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Патент USA US2122754

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July 5, 1938.
p, M_ RQHRBAUGH
2,122,754
PACKER FOR WELLS
A TTORNEYS.
`July 5, 1938.
2,122,754
P. M. ROHRBAUGH
PACKER FOR WELLS
Filed July 12, 1957
2 Sheets-Shea?l 2
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INVENTOR.
Paúl ÍVÍ. QohrbaUq/J.
BY _gaaf
ATTORNEYS.
Patented July 5, 1938
2,122,754
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,122,754
PACKER FOR WELLS
Paul M. Rohrbaugh, Duncan, Okla., assignor to
Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company,
Duncan, Okla.
Application July 12, 1937, Serial No. 153,088
J
11 Claims. (Cl. 16S-_12)
This invention relates to apparatus adapted tary portions of latching means shown in Fig
for use in oil wells or the like, and more particu
larly to packers and means for releasably secur
ure 1.
ing the same to the 'casing of a, well.
apparatus shown in Figure 1 but illustrating the
relative positions of the parts after the slips
Figure 2 is a vertical ‘cross-sectional view of the
-
It is often desirable to flx and seal a valve or
other structure to the casing of an oil well. For
example, where a well is to be cemented by forc
Cl
ing cement slurry under pressure down into the
well through drill pipe or tubing and into the
gagement with the casing;
formation of the well, particularly in connection
the apparatus shown in Figure 1 but showing the 10
parts in the relative positions which they occupy
after the slips and packer have been set in the
casing and during a cementing operation;
Figure 4 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the
apparatus shown in Figure 1 but illustrating the 15
relative positions after the cement ,has been
placed in the well and hardened and after the
slips have been released from engagement with
the 'casing of a well; and
with what is known as a “squeeze job”, it is desir
able to provide means at the bottom of the tub
ing which can be fixed to the casing, thus hold
ing the tubing in place against the fluid pres
sure of the cement. It is also desirable in such
a case to provide a packer or other sealing means
around the tubing so as to prevent the passage
of cement slurry upwardly between the tubing-and
the casing.
20
have been set in the casing of an oil well but
before the packer has been expanded into en
'
Figure 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view of
Figure 5 is a perspective view of one of the slips 20
It is an obje'ct of the present invention to de
. vise novel means for temporarily setting a packer '
employed in the arrangement of Figures 1 to 4,
on tubing or drill pipe in a well, secure the packer
in place and hold the same against movement with
inclusive.
>Figure 6 is a view in perspective of one of the
respect to the casing.
upper links employed in the apparatus of Fig
ures 1 to 4;
25
It is a Ífurther object of the invention to pro
vide novel means for removing a packer or se
curing means fastened to the casing-in an oil well.
It is another object of the invention to devise
apparatus for retaining cement or other fluid un
30 der high fluid pressure in place in an oil well and
to so arrange the apparatus that it can be read
ily removed from the well after it has accom
plished its‘purpose.
of one of the lower links employed in the ar- A
rangement of Figures 1 to 4;
Figure 8 is a view in perspective of the control
ring employed in the arrangement of Figures 1 30
to 4 with a portion of the latching sleeve connect
ed thereto; and
Figure 9 is a view in perspective of a slotted
It is a further object of the invention to devise
35 novel _means 4for setting and releasing slips or
l other holding means in the casing of an oil well.
It is still a further object of' the invention to
provide a mechanism adapted for use with a
packer or with slips and in which the slips are so
40 4connected to the packer and operating mecha
nism that toggle action is used in the setting and
releasing of the slips.
‘
Other objects and advantages reside in certain
novel features of the arrangement and construc
45 tion of parts as will be more apparent from a con
nut employed in the arrangement of Figures 1
to 4.
y
35
'
Referring to the drawings in detail, it will» be
seen that in Figures 1 to 4 an oil well casing is
illustrated at II.
Apparatus constructed in ac- ,
cordance with the present invention adapted to
be secured to the casing to seal the lower por
tion from the upper portion thereof, may include
a central tubular mandrel I2 which may be screw
threaded on to the lower end of the drill pipe or
tubing (not shown) in accordance with usual
sideration of the following description taken in
connection with the accompanying drawings, in
practice. The mandrel I2 extends practically 45
throughout the entire length of the packer as
sembly. It is provided with a swivel I3 at its
which:
lower end so as to form a connection with the
'
'
Figure 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a
50 packer assembly constructed in accordance with
the, principles of the present invention and show
ing the parts in the relative positions which they
occupy while the assembly is being lowered into
an oil well;
55
25
Figure 'l is a perspective View of a fragment
Figure 1A is a view in perspective of fragmen
lower shoe I4 of a packer I5. This packer may
be of rubber or like material and constructed in
accordance with known practices.
