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Патент USA US2122808

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July 5, 1.938. _
2,122,898
A. C. CATLAND
‘ROCK an:
Filed Dec. 24, 1935
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WWW
ATTORNEY
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July>5, 1938.
2,122,808
A. c. CATLAND
ROCK BIT
' Filed Dec’ 24’ 1935
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vI5 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented July 5, 1938
2,122,808
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,122,808
ROCK BIT
Alfred C. Catland, Alhambra, Calif., assignor to
Globe Oil Tools Company, Los Nietos, Calif., a
corporation of California
‘
Application December 24, 1935, Serial No.'56,006
11' Claims. (Cl. 255-71)
This invention relates to a well drilling tool and
relates‘ more particularly to a rock bit for use in
.the rotary method of well drilling. _A general
object of this invention is to provide a practical
5 effective and improved rock bit.
Another object of this invention is to provide
a roller rock bit for deep well drilling operations
in which all of its several roller cutters are ‘car
ried by or are parts of a single readily demount
10 able or detachable unit.
Another object of this invention is to provide
a roller rock bit in which the operating thrusts"
resulting from the action of the cutters on the
earth formation do not cause or tend to cause
15 spreading of the bit head.
'
ftom elevation of the bit with the cutter carry
ing unit removed. Fig. 3 is a central longitudinal
detailed sectional view of the principal partsof
the bit illustrating the rotatable mounting of
the outer cutters.
Fig. 4 is a central longitudinal
5 -
detailed sectional view of the bit showing the
shank in elevation, being a view taken in a plane
at 90° to the plane of sectioning of Fig. 3 and
- showing the rotatable mounting of the inner cut?
ters. Fig. 5 is a bottom elevation view of the 10
bit. Fig. 6 is a top or plan view of the cutter
supporting carrier with the cutters removed.
Fig. '7 is a side elevation of the carrier. Figs. 8
and. 9 are transverse detailed sectional views
taken as indicated by lines 8—8, and 9—9 respec- 15
tively on Fig. 4 and Fig. 10 is a side elevation of
the bit with a portion broken away to illustrate
Another object of this invention is to provide
a roller rock bit that is operable to drill a straight
vertical bore. The cutters of the bit provided by ‘ another manner of connecting the bit head with
this invention are mounted and related to center the shank.‘
‘
20 the bit in the well bore and to stabilize the bit
The improved rock bit provided by this inven- 20
during its rotation, thereby guiding the bit to tion includes, generally, a shank [0, a bit head
make a straight vertical bore. 1
H removably secured to the shank II]. a spider
Another object of this invention is to provide or carrier l2 detachably secured to the head I I,
a rock bit in which the carrier or spider rotatably outer roller cutters l3 rotatably supported by the
25 supporting the several cutters of the bit is a
carrier l2 and inner cutting means I 4 supported 25
simple, integral part and is dependably and se
by the carrier l2.
curely attached to the bit head by simple inex
The shank I0 is adapted to be connected with
pensive securing means.
the lower end of a drilling string of drill pipe and
Another object’of this invention is to provide , is provided to receive or carry the bit head II.
30 a roller rock bit on which the cutters are mount
In- practice the shank 10 may be an elongate cy- 3'3
ed and related to have active cutting engagement lindrical member having a reduced lower end por
‘ with substantially the entire bottom wall of the
tion IS. A downwardly facing annular shoul
well and to be rapid and e?icient intheir cutting der l6 occurs on the shank ill at the upper end
action.
I
of its reduced portion Hi. The shank I0 is pro
35
Another object of this invention is to provide vided with a central longitudinal ?uid passage 35
a rock bit of the character mentioned in which
I ‘l for carrying the ?uid downwardly from the
the spider carrying the rotatable cutters may be drilling string. A ?uid discharge block or nozzle
quickly detached from the bit head with simple I8 is provided at the lower end of the passage
tools to permit the easy replacement of the cut
I‘! to discharge the circulation ?uid against the
40 ters.
