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July 5,' v1958
’
'IFI AßHAYEs
VARIABLE SPEED POWER TRANSMISSION MECHANISM
BY M ATToRNr-:YS
2,123,006
July 5, Igft‘bß.A
F, A HAYES
V2,ì23,006
VARIABLE SPEED POWER TRANSMISSION MECHANISM
Filed June 18, 1932
ll Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR
BY
'
ATTORNEYS
July 5, '1938. `
'
`
2,123,006
lF. A. HAYES
VARIABLE SPEED POWER TRANSMISSION MECHANISM
Filed June 18, 1932
l1 Sheets-Sheet 5
INVENTOR
` BY M ATTORNEYS
-
July 5, 1938.
F. Aj HAYES
2,123,006
VARIABLE 'SPEED POWER TRANSMISSION MECHANISM
Filed June' 18, 1952
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BY «A» ATToRNEYs
INVENTQR
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lJuly 5, 193s.
42,123,006-
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VARIABLE SPEED POWER TRANSMISSION MECHANI’SM
1‘1 sheets-sheet 7
' Filed June 18, 1932
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F. A. HAYES
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VARIABLE SPEED POWER TRANSMISSION MEcHANIsM
Filed -June 18, 1932
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INVENTOR
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July_5, 1938.
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F. A. HAYES ,
2,123,006
VARIABLE SPEED POWER >‘ÉIÍ‘ÈANSMISSION MECHANISM
Filed June 18, 1932 `
‘All Sheets-Sheet 9
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BY ¿w1 ATTORNEYS
lNvENToR
vJuly 5, 193s.
F. A. HAYES
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2,123,006
VARI-ABLE.) SPEED POWER TRANSMISSION MECHANISM
ATTORNEYS
July 5, 1938.
’
F_ A, HAYES
2,123,006
VARIABLE SPEED POWER TRANSMISSION MECHANISM
Filed Jupe 1s, 1932
11 sheets-sheet 11
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`Patented July 5, 19318A
' 2,123,006»
UNITED N_STATES PATENT OFFICE
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2,123,006
.
*
VARIABLE'SPEED Powim TRANSMISSION '
MECHANI SM
Frank A. Hayes, Middletown, N. J.
Application June 18, 1932, Serial No. 618,054
In Great Britain August 19, 1931
32 Claims.
I _' This invention relates to variable’speed power
transmission mechanisms of the friction type,
particularly friction transmissions in which power
is transmitted from a driving shaft or other
~
(Cl. 'I4-200)
axially, as in prior constructions having two sets
of rollers.
‘Another object of the invention is/to provide
simple and effective means for automatic equa1~
5 member to a driven shaft or other member
ization' of load between the rollers of a set com-
through the instrumentality of friction disks and
interposed friction rollers cooperating therewith.
posed of two rollers,” and between two such sets
in a duplex or parallel type of transmission mech
anism.
A further object is to provide simple and ef
fective means for producing and controlling
speed-ratio changes in transmissions of the type
in which the disks are toroidally grooved and
According to one feature ~of the invention it re
lates to mechanisms in which> the roller centers
10 are all approximately `or exactly in the same
transverse plane. Transmission mechanisms of
this latter type have been proposed heretofore,
~ but the prior constructions have all had the
serious disadvantage >that a moving thrust bear
15 ing is required to carry the pressure needed be
tween the disks and rollers. . If the mechanism
is designed for maximum power capacity, using
hard steel as the friction material (i. e., making
the rollerseand disks of hard steel) the pressures
20 and rotation speeds necessary for maximum ca
pacity are very high, and the balls in the afore
said thrust bearing must be proportionately large,
5 '
“precession” of the rollers is brought about
by tilting the roller axes.
»
Another object is to provide a simple and
convenient mounting for rollers of the tilting
type just referred to.
A still further object is to provide a control
system for use when the transmission mechanism
is employed in an automobile between the engine 20
and the driving wheels of the car, which is oper
able from the accelerator pedal to give low en
in some cases nearly if not quite aslarge as the gine-speed and correspondingly high fuel econ
rollers. 'I'his has led to various designs in which v omy under ordinary driving conditions 4but with
25 two sets of rollers are employed, spaced axially
apart and connected to operate “in parallel” as
regards power transmission; but this results in
increased complication and greater bulk, mak
ing the mechanism relatively long, which is in
30 many cases objectionable.
Accordingly _one ob- ,
ject of the invention is to provide a compact
mechanism of large capacity in proportion to its
\ bulk. Another object is to provide a transmission
mechanism possessing the simplicity of the type
35 having a single set of rollers but having also the
great advantage of the “parallel” or “duplex”
,
type, in which the driving pressures are all self
' contained and taken by stress in` theoperating
parts themselves, thus making the aforesaid
high engine speed and correspondingly rapid
acceleration of the car available at all times.
