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July 5, 1938. ‘ Y A. Mc|__ NICOLSQN. 2,122,750 LINE TELEVISION Filed July 5, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet l TRANS. ‘ INVENTOR ALEXANDER McLEAN NICOLSON ATTORNEY July 5, 1938. A. MCL. NICOLSCSN 2,122,750 LINE TELEVISION Filed July 5, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 CIRUT 53 F7IG. ' a E m / I ‘I 6ft £9 a»? \ INVENTOR - ALEXANDER MCLEAN NICOLSDN BYW%MW ATTORNEY 2,122,750 Patented July 5, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT orrics 2,122,750 LINE TELEVISION Alexander McLean Nicolson, New York, N. Y., assignor to Communication Patents, Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application July 5, 1934, Serial No. 733,705 ‘'1 Claims. (Cl. 178--7.1) invention relates to television systems and fect, such as is now obtained with scanning particularly 7 to certain fundamental elements systems which scan from top to bottom, is elim inated. Also by the use of two concentric circu lar rows, the other terminals forming a solid ?eld, two-way transmission and reception is easily ac thereof. , I An object of the invention is to transmit pic tures of objects or their images at a rate to pro duce the illusion of motion. > I Another object of the invention is to transmit and receive pictures of objects or their images a without mechanically moving elements. ' ' I0: 1A further object of the invention is to reduce the linear motion of an ionized or light beam into a solid surface or two-dimensional ?eld. 1A still further object of the invention is to transmit pictures ofrobjects or their images in 15: two directions over common apparatus. - In‘ several of my television systems such as those-‘disclosed in Patent No. 1,863,278, issued I T June 14, 1932 and Patent No. 1,839,696, issued January 5, 1932, I utilize an electrical discharge or are movable by the force of a magnetic ?eld in which. it is disposed. ‘The present invention utilizes a simpli?ed‘modi?cation of such an elec trol-dynamic are system, as well as an ionized cathode ray beam, such as disclosed in my Patent . No. 1,470,696, issued'October 16, 1923. ~~ It has been found that‘ a cathode ray beam or a. movable electrode discharge can be propa gatedrin a continuous path of substantially circu larform in a very e?icient manner. With this type of propagation, the control of the ionized 'path is simpli?ed both with respect to modula tion and synchronism. The present invention utilizes these features by translating the ring scanning path into a two-dimensional or solid ?eld.- It is particularly adaptable to two-way communication as will be disclosed hereinafter. i The speci?c manner of transposing the hol ' low. pattern into a solid ?eld is by means of a stationary mechanical structure having ?xed terminating paths, one group of terminals being in the form of a circle or ellipse or other geo metrical pattern a :surface. That a solid surface terminals in the and the others in the form of is, small tubes transmitting in are distributed at‘ the. other form of a continuous ring of 1 single units. .As the scanning medium is propa complished. The invention itself, however, both as to its method of operation and its fundamental prin ciples, together with additional objects and ad vantages thereof, will best be understood from 1O the following description-of certain speci?c em bodiments, when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which: Fig. 1 shows a transmitter using an electrical discharge scanning system; 15. Fig. 2 shows a receiving system for the trans mitter of Fig. 1; . .Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6, inclusive, show various modi?cations of the translator; Fig. 7 shows a two-Way communicator utiliz ing a cathode ray tube; Fig. ‘8 shows another embodiment of the two way television system using an electrical dis charge scanning system, and Fig. 9 is a detail View of an element of Fig. 8. Referring now to Fig. l, a simple arc rail sys tem 5 comprises electrode rails 6 and a ?eld wind ing shown as a single turn ‘I, the?'eld winding being supplied with energy from a source 8 under control of a rheostat 9. The are rails 6 ‘are sup plied with energy from a direct current source [2 under control of a rheostat I3. ' In the same circuit with source l2 and rheostat I3, is the secondary of a transformer I4. This are system is a simple form of the are (u) used in my above-mentioned patents and is one in which the speed and intensity of the are are easily controlled. The light produced by the are as it is propagated along the rails 6 is focused by lens 16 on the terminals of the light tubes of translator l8, the tubes being formed in a circle at l9, and in a solid ?eld surface at 20. Light from the are arriving at the terminals 20 is pro jected upon an objectO through a lens2| in the usual manner. Reflected light from the 4,5 object O is detected by a photo-electric cell or n gated along the terminals arranged in the con similar photo-sensitive device 25, which trans tinuous path, light is propagated through the tubes to the terminals arranged in the solid pat forms the varied light intensities into electrical 50. tern. ,The terminals forming the surface may be , . distributed in any manner'desired or may have various shapes, inasmuch as the scanning rate is sufficient to. maintain the appearance of a lighted ?eld at all times. With the possibility 55 Of such avaried distribution, the “waterfall” ef 2.9 , currents. These currents are ampli?ed in- ampli ?er 26, the output thereof being impressed upon 5.0. a transmitter 21 for transmission over an an tenna 28 or wire lines. A portion of the energy from the photo-electric cell 25 is fed back to the arc rails 6 through the transformer I4 for pur poses of synchronism, this method of synchronism 55 2 2,122,750 being the subject-matter of a patent application ?led by Henderson C. Gillespie, Serial No. 584,7 97, ?led January 5, 1932. The unit I8 may be constructed in several ways, such as by the use of a plurality of ?ne end 35. In this case the circularly arranged‘ terminals are adjacent the electrodes 35, this being a variation of the arrangement shown in Fig. 1, the two, however, being substitutes for one quartz or hollow internal re?ecting tubes which another. That is, as the arc is created between the rails 35 from an energy source 43 under con may be uniform or tapered so that the circular terminal path I3 is smaller than it would be if the tubes were uniform. These‘ tubes may be trol of a rheostat 44, the arc is propagated along the rails by the ?eld 36 passing the immediately 10 arranged by units or grouped together and then adjacent terminals of the tubes 40. The light from the arc could just as well be projected 10 separated by a conical wedge, after which they are held together by a hardening material like through a lens similar to the lens H5 in Fig. 1, wax or bound mechanically. The entire unit may the terminals l9 placed adjacent the arc path. One system is shown in Fig. 1 and the other in Fig. 2 for the purpose of showing the two possible 15 arrangements. The operation of the receiver is simple in that the incoming signals impressed across the arc also be molded by using solid wires inserted in 15 a form, the wires being arranged at one end in a continuous ring of unit width and grouped at the other end in any desired form such as'a circle or square. These wires may have a slight insulating material thereon such as cloth, paper 20 or grease, which will burn or be destroyed when the casting material is poured. After the casting has hardened, these wires are removed and the holes blown with a ?ne re?ecting dust or liquid. It is also to be understood that one set of ter 25 minals may form a concave, convex or plane surface or that the individual terminals may have similar formations. The tubes or holes may be circular or have various shapes, such as triangular as shown in 30 Fig. 6, square or rectangular as shown in Fig. 5, or vary at each terminal, such as triangular at one end and square at the other. Furthermore, they may be arranged so that the tubes forming a solid ?eld at one end form a plurality of circles 35 at the other end, such as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. This modi?cation reduces the diameter of the circles in comparison with the size of the screen. All the circles may be used for incoming signals or each circle have a separate function as for 40 two-way television shown hereinafter. It is believed the operation of the electro dynamic scanning system of Fig. 1 is obvious to those skilled in the art, but will be brie?y re viewed. An electrical discharge is initiated and 45 maintained between electrodes 6 by the voltage from source l2, and, under the influence of the magnetic ?eld is propagated along the electrodes at a speed dependent upon the separation of the electrode rails, the strength of the ?eld and the 50 current in the discharge.' Rheostats 9 and I3 are adjusted to provide the speed desired. As the light from the arc is propagated on the ter minals IQ of the tubes l8 and projected there from at the terminals 20, the object O is scanned 55 in unit areas as the arc is propagated along the rails 6. The return of some of the‘ photo-cell currents to the arc varies the speed thereof in accordance with the speed of the receiving arc, which is varied as the incoming signals are im 60 pressed thereon. There is a slight gain in sensi tiveness due to this regeneration, but it is not cumulative as has been demonstrated in ex periments, but produces an excellent control for the transmitting and receiving arcs. Referring now to Fig. 2 showing the receiving system for the above transmitter, an antenna 30 impresses its energy upon a receiver 3|, the out put of which is ampli?ed inampli?er 32. An are system 34, similar to the are system 5 of Fig. 1, 70 comprises electrode rails 35 and ?eld winding 36 65 supplied from an energy source 3'! under control of a rheostat 38. The same type of tube system as I8 is shown at 40 comprising a surface ar rangement of the terminals at 4| and a circular 75 line arrangement to the terminals at the other or the lens I6 could be illuminated in Fig. 1 and rails 35 vary'the intensity thereof, these varying intensities being transmitted to the ?eld terminals 20 4| where they produce a light image of the object O. The are may vary somewhat in speed as the intensity varies, but this variation is also followed at the transmitter so they remain in synchronism. Referring now to the two-way television system 25 disclosed in Fig. 7, a similar tube arrangement 48 has its ?eld terminals arranged in the form of a square of two sections 59 and 5| and its other. terminals arranged in the .form of two circles .52 and 53. As shown in the drawings, circle 53 is 30 for reception and has its tube terminals in section 5| and circle 52 .for transmission'with its tube terminals in section 50. It is obvious that the sections 50 and 5| could be arranged horizontally or could be separated somewhat without depart ing from the spirit of the invention. A lens 54 placed between the section 50 and an object 0 projects the image of the object on section 50, the light being carried through the unit area 35 divisions to the transmitting ring 52, which has 40 transparent capped terminals coated with a pho to-sensitive material. The lens 54 does not inter, fere with the object’s observation of receiving section 5|. The other ring, namely 53, has the tubes capped and covered with the photo-lumie 45 nous material which will ?uoresce upon bom bardment by the electrons in a cathode ray stream. It is to be understood that the tubes may all be of the same size or vary in size aswell as be distributed in serial order according to the type and quality of picture to be transmitted. 