_
'
cutters l3 and the cutting means Hi. The nozzle 40
A further object of this invention is to provide ‘I8 is preferably tapered and is accurately or
a roller rock bit, or the character mentioned in tightly ?tted in a tapered socket l9 at the lower
which the bit head may be easily and quickly se
end of the passage I‘! to have ?uid tight engage-‘
~
cured to the shank in 'the proper rotative position
ment with the shank H). In practice the block
45 relative to the discharge ports on the shank ' or nozzle l8 may be welded or otherwise ?xed to 45
so that the circulation ?uid properly impinges the shank l0. Sets or pairs of diametrically op
against and ?ushes the cutters.
posite ports 20 and 2| are provided in the nozzle
The various objects and features of my in
E8. The ports 20 and 2l‘are provided to dis
vention will be fully understood from the follow
charge the circulation ?uid downwardly against
50 mg detailed description of typical preferred forms the cutters l3 and the cutting means M at an 60
and applications of my invention, throughout increased velocity as will be hereinafter described.
which description reference is made to the accom
The ?uid discharge ports 20 and 2! are preferably
panying drawings, in which:
inclined downwardly and outwardly.
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the improved rock
The head‘ i i may be considered as the body
55 bit provided by this invention. Fig. 2 is a bot
of the bit and is provided to support the carrier 55
2
2,122,808 .
i2. The head II is a tubular member surround
screw-threaded to the shank l0 as illustrated in
ing the reduced portion l5 of the shank l0 and
projecting downwardly beyond the lower end ‘of
said portion. Sets or pairs of legs 22 and 23 pro
ject downwardly from the lower-end of the head
ll. Thelegs 22 and 23 are integral parts of the
head H and the legs of each pair are diametrical
Fig. 10 of the drawings. ‘In the case where the
head II is threadedly connected with the shank
III the reduced portion‘ l5 of the shank is suit
ably tapered and the-shank portion i5 and the
interior of the head II are provided with suitable
cooperating threads 35 as shown in Fig. 10. When
the head Ii is fully threaded on the shank por
tion l5 its‘upper e‘nd bears against the shoulder
ly opposite. The diametrically opposite legs 22
are spaced substantially 90° between the di
10 ametrically opposite legs 23. The inner surfaces
or sides 24 of the legs 22 are inclined downwardly
and outwardly as clearly illustrated in Fig. 3 of
the drawings. The legs 22 are thickened at their
lower ends being provided with inwardly project
The keys or lugs 25 have
substantially horizontal lower sides 26 and inner
15 ing keys or lugs 25.
sides 21 which are substantially vertical or slight
ly inclined downwardly and outwardly. The in
ner sides of the legs 23 have upper surfaces 23
which are inclined downwardly and outwardly
and lower surfaces 28 which. are substantially
l6.
-
.
10
_
The spider or cutter carriewlz is provided to
support the outer cutters i3 and the inner cut
ting means “ and is dependably secured to the
legs 22 and 23 for easy removal from the head
II to permit replacement of the cutters and cut 15
ting means or to permit its replacement together
with the cutters and cutting means. In accord
ance with the invention the carrier I2 is a one
piece or integral member as illustrated in Figs. 6
and 7 of the drawings. The carrier l2 includes 20
a central web 36 which is substantially wedge
shaped in vertical cross section having a ?at
vertical. The legs 22 and 23 may ?are down
wardly or project‘ downwardly and outwardly upper end and downwardly convergent sides 31.
from the lower end of the head II, as illus ‘The carrier I2 is positioned so that the central
longitudinal axis of its web 36 is in or adjacent 25
trated throughout the drawings.
The invention as illustrated "in Figs. 1 m9, _ the vertical plane which includes the central ver
inclusive, of the drawings embodies a simple,
e?ective means for removably securing the bit
' , head “to the shank ID.
This means for con
necting the head II with the shank l6 includes
lugs 30 projecting from the reduced portion ii
of the shank HI at diametrically opposite points.
The lugs 30' are adapted to cooperate with bayo
net slots in the head I I. These bayonet slots in
clude vertical branches or. arms 3| extending
downwardly from the upper end of the head II
and lateral or substantially horizontal arms 32.
The slot parts or arms 3| may be in the form of
grooves in the interior of the head ll while the
tical axes of the legs‘ 22.