The‘manner in which these and other objects
are attained by the present invention will be
more readilyûunderstood from a description of
the preferred embodiment. This embodiment,
designed f_or- transmitting power from the _motor
to the driving wheels of an automobile, is illus
trated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is»v a central longitudinal section. -
Fig. 2 is a sectional plan view on line 2_2 of 35
Fig. 1.
«
Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 are cross sections on lines
3_3, 4_4, 5_5, and 6_6, respectively, in'Fig. 1,
two‘sets of rollers, but instead of arranging them
in axially spaced planes I locate them in the
looking in the directions of the arrows.
Fig. 7 is a cross >section on line 1_1 of Fig. 6,
showing in elevation lthe rockers for two of the
roller carriers, and the cage in which the car
same plane, and what would be the middle disk `
riers
40 thrust bearing unnecessary. To these ends I use
in the usual type of transmission mechanism
' having two sets of rollers is made in two parts,
are mounted.
'
`
Fig. 8 is a view in elevation, looking- from the
4right in Fig. 1, of the cage in which the two sets
transposed-so that the grooves face inwardly to
ward each“other. One part is then arranged in
of rollers are supported.
the same plane as one of the end disks and the
leftof Fig. 8.
other part is similarly arranged with respect
Fig. 10 is a side `view of one of th‘e roller-car- 50
riers and the roller mounted therein.
Fig. 11 is a detail sectional view on line Il_ll
tot the other end disk. Preferably the two parts
are secured together, to form, in etlîect, a ring
concentric with and encircling the rollers and
the two end disks. The result is that the disk-`
y55 and-roller assembly is only about half `as long,
'
.
Fig. 9>is a side view of the cage, from the
of Fig. 1.
’
`
`
_
Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic section illustrating
the principle of the invention. _For lthe sake of 55 I
`aiaaooe
clearness the disks in this ñgure are shown wide
ly spaced axially.
‘
y
Fig. 13 is a verticalsection illustrating a roller
system in which the rollers are supported by a
ball and socket mounting instead of by carriers
and rockers.
Fig. 14 is a sectional plan view on line I4--I4
of Fig. 13.
'
Fig. 15 is anà elevation of the roller supports,
taken from the right in Fig. 13.
Fig. 16 is an elevation (from the right in Fig.
13) of the annulus or ring which tilts the rollers
to produce change of speed ratio.
Fig. 17 is a perspective view of the equalizing
15 member shown in Figs. 13 and 14.
Fig. 18 is a sectional plan view, taken about on
the plane of the disk axis, illustrating another
embodiment of the invention, in which the disks
or races and the sets of rollers are spaced apart
20
axially.
rollers on disk I8. Rollers/l I and 22 cooperate in
the same Way with disks I1 and I6.
From inspection of Fig. 12 it will be clear that
disks I5 and I1 may rotate at the same speed, in
which case, with non-planetary rollers, disks I6
and I8 may be drivenl at vthe same or at diiferent
speeds, depending upon the relative angular posi
tions of the rollers. On the other hand, if the
rollers are planetary they must be set at the same
angles to the- disks since otherwise they would
revolve, around the disk axis, at different speeds
and hence would collide. It will also be seen
that disks I6 and I8 may be the driving disks
and disks I5 and I1 the driven disks; and that if
the rollers are planetary they may be revolved to 15
drive disks I6 and I8 if the disks I5 and I1 are
stationary, or vice versa. One or another of the
three elements, namely, the race element com
posed of disks I5-I1, the race element composed
4oi’ disks I6--I8, and the roller element composed 20
Fig. 19 is a detail section on line I9-I9 of . of the two connected sets of rollers, must be “sta
tionary”, that is to say, must not revolve around
Fig. 20 is a cross section on line 29-20 of Fig. the disk axis. The stationary element, which
18, showing manual means for rocking the rock
ever it may be, then takes the reaction of the
25 ers, which support the roller carriers, to initiate load and accordingly may be conveniently termed 25
precession of the rollers.
'
the reaction element.
Fig. 21 is a detail section on line 2I-2I of
Referring to the preferred embodiment, illus
Fig. 20.
'
trated in detail in Figs. 1 to 11 inclusive, disks or
Fig. 22 is a detail section on line 22-22 of races I5 and I1 having toroidal grooves or race
Fig. 18.
