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Патент USA US2122862

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Patented July 5,
Carl E. Hillers, Charlottesville, Va., assignor to .
Blue Ridge Slate Corporation, Charlottesville,
, Va., a corporation of Virginia
No Drawing, Application December 30, 1936,
’ Serial No. 118,270
9 Claims. (01'. 91-470)
This invention relates to new and useful im
while the latter is still in the form of a conprovements in methods of coloring roo?ng ele
sheet, or it may be applied to the shingles
ments and the products thereof.
after they have been out.
Certain cements, usually in colored form, are
I will now illustrate the method I employ.
generally used to color coat mineral surfaced Principally,
modi?cations as disclosed later
asphalt shingles and the like. The cement is on, coloring with
agents, solutions of alkali-metal sili
usually sprayed or otherwise spread over the
mites and barium ?uosilicate are employed, and
shingles. Hydraulic cement is used and, be~ these
may, as disclosed in my copending appli
cause of its slow rate of setting, many precau
Serial No. 114,014, ?led December 3, 1936,
tions must be taken to insure against objection
be sprayed on a roo?ng element simultaneously
able characteristics in the ?nished product. by separate spray guns, after ?rst mixing the 10
Furthermore, because of the nature of the ce_ coloring agent with either the alkali-metal sili
ments used and their curing characteristics, cate solution or the barium ?uosilicate. Chemi
shingles coated by the usual methods are fre
cal reaction proceeds quite rapidly between the quently handled several times, necessitating alkali-metal silicate solution and barium‘ ?uo~
stacking and restacking, which is costly from
silicate. In~color~coating roo?ng sheets, webs
the standpoint of the labor involved and from or elements, it is frequently well to retard the
the hazard‘ of marring, defacing or breaking the speed
of the chemical reaction by the incorpora
stiffened hydraulic cement coated product.
' tion of a ground solid diluent or ?ller, ‘and I will
I have found that certain compositions of mat—
the invention [more completely with 20
ter which show a pronounced tendency to harden illustrate
one or more of the principal ingredients thus
rapidly may be sprayed upon or spread over roof
ing elements. Instead of the usual curing pe
riod of two to three weeks, my‘ method requires‘
a few_ days.
.25 oneMyor compositions
can be applied not only to
' mineral‘ surfaced asphalt roo?ng, but also to
natural slate shingles, cement shingles, asbes
tos-oement shingles, tin or other metal in sheets
30 or elements, etc, with a similar reduction in
curing, time over the compositions as present em
ployed in the coloring of such roo?ngelements.
I ?rst prepare a powder consisting of ?nely
ground barium ?uosilicate, one or more color
ing agents, and a ?ller. The coloring agent may 25
be chromium oxide to produce a green compo
sition. The ?ller may be crushed stone of any
character, but preference is given to stone which
is in itself weather resistant and not subject to
marked changes upon exposure to the elements. 30
For pastel or light colored compositions I prefer
a ‘white or light colored ?ller such as quartz,
I am, of course, referring to the curing time of > quartzite, feldspar, crushed sandstone or light
a layer or ?lm of colored material applied to pebbles.’ For‘ other colors the use of a ?ller ma
35 one or both sides of such rigid type shingles and
not to shingles which are arti?cially colored all
the way through.
Natural slate shingles. for example, occur in
numerous color groups but none of these groups
40 is characterized by strong or bright colors.
the method of this invention the color of the
terial similar in color to the desired shades per 35
mits the use of less color agent. Examples:
greenstone, red slate,,brown iron ores, etc. In
preparing the stone or ?ller for use in the com
position, lt may be crushed, ground and screened
to pass 100% through a 65~mesh screen. Such 40
a product will usually contain percentages of
slate may be intensi?ed; for example, greyish the ?ner sizings such as a portion which will
‘ green slate may be colored bright green, red
pass the 200-mesh screen and a portion which
dish brown slate may be 'colored bright red, or r
will pass the 300-mesh screen, etc. Although the
45 the color group of the natural slate may be en~
tirely changed as, for example, to red slate may 65-mesh screen is used as the top screen in this 45
example, other sizes of screens may be'used for
be applied blue or a green colored composition the
top screen. When the composition is to be
which will harden to a ?rmly bound or keyed applied
in a thin layer I ?nd that the (id-mesh
layer of long life and lasting beauty.