Plate-like parts or
‘ -
bosses 38 are integrally joined with the opposite
ends of the web 36.- The outwardly facing sur
faces or sides 39 of the bosses 38 are inclined
downwardly being substantially parallel with the
inner sides 24 of the legs 22. Studs or pins 40
project outwardly from the bosses 38 to'rotat
ably support the outer cutters l3. The pins 40
are integral with the bosses 36 and the web 36
and their longitudinal axes are at right angles
to the bosses’ faces 39 and, accordingly, are sub
stantially normal to the inner sides 24 of the.
legs 22.
‘
‘
The outer ends of the pins "are adapted to 40
head to itsouter surface. The shank portion have‘ bearing or thrust transmitting cooperation
I5 may have ?at faces ‘ID for forming the inner . with the legs 22. Notches 4| are provided in the
40 arms ‘32 may extend through the walls of the
walls of the channels or slot arms 3|. The head
I l‘may be thickened or reinforced at the vertical
45 arms 3| of the slot as shown in Fig. 9 oil the
outer ends of the pins 40 to receive and cooperate
with‘ the lugs 25 on the legs 22. The'notches 4|
are shaped to have effective cooperation with the 45
drawings. When the shank l6 and head II are
lugs 25 having substantially horizontal bottom
assembled the lugs 30 are entered in the vertical
arms 3| of the slots and when they reach the
walls to cooperate with the lower ends 26 of the
lugs and substantially vertical sidewalls to co
operate with the inner sides 21 of the lugs. The
cooperation of the notches 4| with the lugs 25 50
horizontal arms 32 the head I! is turned relative
50 to the shank to move the lugs 30 into the lateral
arms 32 of the slots. When the lugs 30 are re
ceived in the slot arms 32 the shoulder l6 may
engage the upper end of the head ||. Bars or
keys 33 are then introduced into the vertical
55 arms 3| of the bayonet‘slots to lock the lugs 36
in the slot arms 32._ The parts are preferably
related so that the keys 33 are entered behind
the lugs 30 relative ,to the direction of rotation
of the bit. Screws 34 are threaded into openings
60 in the faces 16 of the shankiat the upper ends
of the keys‘ 33‘ to prevent the upward displace
ment of the keys.
.
The lugs‘ 30 .positively locked. in cooperation
with the slot arms 32 by the keys 33 form posi—
65 tive driving connections between the shank l0
and the head II. The lugs3l| may be easily dis
provides for the vdependable transmission of op
erative pressures between tli'e legs 22 and the cut
ter carrying pins 40. Screws 42 are passed in
wardly through downwardly and inwardly in
clined openings 43 in the legs 22 and are thread
ed intoglongitudinal openings or sockets 44 in the
pins 46. The: heads of the screws 42 are prefer
ably countersunk in the openings 43. The screws
42 dependably connect the legs 22 with the pins
40 of the carrier1l2.
_
,
j
60
.The carrier Rel-includes or is provided with
studs or pins‘ 45_ for carrying the inner cutting
means H. The pins 45.‘project"i'rom the opposite
sides‘ 31 of the web_36 and extend. towardlthe
legs 23.__ The pins 45 may have their central lon 65
gitudinal axes lying in the same vertical plane‘
engaged from the bayonet slots following the ‘ as‘ the vertical axis of the legs 23. In the‘pre
removal of the screws 34 and the keys 33. The ferred construction the pins‘ 45 project down;
releasable-connection between the shank HI and wardly and outwardly from the web 36 having
70 the head ll just described positions the head H downwardly and outwardly inclined longitudinal 70
in a deiinite or known rotative position with re
axes. The pins 45 are preferably integral‘ with,
spect to the shank lO-to insure the proper re-' the web 36. Reduced parts 46 are provided on
lationship between the ports 26 and 2| and the
cutters l3'and the cutting means‘ l4. It is to
the outer ends of the pins 45. The reduced parts
75 be understood that the bit head II may‘ be
4‘! in the inner sides of the legs 23. ' The end
46 are adapted to cooperate with vertical notches
3
2,122,808
parts 46 of the pins .45 are adapted to bear upe
wardly and'outwardly on the ‘walls of the notches
47., Shoulders 48 occur at the inner ends of the
reduced parts 46 and are spaced inwardly from
the inner sides 28 of the legs 23. The invention
includes means for connecting the pins 45 with
the legs 23. Screws 49 are passed inwardly
through .openings 53 in the legs 23 and are
threaded into longitudinal openings in the pins
The rotatable cutters 58 are provided with suit
able peripheral cutting parts 63. Roller bearings
64 may be provided to rotatably support the
cutters 58 on the pins 45.
