Патент USA US2122808код для вставки
July 5, 1.938. _ 2,122,898 A. C. CATLAND ‘ROCK an: Filed Dec. 24, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 /0 l7 /6 35 : I‘ 2 2/ Z0 Z2 ' Z9 42 23 23 54 5/ 1a 5m 55 22 /4 WWW ATTORNEY ' ‘ ' July>5, 1938. 2,122,808 A. c. CATLAND ROCK BIT ' Filed Dec’ 24’ 1935 ?ya 3/ 34 3 w ' vI5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented July 5, 1938 2,122,808 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,122,808 ROCK BIT Alfred C. Catland, Alhambra, Calif., assignor to Globe Oil Tools Company, Los Nietos, Calif., a corporation of California ‘ Application December 24, 1935, Serial No.'56,006 11' Claims. (Cl. 255-71) This invention relates to a well drilling tool and relates‘ more particularly to a rock bit for use in .the rotary method of well drilling. _A general object of this invention is to provide a practical 5 effective and improved rock bit. Another object of this invention is to provide a roller rock bit for deep well drilling operations in which all of its several roller cutters are ‘car ried by or are parts of a single readily demount 10 able or detachable unit. Another object of this invention is to provide a roller rock bit in which the operating thrusts" resulting from the action of the cutters on the earth formation do not cause or tend to cause 15 spreading of the bit head. ' ftom elevation of the bit with the cutter carry ing unit removed. Fig. 3 is a central longitudinal detailed sectional view of the principal partsof the bit illustrating the rotatable mounting of the outer cutters. Fig. 4 is a central longitudinal 5 - detailed sectional view of the bit showing the shank in elevation, being a view taken in a plane at 90° to the plane of sectioning of Fig. 3 and - showing the rotatable mounting of the inner cut? ters. Fig. 5 is a bottom elevation view of the 10 bit. Fig. 6 is a top or plan view of the cutter supporting carrier with the cutters removed. Fig. '7 is a side elevation of the carrier. Figs. 8 and. 9 are transverse detailed sectional views taken as indicated by lines 8—8, and 9—9 respec- 15 tively on Fig. 4 and Fig. 10 is a side elevation of the bit with a portion broken away to illustrate Another object of this invention is to provide a roller rock bit that is operable to drill a straight vertical bore. The cutters of the bit provided by ‘ another manner of connecting the bit head with this invention are mounted and related to center the shank.‘ ‘ 20 the bit in the well bore and to stabilize the bit The improved rock bit provided by this inven- 20 during its rotation, thereby guiding the bit to tion includes, generally, a shank [0, a bit head make a straight vertical bore. 1 H removably secured to the shank II]. a spider Another object of this invention is to provide or carrier l2 detachably secured to the head I I, a rock bit in which the carrier or spider rotatably outer roller cutters l3 rotatably supported by the 25 supporting the several cutters of the bit is a carrier l2 and inner cutting means I 4 supported 25 simple, integral part and is dependably and se by the carrier l2. curely attached to the bit head by simple inex The shank I0 is adapted to be connected with pensive securing means. the lower end of a drilling string of drill pipe and Another object’of this invention is to provide , is provided to receive or carry the bit head II. 30 a roller rock bit on which the cutters are mount In- practice the shank 10 may be an elongate cy- 3'3 ed and related to have active cutting engagement lindrical member having a reduced lower end por ‘ with substantially the entire bottom wall of the tion IS. A downwardly facing annular shoul well and to be rapid and e?icient intheir cutting der l6 occurs on the shank ill at the upper end action. I of its reduced portion Hi. The shank I0 is pro 35 Another object of this invention is to provide vided with a central longitudinal ?uid passage 35 a rock bit of the character mentioned in which I ‘l for carrying the ?uid downwardly from the the spider carrying the rotatable cutters may be drilling string. A ?uid discharge block or nozzle quickly detached from the bit head with simple I8 is provided at the lower end of the passage tools to permit the easy replacement of the cut I‘! to discharge the circulation ?uid against the 40 ters. _ ' cutters l3 and the cutting means Hi. The nozzle 40 A further object of this invention is to provide ‘I8 