to be preferred to a coarser screen of
The methods employed in the application of
compositions of this invention are in general
similar whether the compositions are applied to
natural slates or other rigid roo?ng, or‘ to min
eral surfaced asphalt roo?ng. However, the com
55 , position may be applied to the asphalt roo?ng
the sizing of‘the ill-mesh‘ or 20*mesh, and the
65_-mesh screen produces slightly larger yield in 50
a given sizing than the loo-mesh vand is therefore
more economical.
As a working formula 85 lbs. of crushed and
screened white quartzite,?15 ‘lbs. oi’ powdered
barium ?uosilicate and 15 lbs. of chromium oxide
may- be stirred or ground together until inti
mately mixed. The mixed powder is then stirred
is a possibility that the coating may eiiloresce. If
a portion of the sodium silicate'solutionflis re:
placed by water in small substitution, or if a solu
into 46 to 50 lbs. of a solution of sodium silicate
tion of slightly greater concentration is used, the
(Iact0r—-NazO:3.25SiO:) of approximately 37 dc;
grees Baumé for 30 seconds. The heavy paint re
replacement by water be excessive, the strength
results are usually satisfactory. vHowever, if the
sulting may be spread by trowel or rollers or
sprayed on sheets of mineral surfaced asphalt
and weathering quality of the coating are im
paired. Furthermore, if too large an amount of
‘ roo?ng. This must be done with a minimum loss
of time, and suitable batches 6f the composition
should be made up to allow application before
the chemical reaction between the sodium sili
water is added to the composition or, more espe
'cially, if a freshly coated layer of the composition '
comes in contactwith water, there is apt to be
a leaching out ofv the water soluble alkali-metal
cate and the barium ?uosilicate'has proceeded
silicate and the residual coating may be quite de
too far.
_The rapid rate at which the composition sets
?cient in strength, hardness and weather resist
ance, whereas if the solution is too concentrated,
is due probably to the decomposition of the barium
?uosilicate by the alkali of the sodium silicate, or
it might be‘ better statedas due to the gradual
spread or apply.
The sodium silicate may be replaced by potas
then the . resulting composition is di?lcult to
removal of the alkali-metal (or its oxide or hy
20 droxide) from the alkali-metal silicate by chemi
cal reaction with barium ?uosilicate. During this
reaction it is possible that a skeleton coating of
interlocking silica, hydrated silica, silicic acid or
some similar material is set up simultaneously
25 with the other reactionproducts. The ?nal com
position probably contains, besides a certain pro
sium silicate, or a mixture of sodium silicate and
potassium silicate may be used instead of sodium 20v
silicate. Within reasonable limits, silicate solutions v
of other factors than the one of the example may
be used.
The amount of barium ?uosilicate may be in
creased, and where a white or light colored com a
position is desired, such. increases may assist in
portion of the starting material, the ?uorides of reducing the amount of white pigment necessary.
if too much barium ?uos‘llicate is used,
sodium and barium, the silicate of barium, and However,
silica or hydrated silica, although the identity of the composition may tend to set up sorapidly that
30 the chemical compounds in the composition, at times insu?lcient time is allowed for spread
after reactions have occurred, is very di?lcult to ing or applying the composition. It the amount
establish. Forthat reason the foregoing is to be of barium silicate. be reduced too greatly the
considered merely as an attempt to explain the weathering qualities of the ?nal product are im
changes which occur and is not intended to limit paired and the coating may show a tendency'to
35 this invention to the reaction products suggested. eilloresce.