-
The roller cutters 51 and 58 rotatably supported
on the pins 45 as just described rotate about
downwardly and outwardly inclined axes leaving
or forming a conical mound on the‘bottom wall
of the well bore, which mound is stepped, due to
the differences in effective diameters of the
cutters. The cutters 5'! and 58 cooperating with
operate to securely connect the legs 23 and the‘ this stepped mound of earth formation operate
pins 65.
.
.
to center the bit during operation and stabilize
The outer cutters iii are provided to cut the the bit whereby it drills a straight vertical bore.
15 well bore to gauge and to act on the outer portion _‘ With the carrier i2 secured to the head H and
of the bottom wall of the well. The outer cut
the head ii secured to the shank ID by the
ters l3 are in the nature of substantially cylin
bayonet slot connection 3G——3i—32, as described
drical roller cutters and are rotatably supported above, the port-s 20 are positioned to discharge
on the inclined pins 45. Cutting parts or teeth the circulation fluid downwardly and outwardly
20 M are provided on the cutters I 3 to act on the at an increased velocity to impinge against the 20
earth formation. In the particular case illus
outer cutters I3 while the ports 2i discharge the
trated the cutting teeth 5i are straight and ' ?uid at an increased velocity against the cutters
axial, it being understood that the cutting parts 5i and 58.
of the cutters l3 may be spiralled‘ or otherwise
In operation the rock bit of the present inven
arranged. The outer cutters i3 are preferably tion is operated on the lower‘ end of a string of 25
supported on the pins 65 through roller bearings drill pipe by rotating the pipe and feeding it
52. Counter-bores 53 in the cutters i3 carry the downwardly. The lugs 30 cooperating with the
bearings 52. The outer cutters i3 are supported branches or arms 32 of the bayonet slots form
on the pins Iii! so that the surfaces 38 of the
a positive and dependable driving connection be
bosses 38 form thrust shoulders at the inner ends tween the shank ID and the head ii. The cutter 30
of the cutters. Replaceable thrust washers 5d carrier :2 is attached to and bears on the arms
are arranged on the lugs‘ 25 to receive the end
22 and 23 so that the feeding pressures or drilling
thrusts from the outer ends of the cutters i3
Weight on the cutters vis effectively transmitted
and to prevent excessive wearing of the legs 22. between the head and the carrier without tend
35 The thrust washers 565 are held against rotation
ing to cause the head to spread. The lugs 25 co 35
10 45. The heads of the screws 49 are preferably
countersunk in the openings 50. The screws 49
through their cooperation with flat end surface r
55 on the legs 2'2. The outer cutters i3 rotatably
supported as just described are rotatable about
downwardly and inwardly inclined axes and 'pro
ject downwardly beyond the legs 22 and the web
36 to cooperate with the‘bottom wall of the well
and project outwardly beyond the legs 22 to
contact the side wall of the well to cut the bore
to size. It is preferred to bevel oiT the outer
operating with the notches ?iil and the reduced
parts 871' of the pins 45 cooperating with the slots
it? provide for the direct transmission of pressures
between the legs of the head it and the cutter
supporting pins 49 and 45 of the carrier 62.
The
screws 42 and 49 dependably secure the carrier
it to the head H but are not subjected to severe
pressures or forces.
