Патент USA US2122776код для вставки
July 5, 1938. K. MATTHIES 2,122,776 ELECTRON DISCHARGE TUBE Filed May 2, 1936 CAPACITANCE H 6'(D/ElECTR/C) 6 CYl/NDRICAZ CAPACITOR-EZFCTRODE ANODE 3 00WRMm7.” CAPACITANCE l2 15 INVENTOR KURT MATTH I ES BY g 'A'TToRNEY k. Patented July 5, 1938 2,122,776 UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE . 2,122,776 ELECTRON DISCHARGE‘ TUBE Kurt Matthies, Berlin-Siemensstadt, Germany, assignor to Siemens-Schuckertwerke Aktien gesellschaft, Berlin, Siemensstadt, Germany, a corporation of Germany Application May 2, 1936, Serial No. 77,517 In Germany May 2, 1935 8 Claims. (Cl. 250-275) This invention relates to a tube generator for ing to the invention, the oscillatory circuit coil short waves, and more particularly to an electron placed in the tube proper together with the tube tube having a suitable structure for minimizing capacities and a special blocking capacity form the deleterious effects of inter-electrode capaci the oscillatory circuit. The blocking capacity 5 tances. Utility for such a tube is to be found in is likewise arranged in the interior of the tube, radio apparatus, medicinal oscillators, and ultra short wave devices generally. In oscillatory circuit design using electron tubes for generating short waves, it is known 10 that the electrode capacitances play a part that must be taken into account. The capacitances in question are those between anode and grid, between grid and cathode, and between anode and cathode. In like manner, in case of very 16 short waves the inductances of the lead-ins to the tubes and the leads within the tube proper, can no longer be neglected. For this reason it has heretofore been suggested that tube genera tors for short waves, might be so constituted that 20 the oscillatory circuits should be con?ned to whereby the anode serves as one layer of this blocking capacity, while the other layer is formed by a special auxiliary electrode surrounding the anode completely or partially. In order to pre vent too great a reduction of the heat delivery of 10 the anode, this auxiliary electrode is preferably formed as screen or net. Hence in a tube gen erator according to the invention, the conducting parts of the oscillatory circuit are placed entirely within the envelope of the tube. The production 15 of the energy takes place by way of induction through a coil coupled to the oscillatory circuit coil, likewise accommodated within the tube. The accompanying drawing, Fig. 1, shows, by way of example, a tube generator in accordance '20 the tube capacities and tube inductances. While in general the tube capacities are comparatively large, in the majority of cases, the tube induct with the invention, and ances alone are insu?icient to obtain an oscil tube there are arranged in the known manner, 25 latory circuit. In these cases, a special circuit coil is required which is arranged outside the tube Fig. 2 shows a circuit diagram for such a tube. Fig. 1 shows the tube assembly. Within the the incandescent cathode I, the grid 2, and the 25 anode 3. The oscillatory circuit coil is repre sented by the coil 4 placed between grid and aux oscillatory circuit. In rendering the induction iliary electrode 6. This auxiliary electrode 6 to of this oscillatory circuit coil variable this offers ‘ gether with the anode 3 form the blocking ca 30 at the same time the possibility of tuning the pacity in series to the oscillatory circuit coil. The 30 oscillatory circuit. reduction of the energy takes place through coil In generator tubes for producing short waves 5 coupled to the oscillatory circuit coil 4, and for medicinal purposes no possibility of tuning across the leads 8 and 9. In order to maintain for varying the produced frequency is required, the inductance of the through leads 8 and 9 as ' and forms together with the tube capacities the 35 since in the applications to be considered a de? nite wave length need not be adjusted to. But the produced oscillation energies must in gen eral be of relatively high frequency and high amplitude for these purposes, so that for such 40 generator tubes a high e?iciency is of great im portance. In accordance with the invention, in order to attain this end, the oscillating circuit coil, in a short wave tube generator especially if designed 45 for medicinal purposes, and which is to supply a wave length of, for instance, below 300 cm. is placed in the tube proper. In this manner lead ins to the coils are dispensed with while other wise due to the skin effect at the high frequencies, large losses would be caused. On the other hand, where the oscillatory circuit coil is placed in the tube proper according to the invention, the high vacuum of the tube serves as dielectric for the coil thus reducing the dielectric losses in the coil 55 insulation to zero. In a tube generator accord low as possible, the latter may be disposed so 35 that the one surrounds concentrically the other one. A sealed-in lead I 0 may be connected to the grid 2 through which any desired biasing po~ tential may be impressed upon the grid in order that the working point be properly adjusted on 40 the tube characteristic. In order to reduce the losses within the oscillatory circuit as much as possible, the connection line between grid and oscillatory circuit coil is insulated from the aux iliary electrode 6 by means of a quartz insulator ‘l. 46 The mechanical structure of the tube is pref-, erably such that the anode and the grid form. concentrical cylinders in whose center the in candescent cathode is arranged. In this case, the auxiliary electrode 6 is formed into a cylin 50 der or part of a cylinder surrounding the anode completely or partially. The quartz insulator 1 carrying the auxiliary electrode is likewise pref erably shaped as a hollow cylinder. In order to obtain a favorable insulation of the anode