When mineral surfaced roo?ng is used, the sur
The coated roo?ng material may be cut up in
to shingles and stacked into bundles. The coating facing may be of slate, greenstone, quartz,-feld-v
will continue to harden as a result of reaction spar, glass or such other granular material as is
employed in roo?ng manufacture. The amount
between the ingredients, and at 90° F. the coat
of ?ller may be varied over. considerable limits 40
ing becomes sui?ciently hard and weather-resist
ant so that the shingles may be applied to a roof provided that in making such variations the effect
of its increased thickening action upon the paints
in about three days’ time. Inasmuch as the com
larger amounts are used is taken into ac
position hardens by chemical reaction, the speed‘ when
count. The amount of filler may likewise be
of the reaction is dependent upon the tempera
45 ture. I prefer to operate at 90° F or higher, al
though the processof this invention may be ‘con
ducted at other temperatures. When the com
position is applied to a sheet of mineral-surfaced
roo?ng as it comes from the roo?ng machine inv a
50 continuous web, the temperature of the roo?ng
may be so controlled that it will not be necessary
to warm the sheetl'of roo?ng as a separate step
or operation. If, however,_the roo?ng is at too
high a temperature, the composition may show
55 a tendency to set up so rapidly that it cannot
be evenly spread. This is not always objection
able because irregular application frequently pro
duces pleasing color effects. '
The materials from which the composition is
60 produced should be neither too warm nor too cold
because the former condition results in very rapid
reaction while the latter condition may produce
too slow a rate of setting.
While the above speci?ed amounts of barium
65 ?uosilicate, ?ller, coloring agent and sodium sili
cate may be varied, I have not found it practi
cal to decrease the amount of sodium silicate be
low the point where a workable ‘composition or
decreased, but if too little ?ller is used the com 45
position tends to set up too rapidly and it may
even result in insu?lcient mixing of the powder
and liquid to obtain uniform distribution.
I prefer to use color pigments which are per
manent upon exposure to the elements but do
not wish to limit the process of this invention to
any particularcolor or type of pigment. I have
found that chromium oxide and hydroxide, iron
oxide and hydroxide pigments, synthetic cobalt
aluminum-zinc-silicate blues, cadmium sul?de 55
and selenide colors, zinc oxide, lithopone, tita
nium oxide, metal powders and other pigments are
well suitedto the process of this invention.
Under certain conditions of setting and drying
o! the compositions of this invention it may be
found that multi-color effects are produced. These
effects may be eminently desirable if they can be
controlled and reproduced. I have found that
the production of a de?nite color from a given
composition (when applied to roo?ng sheets or 65
shingles) 'is largely dependent upon the mainte
nance of the same rate of setting and drying.
With a few exceptions the faster the coating dries‘
.heavy paint is produced; because when smaller ' the darker will be the color e?ect of the dried 70
coating, and when the compositions are dried
amounts of sodium silicate are used, the compo
sition becomes too plastic for easy application or
spreading. If too large an amount of sodium sili
cate is used, the rate of setting of the composi
tion is retarded, the weather resistance of the
75 ?nal coating is somewhat impaired and there
more slowly, the coatings tend to be lighter in
The rate of setting and drying can be controlled
by regulation of the temperature as previously
mentioned and also by regulation of the humidity ‘
- 9,128,862
in the‘ air surrounding the shingles or the like
‘ ‘while the composition layer is curing. The pres
mixing apparatus may be employed. ' The in
?uosilicate and the alkali-metal silicate. There
during the mixing operation. In fact, unless the
fore, even if temperatures of 90° or higher are
coating, some regard must be given to the mois
ture content of the surrounding‘atmosphere. I
gradients at too rapid a rate. However, grinding
is unnecessary at this stage. Mere inter-mingling
is su?lcient to produce a composition of the de
sired qualities. The intermingling can be stopped
when all portions of the ingredients exhibit the 15
same color and approximately the same ?uidity,_
which can be accomplished in a mixer consisting
ing approximately the same temperature.
of a revolving can in which is submerged an oppo
A brief summary indicating how a web of felt
may be converted into color-coated shingles by a
combination of’some of the more common, well
sltely revolving series of mixing blades. One may
use also a mixing tube or nozzle arrangement 20
wherein the powder enters at one end and the
known stages of roo?ng manufacture and the
process ‘of this invention is shown in the following
alkali-metal silicate solution is injected through.
the walls of the tube under pressure and at such
an angle that a spiral forward and intermingling
movement is produced between the silicate solu 25
First, saturatinga web of felt with a ‘water
proo?ng bituminous substance;
Second, applying a layer of high melt asphalt
to one surface of the saturated web:
Third, applying a surfacing of mineral granules
30 _to the layer of high melt asphalt while said.
