Патент USA US2122862код для вставки
Patented July 5, UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE " ' COLORED ROOFING Carl E. Hillers, Charlottesville, Va., assignor to . Blue Ridge Slate Corporation, Charlottesville, , Va., a corporation of Virginia No Drawing, Application December 30, 1936, ’ Serial No. 118,270 9 Claims. (01'. 91-470) This invention relates to new and useful im while the latter is still in the form of a conprovements in methods of coloring roo?ng ele tinuous sheet, or it may be applied to the shingles ments and the products thereof. after they have been out. ' Certain cements, usually in colored form, are I will now illustrate the method I employ. generally used to color coat mineral surfaced Principally, modi?cations as disclosed later asphalt shingles and the like. The cement is on, coloring with agents, solutions of alkali-metal sili usually sprayed or otherwise spread over the mites and barium ?uosilicate are employed, and shingles. Hydraulic cement is used and, be~ these may, as disclosed in my copending appli cause of its slow rate of setting, many precau cation Serial No. 114,014, ?led December 3, 1936, tions must be taken to insure against objection be sprayed on a roo?ng element simultaneously able characteristics in the ?nished product. by separate spray guns, after ?rst mixing the 10 Furthermore, because of the nature of the ce_ coloring agent with either the alkali-metal sili ments used and their curing characteristics, cate solution or the barium ?uosilicate. Chemi shingles coated by the usual methods are fre cal reaction proceeds quite rapidly between the quently handled several times, necessitating alkali-metal silicate solution and barium‘ ?uo~ 15 stacking and restacking, which is costly from silicate. In~color~coating roo?ng sheets, webs the standpoint of the labor involved and from or elements, it is frequently well to retard the the hazard‘ of marring, defacing or breaking the speed of the chemical reaction by the incorpora stiffened hydraulic cement coated product. ' tion of a ground solid diluent or ?ller, ‘and I will 20 I have found that certain compositions of mat— the invention [more completely with 20 ter which show a pronounced tendency to harden illustrate one or more of the principal ingredients thus rapidly may be sprayed upon or spread over roof ing elements. Instead of the usual curing pe riod of two to three weeks, my‘ method requires‘ a few_ days. . .25 oneMyor compositions can be applied not only to ' mineral‘ surfaced asphalt roo?ng, but also to natural slate shingles, cement shingles, asbes tos-oement shingles, tin or other metal in sheets 30 or elements, etc, with a similar reduction in curing, time over the compositions as present em ployed in the coloring of such roo?ngelements. modi?ed. - . ~ I ?rst prepare a powder consisting of ?nely ground barium ?uosilicate, one or more color ing agents, and a ?ller. The coloring agent may 25 be chromium oxide to produce a green compo sition. The ?ller may be crushed stone of any character, but preference is given to stone which is in itself weather resistant and not subject to marked changes upon exposure to the elements. 30 For pastel or light colored compositions I prefer a ‘white or light colored ?ller such as quartz, I am, of course, referring to the curing time of > quartzite, feldspar, crushed sandstone or light a layer or ?lm of colored material applied to pebbles.’ For‘ other colors the use of a ?ller ma 35 one or both sides of such rigid type shingles and not to shingles which are arti?cially colored all the way through. , ' Natural slate shingles. for example, occur in numerous color groups but none of these groups 40 is characterized by strong or bright colors. By the method of this invention the color of the terial similar in color to the desired shades per 35 mits the use of less color agent. Examples: greenstone, red slate,,brown iron ores, etc. In preparing the stone or ?ller for use in the com position, lt may be crushed, ground and screened to pass 100% through a 65~mesh screen. Such 40 a product will usually contain percentages of slate may be intensi?ed; for example, greyish the ?ner sizings such as a portion which will ‘ green slate may be colored bright green, red pass the 200-mesh screen and a portion which dish brown slate may be 'colored bright red, or r will pass the 300-mesh screen, etc. Although the 45 the color group of the natural slate may be en~ tirely changed as, for example, to red slate may 65-mesh screen is used as the top screen in this 45 example, other sizes of screens may be'used for be applied blue or a green colored composition the top screen. When the composition