7 Sealed to the outer edge of the circularly ar ranged terminals'52 is a cathode ray tube en velope 58 having therein two cathodes 59 and 60 suppliedrfrom an energy source 6| under control 55 of a rheostat 62; two de?ning diaphragms 55 and 56, two control or concentrating electrodes 64 and 65 polarized by energy sources 66 and 61, respec tively, and two sets of de?ecting plates 69 con nected to a sweep circuit 10 well known in the 60 art. Thus the tube may be of the usual type with the usual arrangement of electrodes, except that there'are two rotating cathode ray beams from two cathodes under separate intensity con trols. Positioned near the photo-sensitive mate 65 rial on ring 52 is an electrode ‘H which is con nected to the cathode 60 through the primary of a transformer 12 and a high potential source‘ 13. The current ?owing in the primary of the trans former 12 will vary in accordance with the elec 70 trons emitted by the photo-sensitive material on the ring 52, which is varied according to the light reaching it through the tubes. This current vari ation may be transmitted to an ampli?er '14 and a; transmitter 15 for transmission over antenna 16 75 3. 2,122,750 or for impression on 'wire lines. For‘ synchro ' nizing, a portion of’ the current from the sweep circuit 10 is impressed over conductors ‘l8 on the transmitter ‘I5 for purposes of maintaining the sweep circuit at the other receiver in step. The receiving portion of thecircuit includes an an tenna 80, receiver 8!, ampli?er 82 and an output transformer 83 for impressing the incoming sig , > ‘ nals on the control electrode 64. The sweep cir are polarizing source H3 and rheostat H4. This portion of the apparatus operates in the same manner as that disclosed in Fig. 2. 1 > In the operation of this system, the observer 0 views the incoming image on terminals 9!, while he is being scanned with light projected from the terminals 90. The scanning lenses 93, there fore, do not interfere with his observation of the incoming image. It is quite obvious that the are 10 cuit frequency is ?ltered out by a ?lter 85 and impressed upon the sweep circuit oscillator for system 93 could be placed adjacent the rings 83 10 , purposes of synchronism, as mentioned above. thus eliminating the lens 99. It is ‘to be under stood- that each arc may provide light beams of different wave lengths such as partially invisible light of the infra-red or ultra violet frequencies 15 for transmission and visible light in the inter The operation of this two-way television system is- as follows. The image ‘of the object O is car ried through the tubes in unit areas arranged in is 4 circle 52 and scanned by a cathode ray of con and 89 in the same manner as shown in‘ Fig. 2, stant intensity. As the ray sweeps over the photo-sensitive material it acts as a commutator mediate spectrum for reception, thus avoiding glare and increasing efliciency. The disclosure connecting the cathode with the ring anode ‘H, thecurr'ent varying according to the light in tensity impressed on photo-sensitive material'at tion, Serial No. 275,672, ?led May 7, 1928. With the transmitting and receiving light beams of any particular unit area. The incoming signal varies the intensity of the other ‘cathode ray stream which is projected on the photo-luminous material of ring 53. The various intensities of the light produced by this bombardment are transmitted through the tubes 50 where the image is created for observation by the object O. The of~such arcs is found in my co-pending applica different frequencies, the same tube could‘ carry bothv beams without interference, thus providing ?ner detail for the system. shown utilizing electro-dynamic arcs, but in For the sake of clearness only a limited number of channels have been illustrated but it is to be understood that the number may be increased in accordance with the size of the image or ?neness of detail desired. With the two-Way television system disclosed in Figs. 7 and 8 just described, 30 the object 0 could write messages while being scanned, the messages being carried to the re which the observation screen is common with the scanning screen. A tube translator 8'! has two ceiving terminals for observation, thus complet ing two-way communication by both picture and '25 ' system thus provides a simple system of two-way 30 television. In Fig. 8 another two-way television system in . 