Usually, the
lower shoe of such a packer is provided with a
sleeve which extends upwardly inside the packer
between it and the lower part of the operating
mandrel. A sleeve of this nature is shown at I6 55
2
2,122,754
in the drawings. The packer I5 is also provided
with an upper _shoe I1 concentrically disposed
with respect to the upper end of the sleeve I6.
' Located abovethe packer and connected to the
upper shoe I1 thereof is a set of slips designated
I8. Any number of slips may be employed, but
10
15
20
25
30
in the arrangement illustrated, four are con
templated. Each 'slip is provided with a number
of outwardly and upwardly directed teeth I9 which
are adapted to engage and bite into the casing II
when the slips are forced outwardly radially into
contact with the ‘casing II. Each slip I 81 is con
nected to the upper shoe |1 by means of parallel
links 28. ~'I'he upper ends of these links are piv
oted to the slips and the lower ends are pivoted
to the upper shoe I1. 'The inclination of the links
I28 is such that any pressure tending to move the
shoe I1 upwardly will tend to cause the teeth I9
on the slips to ñrmly engage the casing. The
upper surface of each of the teeth I9 is prefer
ably at right angles to the direction of inclina
tion of the links 28 when the slips are set. This
will make it easier torelease the slips by pulling
them inwardly since the upper surfaces of the
teeth will be tangent to the circular motion about
the lower pivot points of the links.
Any known type of slip or tooth construction
may be employed instead of the arrangement
herein described without departing from the pur
view of the invention.
The links 28 should be made as strong as pos
sible. Since the links are intended to take chieñy
compressional stresses, it is preferable to fit them
into recesses -or sockets in the shoe and slips, as
35 described hereinafter in connection with Figure
5. As many links 28 may be employed as are
necessary to give the desired strength but only
two for each slip have been shown in the draw
ings. Being parallel, the links 28 provide means
40 for maintaining the slips in a vertical position
at all times.
While the apparatus is being lowered into the
well, it is desirable that the slips I8 should not
drag upon the casing and it is also desirable to
45 prevent them from engaging the casing should
it be desirable to raise the assembly a slight dis
tance, as during spudding, before causing the
slips to engage the casing. In accordance with
the present invention, mechanism is provided
50 for accomplishing this and also for forcing the
slips into tight~engagement with the casing at
the desired time. Connected into a socket in the
upper end of each slip I8 is a short toggle link
2|. These links extend upwardly and inwardly
55 to connect the slips to a control ringr 22. The
control ring 22 -is concentrically disposed with
and freely movable upon the mandrel I2.. It is
provided with a sleeve 23 which is temporarily
24 and the ring 22 and is preferably provided
with a swivel 29 at its lower end.
It will be seen that with the parts in the po
sition in Figure ‘l the slips are latched to the
mandrel through the toggle links 2|, the ring 22
and the latch plates 25 but that when these
latch plates are released the spring 28-will move
the ring 22 downwardly and cause the slips to
move outwardly radially and engage the cas
ing.` The links 2| andthe ring 22 thus consti 10
ltute a toggle-joint which is capable of forcing
the slips into engagement with the casing with
considerable pressure and with considerable me
chanical advantage when the spring 28 is re
leased to exert a downward force on the cen
15
tral portion 22. Only one toggle link 2| is illus
trated in connection with each slip. More could
obviously be employed to give strength.
In addition to the parts just described, the
packer assembly includes a nut 38 screw thread 20
ed onto the mandrel I2 at a point adjacent the
slips I8. The outer surface of the nut is pro
vided with slots adapted to receive the links 28
and 2 I. A construction is thus provided in which
the nut :38 cannot rotate with respect to the 25
slips I8. If desired, the slips may be splined
to the nut'to hold it against rotation but this is
not shown in the drawings.
The threads on the nut are such that as the
mandrel is rotated to the right, as viewed from 30
the top, the nut will travel upwardly on the
mandrel. Unless the nut is splined to the slips,
it must be long enough to cause the upper links
2| to enter the slots therein before the lower
links 28 leave the slots so that some means is 35
always provided for holding the nut against ro
tation with respect to the slips.
The lower end of the nut 38 is shown provided
with several depending leaf spring pawls 3|
adapted to engage ratchet teeth 32 on the up 40
per and inner surface of the shoe I1. These
may be dispensed with, if desired, in which case
the packer would be held expanded by pulling
upwardly upon the mandrel until the cement is
in place.
45
In certain phases of the operation of the tool
it is desirable to wash cement or other material
out of- the mandrel I2 and from and around the
slips I8. To this end, Wash out ports 33 are
provided in the mandrel. When the nut 38 is 50
in the position shown in Figure 1, these Wash
out ports are closed thereby, but when the nut
moves upwardly these wash out ports are opened
so that ñuid can ñow from the inside of the
mandrel through the ports and around the space 55
between the pawls 3| and upwardly ‘between the
slips I8.