is to be which will harden to a ?rmly bound or keyed applied in a thin layer I ?nd that the (id-mesh layer of long life and lasting beauty. screen is to be preferred to a coarser screen of The methods employed in the application of 50 compositions of this invention are in general similar whether the compositions are applied to natural slates or other rigid roo?ng, or‘ to min eral surfaced asphalt roo?ng. However, the com 55 , position may be applied to the asphalt roo?ng the sizing of‘the ill-mesh‘ or 20*mesh, and the 65_-mesh screen produces slightly larger yield in 50 a given sizing than the loo-mesh vand is therefore more economical. As a working formula 85 lbs. of crushed and screened white quartzite,?15 ‘lbs. oi’ powdered 2,122,862 2 barium ?uosilicate and 15 lbs. of chromium oxide may- be stirred or ground together until inti mately mixed. The mixed powder is then stirred is a possibility that the coating may eiiloresce. If a portion of the sodium silicate'solutionflis re: placed by water in small substitution, or if a solu into 46 to 50 lbs. of a solution of sodium silicate tion of slightly greater concentration is used, the (Iact0r—-NazO:3.25SiO:) of approximately 37 dc; grees Baumé for 30 seconds. The heavy paint re replacement by water be excessive, the strength results are usually satisfactory. vHowever, if the sulting may be spread by trowel or rollers or sprayed on sheets of mineral surfaced asphalt and weathering quality of the coating are im paired. Furthermore, if too large an amount of ‘ roo?ng. This must be done with a minimum loss of time, and suitable batches 6f the composition should be made up to allow application before the chemical reaction between the sodium sili water is added to the composition or, more espe 'cially, if a freshly coated layer of the composition ' comes in contactwith water, there is apt to be a leaching out ofv the water soluble alkali-metal cate and the barium ?uosilicate'has proceeded v15 silicate and the residual coating may be quite de too far. _The rapid rate at which the composition sets ?cient in strength, hardness and weather resist ance, whereas if the solution is too concentrated, is due probably to the decomposition of the barium ?uosilicate by the alkali of the sodium silicate, or it might be‘ better statedas due to the gradual spread or apply. The sodium silicate may be replaced by potas then the . resulting composition is di?lcult to removal of the alkali-metal (or its oxide or hy 20 droxide) from the alkali-metal silicate by chemi cal reaction with barium ?uosilicate. During this reaction it is possible that a skeleton coating of interlocking silica, hydrated silica, silicic acid or some similar material is set up simultaneously 25 with the other reactionproducts. The ?nal com position probably contains, besides a certain pro sium silicate, or a mixture of sodium silicate and potassium silicate may be used instead of sodium 20v silicate. Within reasonable limits, silicate solutions v of other factors than the one of the example may be used. . The amount of barium ?uosilicate may be in creased, and where a white or light colored com a position is desired, such. increases may assist in portion of the starting material, the ?uorides of reducing the amount of white pigment necessary. if too much barium ?uos‘llicate is used, sodium and barium, the silicate of barium, and However, silica or hydrated silica, although the identity of the composition may tend to set up sorapidly that 30 the chemical compounds in the composition, at times insu?lcient time is allowed for spread after reactions have occurred, is very di?lcult to ing or applying the composition. It the amount establish. Forthat reason the foregoing is to be of barium silicate. be reduced too greatly the considered merely as an attempt to explain the weathering qualities of the ?nal product are im changes which occur and is not intended to limit paired and the coating may show a tendency'to I 35 this invention to the reaction products suggested. eilloresce. When mineral surfaced roo?ng is used, the sur The coated roo?ng material may be cut up in to shingles and stacked into bundles. The coating facing may be of slate, greenstone, quartz,-feld-v will continue to harden as a result of reaction spar, glass or such other granular material as is employed in roo?ng manufacture. The amount between the ingredients, and at 90° F. the coat of ?ller may be varied over. considerable limits 40 ing becomes sui?ciently hard and weather-resist ant so that the shingles may be applied to a roof provided that in making such variations the effect of its increased thickening action upon the paints in about three days’ time. Inasmuch as the com larger amounts are used is taken into ac position hardens by chemical reaction, the speed‘ when count. The amount of filler may likewise be of the reaction is dependent upon the tempera 45 ture. I prefer to operate at 90° F or higher, al though the processof this invention may be ‘con ducted at other temperatures. When the com position is applied to a sheet of mineral-surfaced roo?ng as it comes from the roo?ng machine inv a 50 continuous web, the temperature of the roo?ng may be so controlled that it will not be necessary to warm the sheetl'of roo?ng as a separate step or operation. If, however,_the roo?ng is at too high a temperature, the composition may show 55 a tendency to set up so rapidly that it cannot be evenly spread. This is not always objection able because irregular application frequently pro duces pleasing color effects. ' The materials from which the composition is 60 produced should be neither too warm nor too cold because the former condition results in very rapid reaction while the latter condition may produce too slow a rate of setting. While the above speci?ed amounts of barium 65 ?uosilicate, ?ller, coloring agent and sodium sili cate may be varied, I have not found it practi cal to decrease the amount of sodium silicate be low the point where a workable ‘composition or decreased, but if too little ?ller is used the com 45 position tends to set up too rapidly and it may even result in insu?lcient mixing of the powder and liquid to obtain uniform distribution. I prefer to use color pigments which are per manent upon exposure to the elements but do not wish to limit the process of this invention to any particularcolor or type of pigment. I have found that chromium oxide and hydroxide, iron oxide and hydroxide pigments, synthetic cobalt aluminum-zinc-silicate blues, cadmium sul?de 55 and selenide colors, zinc oxide, lithopone, tita nium oxide, metal powders and other pigments are well suitedto the process of this invention. Under certain conditions of setting and drying o! the compositions of this invention it may be found that multi-color effects are produced. These effects may be eminently desirable if they can be controlled and reproduced. I have found that the production of a de?nite color from a given composition (when applied to roo?ng sheets or 65 shingles) 'is largely dependent upon the mainte nance of the same rate of setting and drying. With a few exceptions the faster the coating dries‘ .heavy paint is produced; because when smaller ' the darker will be the color e?ect of the dried 70 coating, and when the compositions are dried amounts of sodium silicate are used, the compo sition becomes too plastic for easy application or spreading. If too large an amount of sodium sili cate is used, the rate of setting of the composi tion is retarded, the weather resistance of the 75 ?nal coating is somewhat impaired and there more slowly, the coatings tend to be lighter in color. ' The rate of setting and drying can be controlled by regulation of the temperature as previously mentioned and also by regulation of the humidity ‘ 3 - 9,128,862 in the‘ air surrounding the shingles or the like ‘ ‘while the composition layer is curing. The pres mixing apparatus may be employed. ' The in ?uosilicate and the alkali-metal silicate. There during the mixing operation. In fact, unless the fore, even if temperatures of 90° or higher are coating, some regard must be given to the mois ture content of the surrounding‘atmosphere. I gradients at too rapid a rate. However, grinding is unnecessary at this stage. Mere inter-mingling is su?lcient to produce a composition of the de sired qualities. The intermingling can be stopped when all portions of the ingredients exhibit the 15 same color and approximately the same ?uidity,_ which can be accomplished in a mixer consisting ing approximately the same temperature. of a revolving can in which is submerged an oppo A brief summary indicating how a web of felt may be converted into color-coated shingles by a combination of’some of the more common, well sltely revolving series of mixing blades. One may use also a mixing tube or nozzle arrangement 20 wherein the powder enters at one end and the known stages of roo?ng manufacture and the process ‘of this invention is shown in the following 25 i - _ > alkali-metal silicate solution is injected through. the walls of the tube under pressure and at such an angle that a spiral forward and intermingling movement is produced between the silicate solu 25 ’ First, saturatinga web of felt with a ‘water proo?ng bituminous substance; Second, applying a layer of high melt asphalt to one surface of the saturated