As the drill is rotated and fed downwardly the
ends of the cutting teeth 5i as at 55 to have ' outer cutters i3 act on and cut away the outer 45
proper cooperation with the side wall of the well.
portion of the bottom wall of the well and the
The inner cutting means it is provided to act > bevelled corners 56 of their cutting parts 5i trim
on the major inner portion of the bottom wall
of the well. The means it includes a cutter 5i
the side wall of the bore to gauge. The inclina-'
tion of the cutters I3 provides for the formation
W rotatably supported on each'pin 135 and a cutter ‘of an inclined shoulder on the wall of the bore 50
58 supported on each pin £5. The cuttersv 5i‘ and the cutters acting on this shoulder assist in
and 58 are roller cutters and are substantially
guiding and centering the bit. The cutters 5i
cylindrical in their general ‘con?guration. The and 58 of the inner cutting means It carried by
cutters 5'! are rotatably supported on the inner
the downwardly and outwardly inclined pins 55
end portions of the pins 35. The cutters 57 may act on the major portion of the bottom wall of the 55
be alike in size and shape. The cutters 57 are bore and the inclination of their axes of rotation
provided with suitable peripheral cutting parts
or teeth 59.
The inner ends of the cutters 57
may have thrust transmitting cooperation with
60 the sides or surfaces 31 of the web 36.
causes them to cut or form a substantially conical
mound. The cutters 51 and 58 acting on this
mound dependably center the bit. The cutters
Roller
58 being larger in diameter than the cutters 5‘!
bearings 60 are preferably provided to rotatably
cut an annular shoulder in the conical mound of
earth formation and this action further assures
the proper centering of the bit. When the cutters
support the cutters 5'! on the inclined pins 45.
The cutters 53 of the means M are rotatably
supported on the outer end portions of the pins
65 45. In the preferred form of the invention the.
. cutters 58 are larger in diameter than the cut
ters 51 to form a stepped wall at the bottom of
the well bore. Thrust receiving and wear taking
Washers M are interposed between the outer
70 ends of the cutters 58 and the inner surfaces 28
of the legs 23. The replaceable washers 6| are
arranged on the reduced parts 46 of the pins
45 to bear against the shoulders £8. The washers
6| have'cooperation with flat shoulders 62 on
75 the legs 23 which holds them against rotation.
I3, 51 or 58 have become worn the cutter carrier
l2 may be easily removed from the head II by 65
unscrewing the screws 42 and 49. This opera
tion may be carried out with simple available
tools. Following the disconnection of the car
rier i2 from the head H the cutters may be
easily removed from the cutter supporting pins 70
of the carrier. Thebit of the present invention
involves simple inexpensive parts and is easily
reconditioned for further use after its cutting
parts have become worn.
Having described only typical preferred forms 75
2,122,808
4
and applications of my invention, I do not wish
to be limited or restricted to the speci?c details
herein set forth', but wish to reserve to myself any
variations or modi?cations that may appear to
those skilled in the art or fall within the scope of
the following claims.
.
carrier having pins projecting outwardly to the
legs, means connecting the pins with the legs,
roller cutters rotatable on the pins, and a bayo
net type connection connecting the head with
the shank in a de?nite ,rotative position with re
spect thereto to provide for the discharge of A
.
?uid from the said ports against the cutters.
9 Having described my invention, I claim:
1. A rock bit comprising a bit head having sets I
6. In a rock bit, two elements, one a shank, the
of downwardly projecting legs, a demountable car
10. rier at the lower end of the body, a set of pins
other a bit head, one element having a bayonet
slot, a lug on the other element cooperating with ii)
projecting upwardly and outwardly from the
the slot to connectthe elements and transmit '
carrierv to cooperate with one set of legs, a set of
turning forces, _a ?uid discharge nozzle on the
pins of equal length‘ projecting downwardly and
shank, having downwardly directed ports offset
outwardly to cooperate with another set of legs, I from the central vertical axis of the shank,
downwardly projecting legs on the head, a
15 and roller cutters rotatable on the pins, the co
operation between the pins and the legs being the
demountable carrier having pins projecting
sole means of supporting the carrier on the body.
outwardly to the legs, and roller cutters on the
2. A rock bit comprising a bit head having sets
of downwardly projecting legs, a demountable
20 carrier at the lower end of the body, a set of pins
projecting upwardly and outwardly from the
pins, the cooperating slot and lug rotatably po
sitioning the head on the shank to have the
nozzle ports discharge against the cutters.