is preferably tapered and is accurately or a roller rock bit, or the character mentioned in tightly ?tted in a tapered socket l9 at the lower which the bit head may be easily and quickly se end of the passage I‘! to have ?uid tight engage-‘ ~ cured to the shank in 'the proper rotative position ment with the shank H). In practice the block 45 relative to the discharge ports on the shank ' or nozzle l8 may be welded or otherwise ?xed to 45 so that the circulation ?uid properly impinges the shank l0. Sets or pairs of diametrically op against and ?ushes the cutters. posite ports 20 and 2| are provided in the nozzle The various objects and features of my in E8. The ports 20 and 2l‘are provided to dis vention will be fully understood from the follow charge the circulation ?uid downwardly against 50 mg detailed description of typical preferred forms the cutters l3 and the cutting means M at an 60 and applications of my invention, throughout increased velocity as will be hereinafter described. which description reference is made to the accom The ?uid discharge ports 20 and 2! are preferably panying drawings, in which: inclined downwardly and outwardly. Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the improved rock The head‘ i i may be considered as the body 55 bit provided by this invention. Fig. 2 is a bot of the bit and is provided to support the carrier 55 2 2,122,808 . i2. The head II is a tubular member surround screw-threaded to the shank l0 as illustrated in ing the reduced portion l5 of the shank l0 and projecting downwardly beyond the lower end ‘of said portion. Sets or pairs of legs 22 and 23 pro ject downwardly from the lower-end of the head ll. Thelegs 22 and 23 are integral parts of the head H and the legs of each pair are diametrical Fig. 10 of the drawings. ‘In the case where the head II is threadedly connected with the shank III the reduced portion‘ l5 of the shank is suit ably tapered and the-shank portion i5 and the interior of the head II are provided with suitable cooperating threads 35 as shown in Fig. 10. When the head Ii is fully threaded on the shank por tion l5 its‘upper e‘nd bears against the shoulder ly opposite. The diametrically opposite legs 22 are spaced substantially 90° between the di 10 ametrically opposite legs 23. The inner surfaces or sides 24 of the legs 22 are inclined downwardly and outwardly as clearly illustrated in Fig. 3 of the drawings. The legs 22 are thickened at their lower ends being provided with inwardly project The keys or lugs 25 have substantially horizontal lower sides 26 and inner 15 ing keys or lugs 25. sides 21 which are substantially vertical or slight ly inclined downwardly and outwardly. The in ner sides of the legs 23 have upper surfaces 23 which are inclined downwardly and outwardly and lower surfaces 28 which. are substantially l6. - . 10 _ The spider or cutter carriewlz is provided to support the outer cutters i3 and the inner cut ting means “ and is dependably secured to the legs 22 and 23 for easy removal from the head II to permit replacement of the cutters and cut 15 ting means or to permit its replacement together with the cutters and cutting means. In accord ance with the invention the carrier I2 is a one piece or integral member as illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7 of the drawings. The carrier l2 includes 20 a central web 36 which is substantially wedge shaped in vertical cross section having a ?at vertical. The legs 22 and 23 may ?are down wardly or project‘ downwardly and outwardly upper end and downwardly convergent sides 31. from the lower end of the head II, as illus ‘The carrier I2 is positioned so that the central longitudinal axis of its web 36 is in or adjacent 25 trated throughout the drawings. The invention as illustrated "in Figs. 1 m9, _ the vertical plane which includes the central ver inclusive, of the drawings embodies a simple, e?ective means for removably securing the bit ' , head “to the shank ID. This means for con necting the head II with the shank l6 includes lugs 30 projecting from the reduced portion ii of the shank HI at diametrically opposite points. The lugs 30' are adapted to cooperate with bayo net slots in the head I I. These bayonet slots in clude vertical branches or. arms 3| extending downwardly from the upper end of the head II and lateral or substantially horizontal arms 32. The slot parts or arms 3| may be in the form of grooves in the interior of the head ll while the tical axes of the legs‘ 22. Plate-like parts or ‘ - bosses 38 are integrally joined with the opposite ends of the web 36.