web: Third, applying a surfacing of mineral granules 30 _to the layer of high melt asphalt while said. asphalt is still in a plastic condition; a Fourth, embedding the mineral surfacing gran ule's in the high melt asphalt layer by _the,appli— cation of pressure; 35 ‘_ ' Fifth, removing the excess mineral granules which have not become embedded; Sixth, cooling ‘the web of mineral surfaced roo?ng material to a temperature of about 90° It; Seventh, applying a colored composition to the 40 exposed surfaces of the mineral granules" on the ingredients are thoroughly co‘ol before and ‘kept cool during the mixing operation, it is exceed ingly dl?lcult‘to produce an intimate grinding that chemical reaction occurs between the in- 10 relative‘ humidities of the order of 85 to 90% or higher at a; temperature of 90° during the ?rst twenty-four hours or more, and subsequent re ductionin the relative humidity while maintain steps: gradients do not have to be ground or triturated action without having sov much heat developed prefer to employ a high relative humidity during the early stages of the setting of the composition even when applied as a coating to shingles which are in bundles. I have obtained good results with 20 several of the commercial types of high speed ence of moisture in the composition is essential for the chemical reaction between the barium employed in setting the composition to a hard l0 In mixing the compositions of this invention, ‘ tion and the powder, resulting in an almost in stantaneous mixing operation. The latter type of mixing equipment is well adapted if the composi tions are ‘to be sprayed on the roo?ng elements, but it may also be used if the composition is to be 30 smoothed on by rolls, ‘knives, trowels, or their equivalents. ' In coloring slate shingles or asbestos-cement shingles and similar‘ rigid roo?ng elements, the same type of composition may be employed using 35 the same ingredients, the same proportions, and mixed in the same way as when preparing the composition for application to mineral surfaced asphalt roofing. However, the sizev of roo?ng slates usually depends on the size of the slabs from which they are split, the presence of malfor~ ‘ ?nished web, said composition being the inter mingled product of ‘an alkali-metal silicate solu- ' motions, seams, cleavages, etc. The slate splitter tion and a powdery mixture of barium ?uosillcate. and trimmer, and this refers to the hand opera coloring agent and crushed mineral filler, and frequently ‘produces not a succession of being capable of reacting chemically to‘ form a tions, slatesof the same size but a succemion of slates 45 hard, weather-resistant layer over the granules of assorted sizes. I ?nd it therefore advantageous as previously described; ‘ _ ‘ to select bundles of slates of uniform size, re Eighth, cutting the roo?ng web into the desired gardless of what the ‘sizes ma be. and spread shapes: Ninth,forming these shapes into bundles: Tenth, subjecting the bundles, or individual pieces if so desired, to a temperature ranging be tween 80° and 125° F. for a ‘period of from one to four days while maintaining ‘the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere between 85% and 100%; ._ , Eleventh, subjecting the bundles, or individual shingles, for a period of one to two days to a temperature of 80° to 12591“. in an atmosphere 60 where a relative humidity. content of approxi mately 50% or less is maintained. In setting these coloredcompositions at tem= peratures in the neighborhood of from 60° to 70° F., I have found it good practice to surround the -65 composition with an atmosphere heavily laden with moisture for several days, thus insuring that there will be su?icient moisture to promote. the chemical reaction between the chalk-metal sili cate and the barium ?uosilicate components of 70 the composition. The composition should not at this stage be exposed to drafts of/cool, dry air, because other wise the ?nished product will tend to eiiioresee. After the setting has proceeded far enough, dry air promotes eillorescence to a lesser degree. these slates upon a . movable elt or conveyor. The coating is then applied in a continuous man nor, preferably by spraying, whereupon the slates g i are stacked and subjected to the temperature and humidity conditions previously recommended, whereby chemical reaction between the ingredi ents of thecomposition is allowed to take place. On a smaller scale or at a slower rate of produc tion, individual slates may be coated by hand with the composition, and the coated slates stacked into piles. Slates are usually quite heavy and if formed i into piles immediately after coating the weight