asphalt is still in a plastic condition;
Fourth, embedding the mineral surfacing gran
ule's in the high melt asphalt layer by _the,appli—
cation of pressure;
Fifth, removing the excess mineral granules
which have not become embedded;
Sixth, cooling ‘the web of mineral surfaced
roo?ng material to a temperature of about 90° It;
Seventh, applying a colored composition to the
40 exposed surfaces of the mineral granules" on the
ingredients are thoroughly co‘ol before and ‘kept
cool during the mixing operation, it is exceed
ingly dl?lcult‘to produce an intimate grinding
that chemical reaction occurs between the in- 10
relative‘ humidities of the order of 85 to 90% or
higher at a; temperature of 90° during the ?rst
twenty-four hours or more, and subsequent re
ductionin the relative humidity while maintain
gradients do not have to be ground or triturated
action without having sov much heat developed
prefer to employ a high relative humidity during
the early stages of the setting of the composition
even when applied as a coating to shingles which
are in bundles. I have obtained good results with
several of the commercial types of high speed
ence of moisture in the composition is essential
for the chemical reaction between the barium
employed in setting the composition to a hard
In mixing the compositions of this invention,
‘ tion and the powder, resulting in an almost in
stantaneous mixing operation. The latter type of
mixing equipment is well adapted if the composi
tions are ‘to be sprayed on the roo?ng elements,
but it may also be used if the composition is to be 30
smoothed on by rolls, ‘knives, trowels, or their
In coloring slate shingles or asbestos-cement
shingles and similar‘ rigid roo?ng elements, the
same type of composition may be employed using 35
the same ingredients, the same proportions, and
mixed in the same way as when preparing the
composition for application to mineral surfaced
asphalt roofing.
However, the sizev of roo?ng
slates usually depends on the size of the slabs
from which they are split, the presence of malfor~
‘ ?nished web, said composition being the inter
mingled product of ‘an alkali-metal silicate solu- ' motions, seams, cleavages, etc. The slate splitter
tion and a powdery mixture of barium ?uosillcate. and trimmer, and this refers to the hand opera
coloring agent and crushed mineral filler, and
frequently ‘produces not a succession of
being capable of reacting chemically to‘ form a tions,
slatesof the same size but a succemion of slates 45
hard, weather-resistant layer over the granules of
assorted sizes. I ?nd it therefore advantageous
as previously described;
select bundles of slates of uniform size, re
Eighth, cutting the roo?ng web into the desired gardless
of what the ‘sizes ma be. and spread
Ninth,forming these shapes into bundles:
Tenth, subjecting the bundles, or individual
pieces if so desired, to a temperature ranging be
tween 80° and 125° F. for a ‘period of from one
to four days while maintaining ‘the relative
humidity of the surrounding atmosphere between
85% and 100%;
Eleventh, subjecting the bundles, or individual
shingles, for a period of one to two days to a
temperature of 80° to 12591“. in an atmosphere
60 where a relative humidity. content of approxi
mately 50% or less is maintained.
In setting these coloredcompositions at tem=
peratures in the neighborhood of from 60° to 70°
F., I have found it good practice to surround the
-65 composition with an atmosphere heavily laden
with moisture for several days, thus insuring that
there will be su?icient moisture to promote. the
chemical reaction between the chalk-metal sili
cate and the barium ?uosilicate components of
70 the composition.
The composition should not at this stage be
exposed to drafts of/cool, dry air, because other
wise the ?nished product will tend to eiiioresee.
After the setting has proceeded far enough, dry
air promotes eillorescence to a lesser degree.
these slates upon a . movable
elt or conveyor.
The coating is then applied in a continuous man
nor, preferably by spraying, whereupon the slates
g i
are stacked and subjected to the temperature
and humidity conditions previously recommended,
whereby chemical reaction between the ingredi
ents of thecomposition is allowed to take place.
On a smaller scale or at a slower rate of produc
tion, individual slates may be coated by hand with
the composition, and the coated slates stacked
into piles.