- The outwardly facing sur faces or sides 39 of the bosses 38 are inclined downwardly being substantially parallel with the inner sides 24 of the legs 22. Studs or pins 40 project outwardly from the bosses 38 to'rotat ably support the outer cutters l3. The pins 40 are integral with the bosses 36 and the web 36 and their longitudinal axes are at right angles to the bosses’ faces 39 and, accordingly, are sub stantially normal to the inner sides 24 of the. legs 22. ‘ ‘ The outer ends of the pins "are adapted to 40 head to itsouter surface. The shank portion have‘ bearing or thrust transmitting cooperation I5 may have ?at faces ‘ID for forming the inner . with the legs 22. Notches 4| are provided in the 40 arms ‘32 may extend through the walls of the walls of the channels or slot arms 3|. The head I l‘may be thickened or reinforced at the vertical 45 arms 3| of the slot as shown in Fig. 9 oil the outer ends of the pins 40 to receive and cooperate with‘ the lugs 25 on the legs 22. The'notches 4| are shaped to have effective cooperation with the 45 drawings. When the shank l6 and head II are lugs 25 having substantially horizontal bottom assembled the lugs 30 are entered in the vertical arms 3| of the slots and when they reach the walls to cooperate with the lower ends 26 of the lugs and substantially vertical sidewalls to co operate with the inner sides 21 of the lugs. The cooperation of the notches 4| with the lugs 25 50 horizontal arms 32 the head I! is turned relative 50 to the shank to move the lugs 30 into the lateral arms 32 of the slots. When the lugs 30 are re ceived in the slot arms 32 the shoulder l6 may engage the upper end of the head ||. Bars or keys 33 are then introduced into the vertical 55 arms 3| of the bayonet‘slots to lock the lugs 36 in the slot arms 32._ The parts are preferably related so that the keys 33 are entered behind the lugs 30 relative ,to the direction of rotation of the bit. Screws 34 are threaded into openings 60 in the faces 16 of the shankiat the upper ends of the keys‘ 33‘ to prevent the upward displace ment of the keys. . The lugs‘ 30 .positively locked. in cooperation with the slot arms 32 by the keys 33 form posi— 65 tive driving connections between the shank l0 and the head II. The lugs3l| may be easily dis provides for the vdependable transmission of op erative pressures between tli'e legs 22 and the cut ter carrying pins 40. Screws 42 are passed in wardly through downwardly and inwardly in clined openings 43 in the legs 22 and are thread ed intoglongitudinal openings or sockets 44 in the pins 46. The: heads of the screws 42 are prefer ably countersunk in the openings 43. The screws 42 dependably connect the legs 22 with the pins 40 of the carrier1l2. _ , j 60 .The carrier Rel-includes or is provided with studs or pins‘ 45_ for carrying the inner cutting means H. The pins 45.‘project"i'rom the opposite sides‘ 31 of the web_36 and extend. towardlthe legs 23.__ The pins 45 may have their central lon 65 gitudinal axes lying in the same vertical plane‘ engaged from the bayonet slots following the ‘ as‘ the vertical axis of the legs 23. In the‘pre removal of the screws 34 and the keys 33. The ferred construction the pins‘ 45 project down; releasable-connection between the shank HI and wardly and outwardly from the web 36 having 70 the head ll just described positions the head H downwardly and outwardly inclined longitudinal 70 in a deiinite or known rotative position with re axes. The pins 45 are preferably integral‘ with, spect to the shank lO-to insure the proper re-' the web 36. Reduced parts 46 are provided on lationship between the ports 26 and 2| and the cutters l3'and the cutting means‘ l4. It is to the outer ends of the pins 45. The reduced parts 75 be understood that the bit head II may‘ be 4‘! in the inner sides of the legs 23. ' The end 46 are adapted to cooperate with vertical notches 3 2,122,808 parts 46 of the pins .45 are adapted to bear upe wardly and'outwardly on the ‘walls of the notches 47., Shoulders 48 occur at the inner ends of the reduced parts 46 and are spaced inwardly from the inner sides 28 of the legs 23. The invention includes means for connecting the pins 45 with the legs 23. Screws 49 are passed inwardly through .openings 53 in