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Патент USA US2122776

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July 5, 1938.
K. MATTHIES
2,122,776
ELECTRON DISCHARGE TUBE
Filed May 2, 1936
CAPACITANCE H
6'(D/ElECTR/C)
6 CYl/NDRICAZ CAPACITOR-EZFCTRODE
ANODE 3
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CAPACITANCE l2
15
INVENTOR
KURT MATTH I ES
BY
g
'A'TToRNEY
k.
Patented July 5, 1938
2,122,776
UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE
. 2,122,776
ELECTRON DISCHARGE‘ TUBE
Kurt Matthies, Berlin-Siemensstadt, Germany,
assignor to Siemens-Schuckertwerke Aktien
gesellschaft, Berlin, Siemensstadt, Germany,
a corporation of Germany
Application May 2, 1936, Serial No. 77,517
In Germany May 2, 1935
8 Claims. (Cl. 250-275)
This invention relates to a tube generator for ing to the invention, the oscillatory circuit coil
short waves, and more particularly to an electron placed in the tube proper together with the tube
tube having a suitable structure for minimizing capacities and a special blocking capacity form
the deleterious effects of inter-electrode capaci
the oscillatory circuit. The blocking capacity
5 tances. Utility for such a tube is to be found in
is likewise arranged in the interior of the tube,
radio apparatus, medicinal oscillators, and ultra
short wave devices generally.
In oscillatory circuit design using electron
tubes for generating short waves, it is known
10 that the electrode capacitances play a part that
must be taken into account. The capacitances
in question are those between anode and grid,
between grid and cathode, and between anode
and cathode. In like manner, in case of very
16 short waves the inductances of the lead-ins to
the tubes and the leads within the tube proper,
can no longer be neglected. For this reason it
has heretofore been suggested that tube genera
tors for short waves, might be so constituted that
20 the oscillatory circuits should be con?ned to
whereby the anode serves as one layer of this
blocking capacity, while the other layer is formed
by a special auxiliary electrode surrounding the
anode completely or partially. In order to pre
vent too great a reduction of the heat delivery of 10
the anode, this auxiliary electrode is preferably
formed as screen or net.
Hence in a tube gen
erator according to the invention, the conducting
parts of the oscillatory circuit are placed entirely
within the envelope of the tube. The production 15
of the energy takes place by way of induction
through a coil coupled to the oscillatory circuit
coil, likewise accommodated within the tube.
The accompanying drawing, Fig. 1, shows, by
way of example, a tube generator in accordance '20
the tube capacities and tube inductances. While
in general the tube capacities are comparatively
large, in the majority of cases, the tube induct
with the invention, and
ances alone are insu?icient to obtain an oscil
tube there are arranged in the known manner,
25 latory circuit.
In these cases, a special circuit
coil is required which is arranged outside the tube
Fig. 2 shows a circuit diagram for such a tube.
Fig. 1 shows the tube assembly.
Within the
the incandescent cathode I, the grid 2, and the 25
anode 3. The oscillatory circuit coil is repre
sented by the coil 4 placed between grid and aux
oscillatory circuit. In rendering the induction iliary electrode 6. This auxiliary electrode 6 to
of this oscillatory circuit coil variable this offers ‘ gether with the anode 3 form the blocking ca
30 at the same time the possibility of tuning the
pacity in series to the oscillatory circuit coil. The 30
oscillatory circuit.
reduction of the energy takes place through coil
In generator tubes for producing short waves 5 coupled to the oscillatory circuit coil 4, and
for medicinal purposes no possibility of tuning across the leads 8 and 9. In order to maintain
for varying the produced frequency is required, the inductance of the through leads 8 and 9 as
' and forms together with the tube capacities the
35 since in the applications to be considered a de?
nite wave length need not be adjusted to. But
the produced oscillation energies must in gen
eral be of relatively high frequency and high
amplitude for these purposes, so that for such
40 generator tubes a high e?iciency is of great im
portance.
In accordance with the invention, in order to
attain this end, the oscillating circuit coil, in a
short wave tube generator especially if designed
45 for medicinal purposes, and which is to supply a
wave length of, for instance, below 300 cm. is
placed in the tube proper. In this manner lead
ins to the coils are dispensed with while other
wise due to the skin effect at the high frequencies,
large losses would be caused. On the other hand,
where the oscillatory circuit coil is placed in the
tube proper according to the invention, the high
vacuum of the tube serves as dielectric for the
coil thus reducing the dielectric losses in the coil
55 insulation to zero.
In a tube generator accord
low as possible, the latter may be disposed so 35
that the one surrounds concentrically the other
one. A sealed-in lead I 0 may be connected to
the grid 2 through which any desired biasing po~
tential may be impressed upon the grid in order
that the working point be properly adjusted on 40
the tube characteristic. In order to reduce the
losses within the oscillatory circuit as much as
possible, the connection line between grid and
oscillatory circuit coil is insulated from the aux
iliary electrode 6 by means of a quartz insulator ‘l. 46
The mechanical structure of the tube is pref-,
erably such that the anode and the grid form.
concentrical cylinders in whose center the in
candescent cathode is arranged. In this case,
the auxiliary electrode 6 is formed into a cylin 50
der or part of a cylinder surrounding the anode
completely or partially. The quartz insulator 1
carrying the auxiliary electrode is likewise pref
erably shaped as a hollow cylinder. In order to
obtain a favorable insulation of the anode against 55
2
2,122,776
‘ the other electrodes, and to render the mechani
comprising the inherent capacity between said
cal structure as simple as possible, the anode is
fastened to a placewon the tube bulb lying op
posite to the press of the tube in which the
electrodes, and ,a secondary inductance within
said container coupled to said ?rst inductance
and having output leads directly connected: there
other electrodes are mounted.
to.