20
7. In a rock bit, a head having downwardly
projecting legs, a carrier at the lower end of the
carrier to cooperate with one set of legs, a set of
pins projecting downwardly and outwardly to - head, pins on the carrier projecting outwardly
to the legs, there being notches in the outer ends
oi'the pins, cutters rotatable on the pins, and 25
necting the pins and the legs together to rerribv- ‘ lugs on the legs cooperating with notches.
8. In a rock bit, a. head having downwardly
ably attach the carrier to the head, and roller
projecting legs, a carrier at the lower end of the
cutters rotatable on the pins, the, cooperation be
tween the pins and the legs being the sole means head, pins on the carrier projecting outwardly
to the legs, there being notches in the outer ends 30
30 -of supporting the carrier on the body.
3. A rock bit comprising a head having two of the pins having substantially vertical side
w°alls and. substantially horizontal lower walls,
sets of substantially diametrically opposite down
wardly projecting legs, a ‘carrier at the lower end ' cutters rotatable on the pins, lugs on the legs re
ceived in the notches and having substantially
of the head including a web whose central ver
vertical sides and substantially horizontal ends 35
35 ‘tical plane is diametric or‘ the central longitu
dinal axis of the head, pins projecting upwardly cooperating with said_,walls~o1 the notches, to
and outwardly from opposite sides of the web to transmit forces between the head and carrier,
and screws connecting the pins and legs.
the legs of one set to have upward bearing en
9. In a rock bit, a head having downwardly
gagement on the legs, and pins projecting ‘down
wardly and outwardly from the web to legs of’ projecting legs, a carrier at the lower end of the 40
the other set to have upward bearing engagement head, pins on the carrier projecting outwardly to
on the legs, roller cutters rotatably supported on the legs, there being notches in the outer ends
cooperate with another set of legs, the last men
25 tioned pins being of equal length, means con
the first named pins to act on the outer portion
of the well bore, the second mentioned pins being.
45- equal in length and roller cutters rotatably sup-_
ported on the said second named pins to act on
the inner portion of the bore.
said walls.‘
'
4. A rock bit comprising a head having two
sets of substantially diametrically opposite down’
~wardly projecting legs, a one-piece carrier at the
lower end of the heady including a web whose
central vertical plane is diametric of, the central
longitudinal axis of the head, pins projecting
upwardly and outwardly from opposite sides 0!
the web to the legs of one set, and pins of equal
length projecting vdownwardly 'and- outwardly
from the carrier to legs of the other set, roller
cutters rotatably supported on the ?rst named
pins to act on the outer portion of the well bore,
60 and sets of rotatable roller cutters on the second
named pins to act on the inner portion of the
. bore wall and form a centering mound, the outer
' most cutter of each or said sets of cutters being
of larger diameter than the inner cutters of the
65
of the pins having substantially horizontal low
er walls, rotatable cutters on the pins, and lugs
on the legs received in the notches and having
substantially- horizontal lower ends bearing on 45
set.
'
_
5. A rock bit comprising a'shank, a ?uid dis-,-v
charge member on the shank having ports o?set
‘
10. In a rock bit, a head having substantially '
diametrically opposite. downwardly projecting
legs, a one-piece carrier at the lower end of the’
head including a web whose central vertical
plane is diametric of the central vertical axis of
the, head, and pins of equal length projecting
downwardly and outwardly from the web to the
legs, and a set of roller cutters on each pin; the
outer cutters of the sets being larger in diameter
than ‘the inner cutters whereby the cutters act
on a stepped centering mound oi‘ formation.
11. A rock bit comprising a shank, a ?uid dis
charge member on the shank having a down
wardly directed discharge offset from the cen
tral longitudinal axis 0! the shank, a bit head
having downwardly projecting legs, a carrier
having pins projecting outwardly to‘ the legs,
roller cutters rotatable on the‘ pins, and a bay
onet type ‘connecting the head vwith the shank in
a de?nite rotative position with respect thereto
to provide for. the discharge oi ?uid from the v
said
ports against the cutters. "
head having downwardly projecting legs, a -
from the central vertical axis of the shank, a bit
'
-
_
-_Al'.mm C. CATLAND.
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