the legs 23 and are threaded into longitudinal openings in the pins The rotatable cutters 58 are provided with suit able peripheral cutting parts 63. Roller bearings 64 may be provided to rotatably support the cutters 58 on the pins 45. - The roller cutters 51 and 58 rotatably supported on the pins 45 as just described rotate about downwardly and outwardly inclined axes leaving or forming a conical mound on the‘bottom wall of the well bore, which mound is stepped, due to the differences in effective diameters of the cutters. The cutters 5'! and 58 cooperating with operate to securely connect the legs 23 and the‘ this stepped mound of earth formation operate pins 65. . . to center the bit during operation and stabilize The outer cutters iii are provided to cut the the bit whereby it drills a straight vertical bore. 15 well bore to gauge and to act on the outer portion _‘ With the carrier i2 secured to the head H and of the bottom wall of the well. The outer cut the head ii secured to the shank ID by the ters l3 are in the nature of substantially cylin bayonet slot connection 3G——3i—32, as described drical roller cutters and are rotatably supported above, the port-s 20 are positioned to discharge on the inclined pins 45. Cutting parts or teeth the circulation fluid downwardly and outwardly 20 M are provided on the cutters I 3 to act on the at an increased velocity to impinge against the 20 earth formation. In the particular case illus outer cutters I3 while the ports 2i discharge the trated the cutting teeth 5i are straight and ' ?uid at an increased velocity against the cutters axial, it being understood that the cutting parts 5i and 58. of the cutters l3 may be spiralled‘ or otherwise In operation the rock bit of the present inven arranged. The outer cutters i3 are preferably tion is operated on the lower‘ end of a string of 25 supported on the pins 65 through roller bearings drill pipe by rotating the pipe and feeding it 52. Counter-bores 53 in the cutters i3 carry the downwardly. The lugs 30 cooperating with the bearings 52. The outer cutters i3 are supported branches or arms 32 of the bayonet slots form on the pins Iii! so that the surfaces 38 of the a positive and dependable driving connection be bosses 38 form thrust shoulders at the inner ends tween the shank ID and the head ii. The cutter 30 of the cutters. Replaceable thrust washers 5d carrier :2 is attached to and bears on the arms are arranged on the lugs‘ 25 to receive the end 22 and 23 so that the feeding pressures or drilling thrusts from the outer ends of the cutters i3 Weight on the cutters vis effectively transmitted and to prevent excessive wearing of the legs 22. between the head and the carrier without tend 35 The thrust washers 565 are held against rotation ing to cause the head to spread. The lugs 25 co 35 10 45. The heads of the screws 49 are preferably countersunk in the openings 50. The screws 49 through their cooperation with flat end surface r 55 on the legs 2'2. The outer cutters i3 rotatably supported as just described are rotatable about downwardly and inwardly inclined axes and 'pro ject downwardly beyond the legs 22 and the web 36 to cooperate with the‘bottom wall of the well and project outwardly beyond the legs 22 to contact the side wall of the well to cut the bore to size. It is preferred to bevel oiT the outer operating with the notches ?iil and the reduced parts 871' of the pins 45 cooperating with the slots it? provide for the direct transmission of pressures between the legs of the head it and the cutter supporting pins 49 and 45 of the carrier 62. The screws 42 and 49 dependably secure the carrier it to the head H but are not subjected to severe pressures or forces. As the drill is rotated and fed downwardly the ends of the cutting teeth 5i as at 55 to have ' outer cutters i3 act on and cut away the outer 45 proper cooperation with the side wall of the well. portion of the bottom wall of the well and the The inner cutting means it is provided to act > bevelled corners 56 of their cutting parts 5i trim on the major inner portion of the bottom wall of the well. The means it includes a cutter 5i the side wall of the bore to gauge. The inclina-' tion of the cutters I3 provides for the formation W rotatably supported on each'pin 135 and a cutter ‘of an inclined shoulder on the wall of the bore 50 58 supported on each pin £5. The cuttersv 5i‘ and the cutters acting on