35 circularly arranged terminals 88 and 89, 88 being for transmission and terminating in small ter minal 90, and terminals 89 being for reception and terminating in large terminals 9|. As shown in Fig. 9, each of the small tubes are capped with P40 beam projecting lenses 93 for projecting scanning light over the object 0, these beams being some what larger at the object to completely cover it. With this arrangement no large intervening lens is required and the screen is perfectly observable 45 by the object being scanned. An are system 93 is disclosed in this embodi ment having scanning electrodes 94 and receiv ing electrodes 95, both of which are positioned in a magnetic ?eld formed by a ?eld winding illus 50 trated, as the single turn 96, supplied from a source 91 under control of rheostat 98. The light beams from both' arcs are projected through a I] 55 lens 99 on the rings 88 and 89 for transmission and reception, respectively. As shown in Fig. 1, light of constant intensity projected from the are 94 traverses the tubes having their terminals in ring 88 and at 99 and is projected on to the object 0 through lenses 93, which may be of quartz. The photo-electric cell 192 detects the .60 varying light and shade densities of the object and, its output is impressed on an ampli?er Hi3 and then on the transmitter N14 for transmission from an antenna I95. A portion of the photo electric cell output is transmitted through a 65 transformer I06 to electrodes 94, the electrodes 94 being polarized by a source I01 under control of a rheostat I08. This feed-back is for syn chronism explained above in connection with Fig. 1. To prevent the light of the received image from affecting the photo-sensitive device I02, this cell could be made sensitive to only the transmis sion scanning light by construction or by an in tervening ?lter. The receiving portion of this system includes 75 an antenna H0, receiver Ill, ampli?er H2, and 570 words. ‘ 35 What is claimed is: 1. In a two-way television system, means for producing a plurality of radiating beams of unit area dimensions, one of said beams being of con stant intensity, means for varying another of said 40 beams in accordance with the light and shade densities of an object, means for producing light with at least one of said beams, a group of light channels having one set of terminals arranged in a stationary circular row, means for projecting said light on said stationary circular row of light terminals in serial order, said light channels hav ing the other terminals thereof arranged in two dimensions, means for projecting light from said two-dimensional terminals, another group of light 50 channels forming a two-dimensional pattern ad jacent said ?rst two-dimensional group of ter minals, said second group forming a second row of channels concentric with said ?rst row, means for transmitting light through said second group 55 of channels in accordance with the light and shade densities of an object, and means for uti lizing said constant intensity beam as a commu- ' tator device for obtaining current variations pro portional to the light intensities in one group of 60 said channels. 2. In a two-way television system, means for producing a plurality of light beams moving in lines, a plurality of light channels having one set of terminals arranged in a corresponding plu 65 rality of lines to receive light from said beams, the other terminals of said channels being ar ranged in a two-dimensional pattern forming a surface, the terminals of one of said lines being intermingled with the terminals of the other of 70 said lines, and means for projecting light in beams from one set of said terminals, the other set of said terminals projecting diffused light therefrom. 3. In a two-way television system, an electro 75 2,122,750 dynamic are system having two sets of electrodes and a magnetic ?eld for driving a plurality of arcs along said electrodes, a translator formed of a plurality of independent light channels, one set of terminals of which form a surface and the other terminals form two concentric rows of unit area width, and means for respectively asso ciating the light from said arcs with, said rows, of terminals, the light from one of said arcs being 10 used for transmission and the light from the other of said arcs being used for reception. 4. A two-way television system in accordance with claim 3 in which said transmitting arc has a larger proportion of invisible light than said 15 receiving arc. 5. A scanning screen for a tWo-waytelevision system wherein a single screen is used for both scanning an object and for reproducing an in coming image simultaneously, means for pro 20 ducing a plurality of light beams, means for modulating one of said beams, a translator formed of a plurality of independent‘ light trans mitting channels having one set 'of terminals arranged as a surface and the other set of ter minals arranged in two concentric hollow rows of single-channel width, substantially one-half of said channels being in each of said rows, and means for projecting said modulated light on one of said rows and constant intensity light on the other of said rows of terminals, the terminals of said channels receiving said modulated light and the terminals of said channels receiving con stant intensity light being intermingled with each 1.0 other within said surface. 6. A scanning screen in accordance with claim 5 in which the surface terminals of said channels transmitting constant intensity light have beam projecting lenses thereon. l5. 7. A scanning screen in accordance with claim 5 in which the surface terminals of said channels transmitting constant intensity light have beam projecting lenses thereon and the surface termi nals of said channels transmitting modulated 29. light having light diffusing lenses thereon. ALEXANDER MGLEAN NICOLSON.