
ranged terminals'52 is a cathode ray tube en
velope 58 having therein two cathodes 59 and 60
suppliedrfrom an energy source 6| under control 55
of a rheostat 62; two de?ning diaphragms 55 and
56, two control or concentrating electrodes 64 and
65 polarized by energy sources 66 and 61, respec
tively, and two sets of de?ecting plates 69 con
nected to a sweep circuit 10 well known in the 60
art. Thus the tube may be of the usual type
with the usual arrangement of electrodes, except
that there'are two rotating cathode ray beams
from two cathodes under separate intensity con
trols. Positioned near the photo-sensitive mate 65
rial on ring 52 is an electrode ‘H which is con
nected to the cathode 60 through the primary of a
transformer 12 and a high potential source‘ 13.
The current ?owing in the primary of the trans
former 12 will vary in accordance with the elec 70
trons emitted by the photo-sensitive material on
the ring 52, which is varied according to the light
reaching it through the tubes. This current vari
ation may be transmitted to an ampli?er '14 and a;
transmitter 15 for transmission over antenna 16 75
or for impression on 'wire lines.
For‘ synchro
' nizing, a portion of’ the current from the sweep
circuit 10 is impressed over conductors ‘l8 on the
transmitter ‘I5 for purposes of maintaining the
sweep circuit at the other receiver in step. The
receiving portion of thecircuit includes an an
tenna 80, receiver 8!, ampli?er 82 and an output
transformer 83 for impressing the incoming sig
> ‘ nals on the control electrode 64.
The sweep cir
are polarizing source H3 and rheostat H4. This
portion of the apparatus operates in the same
manner as that disclosed in Fig. 2.
In the operation of this system, the observer 0
views the incoming image on terminals 9!, while
he is being scanned with light projected from
the terminals 90. The scanning lenses 93, there
fore, do not interfere with his observation of the
incoming image. It is quite obvious that the are
10 cuit frequency is ?ltered out by a ?lter 85 and
impressed upon the sweep circuit oscillator for
system 93 could be placed adjacent the rings 83 10
, purposes of synchronism, as mentioned above.
thus eliminating the lens 99. It is ‘to be under
stood- that each arc may provide light beams of
different wave lengths such as partially invisible
light of the infra-red or ultra violet frequencies 15
for transmission and visible light in the inter
The operation of this two-way television system
is- as follows. The image ‘of the object O is car
ried through the tubes in unit areas arranged in
4 circle 52 and scanned by a cathode ray of con
and 89 in the same manner as shown in‘ Fig. 2,
stant intensity. As the ray sweeps over the
photo-sensitive material it acts as a commutator
mediate spectrum for reception, thus avoiding
glare and increasing efliciency. The disclosure
connecting the cathode with the ring anode ‘H,
thecurr'ent varying according to the light in
tensity impressed on photo-sensitive material'at
tion, Serial No. 275,672, ?led May 7, 1928. With
the transmitting and receiving light beams of
any particular unit area. The incoming signal
varies the intensity of the other ‘cathode ray
stream which is projected on the photo-luminous
material of ring 53. The various intensities of
the light produced by this bombardment are
transmitted through the tubes 50 where the image
is created for observation by the object O. The
of~such arcs is found in my co-pending applica
different frequencies, the same tube could‘ carry
bothv beams without interference, thus providing
?ner detail for the system.
shown utilizing electro-dynamic arcs, but in
For the sake of clearness only a limited number
of channels have been illustrated but it is to be
understood that the number may be increased in
accordance with the size of the image or ?neness
of detail desired. With the two-Way television
system disclosed in Figs. 7 and 8 just described, 30
the object 0 could write messages while being
scanned, the messages being carried to the re
which the observation screen is common with the
scanning screen. A tube translator 8'! has two
ceiving terminals for observation, thus complet
ing two-way communication by both picture and
' system thus provides a simple system of two-way
30 television.
In Fig. 8 another two-way television system in
. 35
circularly arranged terminals 88 and 89, 88 being
for transmission and terminating in small ter
minal 90, and terminals 89 being for reception
and terminating in large terminals 9|. As shown
in Fig. 9, each of the small tubes are capped with
P40 beam projecting lenses 93 for projecting scanning
light over the object 0, these beams being some
what larger at the object to completely cover it.
With this arrangement no large intervening lens
is required and the screen is perfectly observable
45 by the object being scanned.