'
The details of construction of the links 28 and
2|
and the parts with which they are associated
connected to a collar 24 ñxed to 'the mandrel I2 is shown in perspective in Figure 5. The ends
by 'means of some suitable latch such as the of the links may be somewhat enlarged as shown 60
latch bars 25 which extend through the wall of at 34 to form cylindrical connecting portions
the mandrel I2 into the interior thereof. The adapted to ?lt for limited rotation within sock
latch arrangement may be as illustrated in de
ets 35 in the slips I8, ring 22 or shoe I1. The
65 tail in Figure lA. .The inner ends of the latch> links may be held Vinposition by set screws (not
plates 25 are provided with suitable tapered por
shown) ñtting into grooves in the portions 34.
tions 26 so as to cause them to move outwardly The nut 38 has slots 36 therein for accommo
radially when struck by a go-devil 21 or other dating the links 28 and 2|.. The slots 36 should
suitable device which may be dropped into the be substantially the same width as the links.
The projections 31 between the slots 36 on the
70 well'or lowered therein upon a wire line.
Instead of this means for temporarily latch
nut 38 may extend outwardly far enough to bring
ing the ring 22 to the mandrel, any other suit
the slips I8 within the slots, in which case, it
able means, such as a J-slot and pin connection, may be said that the slips are splined to the
may be employed.
nut 38.
A coil spring 28 is located between the collar
75
In accordance with the usual practice, the 75
3
2,129,754
lower shoe I4 of the assembly is provided with
2U to the upper shoe of the packer. The entire
a suitable spring pressed valve 3l.
The operation -of the apparatus is as follows:
apparatus may thus be removed from the well.
While only one embodiment of the invention
is shown and described herein, it is obvious that
various changes may be made in the apparatus
and construction of parts without departing
from the spirit of the invention or the scope
' With the parts in the relative positions shown
in Figure 1, the assembly is lowered into the well
to the desired location. 'I‘he gc-devil 21 is then
dropped and the ring 22 released from the man
drel so that the spring 2l forces the slip out into
engagement with the casing as described above.
10 It is to be noted that, when the spring 2l is re
leased, there will be a snap action and the slips
will be forced against the casing with some im
pact. The parts then assume the relative posi
tion shown in Figure 2. If now the mandrel is
pulled upwardly, the packer is expanded into
engagement with the casing. This action takes
place because the slips i8 have firmly engaged
the casing. 'I'hey prevent the upper shoe of the
packer from moving upwardly. As the mandrel
20 and lower shoe of the packer are pulled upward
ly, the pawls 3| engage the ratchet teeth 32 and
prevent the lower shoe and mandrel from mov
ing downwardly again with respect to the upper
shoe when upward pull upon the mandrel is dis
25 continued. Thus, the packer is held in expanded
position. Cement may then be forced under
pressure through the drill pipe or tubing which
supports the mandrel and downwardly through
the mandrel passing out through the valve Il
30 to a point beneath the packer assembly. During
the forcing of this cement downwardly through
’ the apparatus, the fluid pressure exerted on the
lower shoe of the packer will be transmitted
upwardly through the packer and the upper
35 shoe to the links 2n and the slips I2 which are
then fixed to the casing.
After the desired quantity of cement has been
forced into the well in this manner, the fluid
pressure is relieved. The valve Il then closes.
40 The washing out operation may then be under
taken. To accomplish this, the drill pipe and
mandrel are first rotated to the right a slight
amount so as to cause the nut 2l to travel up
wardly on the mandrel and open the wash out
ports 33. The parts are then in the relative
positions shown in Figure 3. In accordance
with the usual practice, the circuit for the wash
ing ñuid, such as water, is downwardly through
the drill pipe and` mandrel I2 out through the
50 wash out ports 33 and upwardly on the outside
of the mandrel, around the slips Il and upward
ly between the drill pipe and the casing. Re
verse circulation can be effected if desired.
The washing out operation may be continued
55 during the entire time that it takes for the
cement to harden or set, or the washing out
operation may be discontinued after a time and
drill pipe disconnected from the mandrel i2 and
moved upwardly a suillcient distance to insure
against it becoming cemented in the well. If the
drill pipe is disconnected, it is later lowered and
again connected on to the mandrel.
To remove the apparatus from the well, the
mandrel i2 is further rotated to the right. ‘This
causes the nut to travel upwardly still further`
and into engagement with the ring 22 of the
toggle-joint. The'toggle-joint is broken as the
ring 22 is forced upwardly, the spring 28 being
70 -compressed and the slips drawn radially in
.wardly into the position shown in Figure 4.