this shoulder assist in and 58 are roller cutters and are substantially guiding and centering the bit. The cutters 5i cylindrical in their general ‘con?guration. The and 58 of the inner cutting means It carried by cutters 5'! are rotatably supported on the inner the downwardly and outwardly inclined pins 55 end portions of the pins 35. The cutters 57 may act on the major portion of the bottom wall of the 55 be alike in size and shape. The cutters 57 are bore and the inclination of their axes of rotation provided with suitable peripheral cutting parts or teeth 59. The inner ends of the cutters 57 may have thrust transmitting cooperation with 60 the sides or surfaces 31 of the web 36. causes them to cut or form a substantially conical mound. The cutters 51 and 58 acting on this mound dependably center the bit. The cutters Roller 58 being larger in diameter than the cutters 5‘! bearings 60 are preferably provided to rotatably cut an annular shoulder in the conical mound of earth formation and this action further assures the proper centering of the bit. When the cutters support the cutters 5'! on the inclined pins 45. The cutters 53 of the means M are rotatably supported on the outer end portions of the pins 65 45. In the preferred form of the invention the. . cutters 58 are larger in diameter than the cut ters 51 to form a stepped wall at the bottom of the well bore. Thrust receiving and wear taking Washers M are interposed between the outer 70 ends of the cutters 58 and the inner surfaces 28 of the legs 23. The replaceable washers 6| are arranged on the reduced parts 46 of the pins 45 to bear against the shoulders £8. The washers 6| have'cooperation with flat shoulders 62 on 75 the legs 23 which holds them against rotation. I3, 51 or 58 have become worn the cutter carrier l2 may be easily removed from the head II by 65 unscrewing the screws 42 and 49. This opera tion may be carried out with simple available tools. Following the disconnection of the car rier i2 from the head H the cutters may be easily removed from the cutter supporting pins 70 of the carrier. Thebit of the present invention involves simple inexpensive parts and is easily reconditioned for further use after its cutting parts have become worn. Having described only typical preferred forms 75 2,122,808 4 and applications of my invention, I do not wish to be limited or restricted to the speci?c details herein set forth', but wish to reserve to myself any variations or modi?cations that may appear to those skilled in the art or fall within the scope of the following claims. . carrier having pins projecting outwardly to the legs, means connecting the pins with the legs, roller cutters rotatable on the pins, and a bayo net type connection connecting the head with the shank in a de?nite ,rotative position with re spect thereto to provide for the discharge of A . ?uid from the said ports against the cutters. 9 Having described my invention, I claim: 1. A rock bit comprising a bit head having sets I 6. In a rock bit, two elements, one a shank, the of downwardly projecting legs, a demountable car 10. rier at the lower end of the body, a set of pins other a bit head, one element having a bayonet slot, a lug on the other element cooperating with ii) projecting upwardly and outwardly from the the slot to connectthe elements and transmit ' carrierv to cooperate with one set of legs, a set of turning forces, _a ?uid discharge nozzle on the pins of equal length‘ projecting downwardly and shank, having downwardly directed ports offset outwardly to cooperate with another set of legs, I from the central vertical axis of the shank, downwardly projecting legs on the head, a 15 and roller cutters rotatable on the pins, the co operation between the pins and the legs being the demountable carrier having pins projecting sole means of supporting the carrier on the body. outwardly to the legs, and roller cutters on the 2. A rock bit comprising a bit head having sets of downwardly projecting legs, a demountable 20 carrier at the lower end of the body, a set of pins projecting upwardly and outwardly from the pins, the cooperating slot and lug rotatably po sitioning the head on the shank to have the nozzle ports discharge against the cutters. 