An are system 93 is disclosed in this embodi
ment having scanning electrodes 94 and receiv
ing electrodes 95, both of which are positioned in
a magnetic ?eld formed by a ?eld winding illus
50 trated, as the single turn 96, supplied from a
source 91 under control of rheostat 98. The light
beams from both' arcs are projected through a
I] 55
lens 99 on the rings 88 and 89 for transmission
and reception, respectively. As shown in Fig. 1,
light of constant intensity projected from the
are 94 traverses the tubes having their terminals
in ring 88 and at 99 and is projected on to the
object 0 through lenses 93, which may be of
quartz. The photo-electric cell 192 detects the
.60 varying light and shade densities of the object
and, its output is impressed on an ampli?er Hi3
and then on the transmitter N14 for transmission
from an antenna I95.
A portion of the photo
electric cell output is transmitted through a
65 transformer I06 to electrodes 94, the electrodes
94 being polarized by a source I01 under control
of a rheostat I08. This feed-back is for syn
chronism explained above in connection with Fig.
1. To prevent the light of the received image
from affecting the photo-sensitive device I02, this
cell could be made sensitive to only the transmis
sion scanning light by construction or by an in
tervening ?lter.
The receiving portion of this system includes
75 an antenna H0, receiver Ill, ampli?er H2, and
What is claimed is:
1. In a two-way television system, means for
producing a plurality of radiating beams of unit
area dimensions, one of said beams being of con
stant intensity, means for varying another of said 40
beams in accordance with the light and shade
densities of an object, means for producing light
with at least one of said beams, a group of light
channels having one set of terminals arranged
in a stationary circular row, means for projecting
said light on said stationary circular row of light
terminals in serial order, said light channels hav
ing the other terminals thereof arranged in two
dimensions, means for projecting light from said
two-dimensional terminals, another group of light 50
channels forming a two-dimensional pattern ad
jacent said ?rst two-dimensional group of ter
minals, said second group forming a second row
of channels concentric with said ?rst row, means
for transmitting light through said second group 55
of channels in accordance with the light and
shade densities of an object, and means for uti
lizing said constant intensity beam as a commu- '
tator device for obtaining current variations pro
portional to the light intensities in one group of 60
said channels.
2. In a two-way television system, means for
producing a plurality of light beams moving in
lines, a plurality of light channels having one set
of terminals arranged in a corresponding plu 65
rality of lines to receive light from said beams,
the other terminals of said channels being ar
ranged in a two-dimensional pattern forming a
surface, the terminals of one of said lines being
intermingled with the terminals of the other of 70
said lines, and means for projecting light in
beams from one set of said terminals, the other
set of said terminals projecting diffused light
3. In a two-way television system, an electro 75
dynamic are system having two sets of electrodes
and a magnetic ?eld for driving a plurality of
arcs along said electrodes, a translator formed
of a plurality of independent light channels, one
set of terminals of which form a surface and
the other terminals form two concentric rows of
unit area width, and means for respectively asso
ciating the light from said arcs with, said rows,
of terminals, the light from one of said arcs being
10 used for transmission and the light from the
other of said arcs being used for reception.
4. A two-way television system in accordance
with claim 3 in which said transmitting arc has
a larger proportion of invisible light than said
15 receiving arc.
5. A scanning screen for a tWo-waytelevision
system wherein a single screen is used for both
scanning an object and for reproducing an in
coming image simultaneously, means for pro
20 ducing a plurality of light beams, means for
modulating one of said beams, a translator
formed of a plurality of independent‘ light trans
mitting channels having one set 'of terminals
arranged as a surface and the other set of ter
minals arranged in two concentric hollow rows
of single-channel width, substantially one-half
of said channels being in each of said rows, and
means for projecting said modulated light on
one of said rows and constant intensity light on
the other of said rows of terminals, the terminals
of said channels receiving said modulated light
and the terminals of said channels receiving con
stant intensity light being intermingled with each 1.0
other within said surface.
6. A scanning screen in accordance with claim
5 in which the surface terminals of said channels
transmitting constant intensity light have beam
projecting lenses thereon.
7. A scanning screen in accordance with claim
5 in which the surface terminals of said channels
transmitting constant intensity light have beam
projecting lenses thereon and the surface termi
nals of said channels transmitting modulated 29.
light having light diffusing lenses thereon.
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