against 55 2 2,122,776 ‘ the other electrodes, and to render the mechani comprising the inherent capacity between said cal structure as simple as possible, the anode is fastened to a placewon the tube bulb lying op posite to the press of the tube in which the electrodes, and ,a secondary inductance within said container coupled to said ?rst inductance and having output leads directly connected: there other electrodes are mounted. to. ' Fig. Z‘represents the circuit of the tube gen erator shown in Fig, l. Herein, item I again represents the incandescent cathode, while 2 is the grid, and item 3 the anode. The oscillatory - . ' 4. An electron’ discharge device comprising a container and concentric electrodes therein, said’ electrodes including a centrally disposed cathode, a grid, an anode and an auxiliary electrode ex trode and the anode. In this circuit the inter electrode capacitances are labeled thus: ll rep terior to the anode, and an oscillating circuit 10 Within the tube comprising an inductance in series from the grid to said auxiliary electrode and the inherent capacities’ between said grid, anode and resents the anode-grid capacitance, I2 is the grid auxiliary electrode. 10 circuit coil 4 is connected to the anode across the blocking capacity formed by the auxiliary elec 15 cathode capacitance, and I3 the anode-cathode capacitance. A capacitive reactance between the anode 3 and the outer electrode 6 exists across the ' 5. An electron discharge device comprising a 15 container having electrodes therein, said elec-, trodes comprising a cathode, a grid surrounding dielectric 6'. As can be'seen, the voltage in the said cathode, an anode surrounding said grid, an oscillatory circuit will be divided by the tube auxiliary electrode surrounding said anode, and 20 capacities ll, l2, and I3, so that one part of the a resonant circuit Within said container consti 20 , voltage of the oscillatory circuit is always applied to the grid 2. It is in this manner that the oscil lations in the oscillatory system are sustained. The reduction of energy takesnplace across coil 2.5 5 coupled to the oscillatory circuit coil 4. Be tween grid 2 and the cathode there is placed a grid resistor l5 in series to the choke coil 14 serving for blocking the high frequency oscillation, and a condenser I6 is placed in’ parallel to said 39 grid resistor. I claim: ~ 1. An electron discharge tube having a concen tric system of electrodes including a. cathode, two auxiliary electrodes and an anode interposed be tween said auxiliary electrodes, an inductive re actance mounted within the tube envelope and having terminals each connected to one of said auxiliary electrodes respectively, said inductive reactanc'e in combination with the inherent inter 40 electrode capacitances constituting a resonant circuit tuned to the frequency of the, oscillations to be generated, a grid. biasing lead connected to one of said auxiliary electrodes and an output coil coupled to said inductive reactance. 2. An electron discharge tube having acathode and a plurality of cold electrodes coaxially dis posed about the cathode, an. inductively reactive element mounted within the envelope of said tube and interconnecting the outermost withthe in nermost cold electrode, an output coil inductively .55 coupled to said reactive element, and means sup porting one of said cold electrodes in capacitively reactive relation to the outermost and innermost cold electrodes, said means being located at an end of the tube envelope opposite the means of support for the remaining electrodes. 3. An electron discharge device comprising a tuted by the .inherentcapacitance between said anode and said auxiliary electrode and by an inductance connected between said grid and said auxiliary electrode. 7 6. An electrical discharge device comprising a container having electrodes therein, said elec trodes comprising an incandescible cathode, a cylindrical grid surrounding said cathode, a cy lindrical anode surrounding said grid and a cy lindrical auxiliary electrode surrounding said, an~ 30 ode, and an inductance in series between said grid and said auxiliary electrode. 7. An oscillation generator comprising an elec tron discharge tube including a centrally disposed cathode, a control grid surrounding the cathode, an anode surrounding the control grid and a fourth electrode surrounding the anode; means including an inductance and a capacitor‘ within the envelope of said-tube for establishing reso-' nance at an ultra-high frequency,said inductance .40 being disposed in circuit between the grid and said fourth electrode and said capacitor, the other electrode of said capacitor being constituted by said fourth electrode and a portion of said anode in juxtaposition thereto, and an inductive con 45 ductor within the envelope of said tube and cou-' pled to. the inductance of said resonant circuit. 8. An electron discharge tube having a concen tric system of electrodes including a cathode, an anode and two other electrodes, said anode being supported from one end of said tube and the other electrodes being supported from the oppo site end thereof and a resonant circuit mounted within the envelope of said tube, said resonant circuit including a capacitive portion formed by (55 two electrodes within the envelope, one of said electrodes being the anode proper and the other container and electrodes therein, said electrodes being an electrode exteriorfto the anode, and said including a centrally disposed cathode, a grid, an anode and an auxiliary electrode surrounding the so anode, an oscillation circuit within said container comprising an. inductance connected‘ in series resonant circuit including. an inductive element from said grid to said auxiliary electrode and interconnecting two electrodes, one internally 16,0 and one externally of said anode. KURT MATTHIES.