'
Fig. Z‘represents the circuit of the tube gen
erator shown in Fig, l. Herein, item I again
represents the incandescent cathode, while 2 is
the grid, and item 3 the anode. The oscillatory
-
.
'
4. An electron’ discharge device comprising a
container and concentric electrodes therein, said’
electrodes including a centrally disposed cathode,
a grid, an anode and an auxiliary electrode ex
trode and the anode. In this circuit the inter
electrode capacitances are labeled thus: ll rep
terior to the anode, and an oscillating circuit 10
Within the tube comprising an inductance in series
from the grid to said auxiliary electrode and the
inherent capacities’ between said grid, anode and
resents the anode-grid capacitance, I2 is the grid
auxiliary electrode.
10 circuit coil 4 is connected to the anode across the
blocking capacity formed by the auxiliary elec
15 cathode capacitance, and I3 the anode-cathode
capacitance. A capacitive reactance between the
anode 3 and the outer electrode 6 exists across the
'
5. An electron discharge device comprising a 15
container having electrodes therein, said elec-,
trodes comprising a cathode, a grid surrounding
dielectric 6'. As can be'seen, the voltage in the said cathode, an anode surrounding said grid, an
oscillatory circuit will be divided by the tube auxiliary electrode surrounding said anode, and
20 capacities ll, l2, and I3, so that one part of the a resonant circuit Within said container consti 20
, voltage of the oscillatory circuit is always applied
to the grid 2. It is in this manner that the oscil
lations in the oscillatory system are sustained.
The reduction of energy takesnplace across coil
2.5 5 coupled to the oscillatory circuit coil 4. Be
tween grid 2 and the cathode there is placed a
grid resistor l5 in series to the choke coil 14
serving for blocking the high frequency oscillation,
and a condenser I6 is placed in’ parallel to said
39 grid resistor.
I claim:
~
1. An electron discharge tube having a concen
tric system of electrodes including a. cathode, two
auxiliary electrodes and an anode interposed be
tween said auxiliary electrodes, an inductive re
actance mounted within the tube envelope and
having terminals each connected to one of said
auxiliary electrodes respectively, said inductive
reactanc'e in combination with the inherent inter
40 electrode capacitances constituting a resonant
circuit tuned to the frequency of the, oscillations
to be generated, a grid. biasing lead connected to
one of said auxiliary electrodes and an output coil
coupled to said inductive reactance.
2. An electron discharge tube having acathode
and a plurality of cold electrodes coaxially dis
posed about the cathode, an. inductively reactive
element mounted within the envelope of said tube
and interconnecting the outermost withthe in
nermost cold electrode, an output coil inductively
.55
coupled to said reactive element, and means sup
porting one of said cold electrodes in capacitively
reactive relation to the outermost and innermost
cold electrodes, said means being located at an
end of the tube envelope opposite the means of
support for the remaining electrodes.
3. An electron discharge device comprising a
tuted by the .inherentcapacitance between said
anode and said auxiliary electrode and by an
inductance connected between said grid and said
auxiliary electrode.
7
6. An electrical discharge device comprising a
container having electrodes therein, said elec
trodes comprising an incandescible cathode, a
cylindrical grid surrounding said cathode, a cy
lindrical anode surrounding said grid and a cy
lindrical auxiliary electrode surrounding said, an~ 30
ode, and an inductance in series between said grid
and said auxiliary electrode.
7. An oscillation generator comprising an elec
tron discharge tube including a centrally disposed
cathode, a control grid surrounding the cathode,
an anode surrounding the control grid and a
fourth electrode surrounding the anode; means
including an inductance and a capacitor‘ within
the envelope of said-tube for establishing reso-'
nance at an ultra-high frequency,said inductance .40
being disposed in circuit between the grid and
said fourth electrode and said capacitor, the other
electrode of said capacitor being constituted by
said fourth electrode and a portion of said anode
in juxtaposition thereto, and an inductive con 45
ductor within the envelope of said tube and cou-'
pled to. the inductance of said resonant circuit.
8. An electron discharge tube having a concen
tric system of electrodes including a cathode, an
anode and two other electrodes, said anode being
supported from one end of said tube and the
other electrodes being supported from the oppo
site end thereof and a resonant circuit mounted
within the envelope of said tube, said resonant
circuit including a capacitive portion formed by (55
two electrodes within the envelope, one of said
electrodes being the anode proper and the other
container and electrodes therein, said electrodes
being an electrode exteriorfto the anode, and said
including a centrally disposed cathode, a grid, an
anode and an auxiliary electrode surrounding the
so anode,
an oscillation circuit within said container
comprising an. inductance connected‘ in series
resonant circuit including. an inductive element
from said grid to said auxiliary electrode and
interconnecting two electrodes, one internally 16,0
and one externally of said anode.
KURT MATTHIES.
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