Slates are usually quite heavy and if formed i
into piles immediately after coating the weight of
the pile is apt to cause the coating layer to adhere
‘not only to the top of the slate togwhich it has
been applied,‘but also to the bottom of the. slate
resting thereon. This can be prevented by allow
ing the coated slate to be exposed to a temperature
of 90° to 100° BE, approximately, more or less, for
a period of a few minutes, whereby the/chemical
reaction between the coating ingredients is car
ried to the point where the immediate top~thin 70
film loses its adhesive quality and thereafter the
slates may be plied to any reasonable height with
out danger of cementing the slates together.
On a commercial scale, and this applies to'color
H coating mineral surfaced asphalt roo?ng webs as Y"
well as slate roo?ng elements carried on a belt, I
, recommend the moving of the coated roo?ng
through a tunnel provided with a warm atmos
phere, preferably, though not necessarily,‘humidi
fled, to promote chemical reaction and to diminish
adhesive property. However, if the web or ele
into bundles, subjecting the bundles to a tempera
ture ranging between 80° and 125° F. for one to
four days in an atmosphere having a relative
humidity of 85% to 100%, and for one to two days
in an atmosphere having a relative humidity of
approximately 50% .
5. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles
and the like comprising: spreading a composition
this atmosphere, especially if humidified above the ‘of intermingled alkali-metal silicate solution and
dew point correspondingv to the temperature of the a powder over the surface of the roo?ng shingles 10
10 web or element. Mottled or spotted effects are
or the like, said powder consisting of barium ?uo
thus obtained, and even e?iorescing tendencies silicate, coloring agent and ?ller, and setting the
ment is too cool, moisture may be condensed from
may be induced. Uniform colors are obtained
better by reducing the spread between the tem
perature of the web or element and this atmos
15 phere, as by having the web or element warmer.
what is claimed is:
1. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles
and the like comprising: spreading a composition
of intermingled alkali-metal silicate solution and
20 a powder over the surface of the roo?ng shingles
.or the like, said powder consisting of barium
composition at a temperature between 80° and ‘
125° F.
6. The'process of color-coating roo?ng shingles
and the like comprising: spreading a composition
of intermingled alkali-metal silicate solution and
a powder over the surface of the roofing shingles
or the like, ,said powder consisting of barium ?uo
silicate, coloring agent and filler, and setting the 20
composition at a temperature between '80" and
125° F. under controlled humidity conditions.
?uosilicate, coloring agent and ?ller, and setting
the composition.
2. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles
25 and the like comprising: mixing barium ?uosili
cate, coloring agent, ?ller and alkali-metal sili
cate, applying the mixture to the roo?ng shingles
.?uosilicate, coloring agent and ?ller, spreading
the mixture over the surface of the roo?ng shingles
or the like at about 90° F., and setting the product.
3. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles
30 and the like comprising: mixing barium fiuosili
thereof colored by a weather-resistant composi
7. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles
and the like comprising: mixing alkali-metal sili
cate solution and a powder consisting of barium
or the like, and setting in a humid atmosphere.
8. As a new article of manufacture, roo?ng
shingles and the like having at least one surface
cate, coloring agent, ?ller and alkali-metal sili- ' tion consisting of the in situ reaction product of
cate, spreading the mixture on the shingles or the
like while the latter is at a temperature of about
90° F., and setting the product in an atmosphere
controlled humidity.
35 of 4.
The process of color-coating roo?ng elements
?ller, coloring agent, barium iluosilicate and an
aqueous dispersion of alkali-metal silicate.
9. As a ‘new article of manufacture, shingles 35
and the like having embedded in one surface min
eral granules, said surface being entirely covered
a colored weather-resistant composition con
ible web, bringing it to a temperature of about 90° sisting
of the in situ reaction product of ?ller,
F., applying to the exposed surfaces of the granules . coloring agent, barium ?uosilicate and an aqueous
comprising: securing mineral granules to a ?ex
a mixture of barium ?uosilicate coloring agent,
?ller and alkali-metal silicate, cutting the web
into the desired elements, forming the elements
dispersion of alkali metal silicate.
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