of the pile is apt to cause the coating layer to adhere ‘not only to the top of the slate togwhich it has been applied,‘but also to the bottom of the. slate resting thereon. This can be prevented by allow ing the coated slate to be exposed to a temperature of 90° to 100° BE, approximately, more or less, for a period of a few minutes, whereby the/chemical reaction between the coating ingredients is car ried to the point where the immediate top~thin 70 film loses its adhesive quality and thereafter the slates may be plied to any reasonable height with out danger of cementing the slates together. On a commercial scale, and this applies to'color H coating mineral surfaced asphalt roo?ng webs as Y" 9,192,862 4 well as slate roo?ng elements carried on a belt, I , recommend the moving of the coated roo?ng through a tunnel provided with a warm atmos phere, preferably, though not necessarily,‘humidi fled, to promote chemical reaction and to diminish adhesive property. However, if the web or ele into bundles, subjecting the bundles to a tempera ture ranging between 80° and 125° F. for one to four days in an atmosphere having a relative humidity of 85% to 100%, and for one to two days in an atmosphere having a relative humidity of approximately 50% . 5. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles and the like comprising: spreading a composition this atmosphere, especially if humidified above the ‘of intermingled alkali-metal silicate solution and dew point correspondingv to the temperature of the a powder over the surface of the roo?ng shingles 10 10 web or element. Mottled or spotted effects are or the like, said powder consisting of barium ?uo thus obtained, and even e?iorescing tendencies silicate, coloring agent and ?ller, and setting the ment is too cool, moisture may be condensed from may be induced. Uniform colors are obtained better by reducing the spread between the tem perature of the web or element and this atmos 15 phere, as by having the web or element warmer. what is claimed is: _ 1. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles and the like comprising: spreading a composition of intermingled alkali-metal silicate solution and 20 a powder over the surface of the roo?ng shingles .or the like, said powder consisting of barium composition at a temperature between 80° and ‘ 125° F. < 6. The'process of color-coating roo?ng shingles and the like comprising: spreading a composition of intermingled alkali-metal silicate solution and a powder over the surface of the roofing shingles or the like, ,said powder consisting of barium ?uo silicate, coloring agent and filler, and setting the 20 composition at a temperature between '80" and 125° F. under controlled humidity conditions. ?uosilicate, coloring agent and ?ller, and setting the composition. 2. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles 25 and the like comprising: mixing barium ?uosili cate, coloring agent, ?ller and alkali-metal sili cate, applying the mixture to the roo?ng shingles .?uosilicate, coloring agent and ?ller, spreading the mixture over the surface of the roo?ng shingles or the like at about 90° F., and setting the product. 3. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles 30 and the like comprising: mixing barium fiuosili thereof colored by a weather-resistant composi 7. The process of color-coating roo?ng shingles and the like comprising: mixing alkali-metal sili cate solution and a powder consisting of barium or the like, and setting in a humid atmosphere. 8. As a new article of manufacture, roo?ng shingles and the like having at least one surface cate, coloring agent, ?ller and alkali-metal sili- ' tion consisting of the in situ reaction product of cate, spreading the mixture on the shingles or the like while the latter is at a temperature of about 90° F., and setting the product in an atmosphere controlled humidity. _ 35 of 4. The process of color-coating roo?ng elements ?ller, coloring agent, barium iluosilicate and an aqueous dispersion of alkali-metal silicate. 9. As a ‘new article of manufacture, shingles 35 and the like having embedded in one surface min eral granules, said surface being entirely covered by a colored weather-resistant composition con ible web, bringing it to a temperature of about 90° sisting of the in situ reaction product of ?ller, F., applying to the exposed surfaces of the granules . coloring agent, barium ?uosilicate and an aqueous comprising: securing mineral granules to a ?ex 40 a mixture of barium ?uosilicate coloring agent, ?ller and alkali-metal silicate, cutting the web into the desired elements, forming the elements dispersion of alkali metal silicate. CARL E. KILLERS.