20 7. In a rock bit, a head having downwardly projecting legs, a carrier at the lower end of the carrier to cooperate with one set of legs, a set of pins projecting downwardly and outwardly to - head, pins on the carrier projecting outwardly to the legs, there being notches in the outer ends oi'the pins, cutters rotatable on the pins, and 25 necting the pins and the legs together to rerribv- ‘ lugs on the legs cooperating with notches. 8. In a rock bit, a. head having downwardly ably attach the carrier to the head, and roller projecting legs, a carrier at the lower end of the cutters rotatable on the pins, the, cooperation be tween the pins and the legs being the sole means head, pins on the carrier projecting outwardly to the legs, there being notches in the outer ends 30 30 -of supporting the carrier on the body. 3. A rock bit comprising a head having two of the pins having substantially vertical side w°alls and. substantially horizontal lower walls, sets of substantially diametrically opposite down wardly projecting legs, a ‘carrier at the lower end ' cutters rotatable on the pins, lugs on the legs re ceived in the notches and having substantially of the head including a web whose central ver vertical sides and substantially horizontal ends 35 35 ‘tical plane is diametric or‘ the central longitu dinal axis of the head, pins projecting upwardly cooperating with said_,walls~o1 the notches, to and outwardly from opposite sides of the web to transmit forces between the head and carrier, and screws connecting the pins and legs. the legs of one set to have upward bearing en 9. In a rock bit, a head having downwardly gagement on the legs, and pins projecting ‘down wardly and outwardly from the web to legs of’ projecting legs, a carrier at the lower end of the 40 the other set to have upward bearing engagement head, pins on the carrier projecting outwardly to on the legs, roller cutters rotatably supported on the legs, there being notches in the outer ends cooperate with another set of legs, the last men 25 tioned pins being of equal length, means con the first named pins to act on the outer portion of the well bore, the second mentioned pins being. 45- equal in length and roller cutters rotatably sup-_ ported on the said second named pins to act on the inner portion of the bore. said walls.‘ ' 4. A rock bit comprising a head having two sets of substantially diametrically opposite down’ ~wardly projecting legs, a one-piece carrier at the lower end of the heady including a web whose central vertical plane is diametric of, the central longitudinal axis of the head, pins projecting upwardly and outwardly from opposite sides 0! the web to the legs of one set, and pins of equal length projecting vdownwardly 'and- outwardly from the carrier to legs of the other set, roller cutters rotatably supported on the ?rst named pins to act on the outer portion of the well bore, 60 and sets of rotatable roller cutters on the second named pins to act on the inner portion of the . bore wall and form a centering mound, the outer ' most cutter of each or said sets of cutters being of larger diameter than the inner cutters of the 65 of the pins having substantially horizontal low er walls, rotatable cutters on the pins, and lugs on the legs received in the notches and having substantially- horizontal lower ends bearing on 45 set. ' _ 5. A rock bit comprising a'shank, a ?uid dis-,-v charge member on the shank having ports o?set ‘ 10. In a rock bit, a head having substantially ' diametrically opposite. downwardly projecting legs, a one-piece carrier at the lower end of the’ head including a web whose central vertical plane is diametric of the central vertical axis of the, head, and pins of equal length projecting downwardly and outwardly from the web to the legs, and a set of roller cutters on each pin; the outer cutters of the sets being larger in diameter than ‘the inner cutters whereby the cutters act on a stepped centering mound oi‘ formation. 11. A rock bit comprising a shank, a ?uid dis charge member on the shank having a down wardly directed discharge offset from the cen tral longitudinal axis 0! the shank, a bit head having downwardly projecting legs, a carrier having pins projecting outwardly to‘ the legs, roller cutters rotatable on the‘ pins, and a bay onet type ‘connecting the head vwith the shank in a de?nite rotative position with respect thereto to provide for. the discharge oi ?uid from the v said ports against the cutters. " head having downwardly projecting legs, a - from the central vertical axis of the shank, a bit ' - _ -_Al'.mm C. CATLAND.