Upon then pulling up upon the mandrel, the
upper shoe of the packer may be raised, the pull
being transmitted through the nut 30, the ring
22, the toggle links 2l, the slips il and the links
of the annexed claims.
I claim:
'
‘
l. A packer assembly, suitable for use as a 10
cement retainer in an oil well, which includes
a packer, a set of slips located above the packer
and >adapted to hold the packer against upward
movement when set on the casing of the well
and means for setting and releasing the slips on 15
the casing, 'said means including links having
their outer ends connected to the slips and
mechanism for ¿actuating the inner ends of the
links to cause the slips to move out and in ra-`
dially in the casing».
20
2. A packer assembly, suitable for use as a
cement retainer in an oil well, which includes
a packer having an upper and a lower shoe, a
set of slips located above the packer and adapted
to hold the packer against upward movement 25
when set on the casing of thel well)and means
for setting and releasing the slips on the cas
ing, said means including links pivotally con
necting the slips to the upper shoe of the packer
and links pivotally connecting the “slips to a
member movable with respect to the upper shoe
of th‘e packer, the arrangement being such that
movement of said member with respect to the
upper shoe may set and release Ithe slips.
3. A packer assembly, suitable for use in an
oil well, which includes a set of slips adapted to
engage the casing of the well and means for set
ting and releasing said slips, said means includ
ing a toggle-joint.
4. A packer assembly, suitable for use as a
cement retainer in an oil well, which includes a
packer having an upper and a lower shoe, a set
of slips located above the packer and so con
structed as to resist upward movement when set
on the casing of the well, means for transmitting
force from the upper shoe of the packer to said
slips' when the slips are set and mechanism hav
ing a toggle-joint therein for setting and releas
ing said slips.
5. An arrangement for removably fixing ap
paratus in the casing of an oil well including, in
combination, alset vof slips and mechanism for
actuating the 'slips to move the same out and in
radially of the casing, said mechanism including
a toggle-joint.
.
6. An arrangement for removably fixing ap
paratus in the casing of an oil well including, in
combination, a set of slips and'mechanism for
actuating the slips to I_nove the same out and in
radially of the casing, said mechanism including
a toggle-joint adapted to set the slips upon the
exertion of a downward force on the central por
tion thereof and adapted to release the slips up
on the exertion of an upward force on the central
portion thereof and means operable from the sur
face of the well for moving the central portion
of the toggle-joint down or up with respect to
the slips.
7. An arrangement for removably fixing ap
paratus in the casing of an oil well including, in 70
combination, a set of slips and. mechanism for
actuating the .slips to move the same out and in
radially of the casing, said mechanism including
a toggle-joint adapted to set the slips upon the
exertion of a downward force on the central por
2,122,754 .
tion thereof and adapted to release the slips upon
the exertion oí’ an upward force on the central
portion thereof and means operable from the
surface of the Well for moving the central portion
of the toggle-point down or up with respect to
16. An arrangement for removably ilxing a
packer in the casing of an oil well including, in
combination, a mandrel for carrying the packer,
a set of slips, links connecting the slips to the
the slips, said means including a member screw
out radially with respect to the packer, toggle
threaded to a pipe and adapted upon rotation of
the pipe to move the central vportion of the tog
gie-joint in one direction.
8. An arrangement for removably fixing a pack
er in the casing of an oil well including, in com
bination, a set of slips, links connecting the slips
to the packer so as to permit the slipsto move
in and out radially with respect to the `packer and
a toggle-joint for controlling the radial move
ment of the slips.
joint mechanism for controlling the radial move
9. An arrangement for removably fixing a pack
er in the casing of an oil well including, in com
bination, a mandrel for carrying the packer, a
20 set of slips, links connecting the slips to the
packer so as to permit the slips to move in and
out `radially with respect to the packer, toggle
packer so as to permit the slips to move in and 5
ment of the slips, means screw threaded on the
mandrel for moving the toggle-joint mechanism
in one direction and a spring for urging the tog
joint mechanism for controlling the radial move- '
ment of the slips, means screw threaded on the
mandrel for moving the toggle-joint mechanism 20
in one direction, a spring -for urging the toggle
joint mechanism in another directien and means
joint mechanism for controlling the radial move
for temporarily latching said spring and toggle
ment of the slips and means screw threaded on
joint mechanism to the mandrel to hold the same
the mandrel for moving the toggle-joint mech
in ?lxed position with respect thereto.
PAUL M. ROHRBAUGH.
anism in one direction.
10
gle-j oint mechanism in another direction.
1l. An arrangement for removably ilxing a
packer in the casing of an oil well încluding,.in
combination, a mandrel for carrying the packer,
a set of slips, links connecting the slips to the 15
packer so as to permit the slips'to move in and
out radially with respect to the packer, toggle
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