.
ways are keyed on the driving shaft 23 and disks 30
Fig. 23 is a detail sectional plan view taken on or races I6 and I8 having toroidal grooves or
Fig. 18.
a plane indicated by line 23--23 of Fig. 20.
Fig. 24 is a plan view of the controller crank
and indicator shown in side elevation in Fig. 20.
Fig. 25 is a detail section on line 25-25 of
Fig. 22.
l
'
Fig. 26is a detail section on line 26--26 of Fig.
20, showing the offsetting of the sockets in the
rockers, to incline the axes of precession of the
roller and their carriers to the planes of the disks.
Referring to Figs. 1, 2 and 12, four toroidally
grooved coaxial disks o_r “races” are shown, desig
nated I5, I6, I1, I8, with interposed rollers I9, 2li,
i raceways are rigidly fixed in the encircling drum
24 which is connected by a spider or cone 25 to a
driven shaft 26. Disks I6, I8 thus form, in effect,
an internally grooved ring concentric with disks 35
I5, I1. At one end of the apparatus'the two-part
driving shaft 23 isl mounted in a ball bearing 21
carried by the housing 28 and its cupped other
end is supported by a ball bearing 29 on a stud
30 mounted in the adjoining end of the driven 40
shaft 26. ‘ A certain minimum frictional engage~
ment of the disks and rollers is obtained by one
or more spring washers 3| between disk I1 and
2i, 22. Disks I5 and I6 are in the same plane, the flange 3Ia on the cup. The rollers are non
and disks I1 and I8 are similarly arranged in a` planetary, and hence the speed of the driven 45
plane spaced axially from the first two. Disks I5
shaft depends upon the ratio R/r (Fig. 12) and
and I1 constitute an inner, and disks I6 and I8
an outer race element or member.v Rollers I9,
therefore upon the angular positions of the roll
20 ,cooperate> with disks I5 and I8, and assuming
that disk I5 is the driving disk (rotated by any
Rollers I9, 20, Fig. l, are mounted on ball bear
ers, as will be readily understood.
v
ings, whose inner races are mounted on studs 36 50
suitable means, as for example shaft 23, on which
fixed in carriers 31, 38, and rollers 2|, 22 (Fig. 2)/
disk I5 is keyed), and assuming also that the
rollers can revolve in planetary fashion around
are similarly mounted in like carriers 39, 40. One
carrier, say 38, is shown in elevation in Fig. 10.
The carriers are mounted by vball and socket
the disk axis a-a and that disk I8 is held sta
tionary or non-rotatable, it will be seen that the joints at their ends in rockers 4I, 42, 43, 44 (Figs. 55
6 and '7), having trunnions pivotally mounted in
rollers will revolve about the disk axis at anangu
lar speed depending, other conditions being con . a supporting cage 45 (Figs. 8 and 9) having arms
stant, upon the angle of the rollers to the disk 46 extending outwardly between races I5 and I6
into connection with a. supporting plate 41, Figs.
axis or the planes of the parallel disks. Similar
ly, if the rollers are non-planetary and disk I8~ 1 and 3. The arms 46 are toothed at their outer
rotatable, the latter will be rotated at a speed ends- as indicated in Fig. 9, to engage 4teeth in the ‘
also depending upon the angular position of the 'central aperture in plate 41, which is ñxed be
rollers. Thus,`with the rollers in the positions tween the two parts of the housing. Rotary dis
shown in full lines lin Fig. 12, the speed of disk placement of cage 45 is thus prevented. Keys 48,
cooperating with grooves in the teeth on arms 46,
I8 will be low relative to the speed of disk I5,
but‘as the rollers are turned to the dotted line
positions I9a, 20a, the speed _of diskv I8 relative to
the speed of disk I5 will increase. In general the
speed of disk I8 is represented by the formula
N=n(R/r), in which N is the speed of disk I8
in revolutions per unit of time, n the speed of disk
I5, R (Fig. 12) the radius from the disk axis a.---a
to the point of contact of the rollers on disk I5,
and r the radius to the point of contact of the
65
prei/ent axial movement of the cage. The cage
and roller-carriers are thus held rigidly (but re
movably) in a ñxed position or plane between the
disks.
,
The rollers are caused to take different speed
70
ratio positions by the “precession” principle de
scribed and claimed in 'my prior United States
Patent No, 1,698,229, issued January 8, 1929, and
this precession is brought about by rocking the
rockers 4I, 42, 43, 44, as explained in my prior 75
' 2,123,006
y
,-
3
application Serial No. 361,031 now Patent No. ated piston 18 connected to añ arm 19 which op
1,865,102, issued- June 28, 1932. For this purpose erates the usual clutch, which may be between
the rockers are provided with arms 50, 51,52, 53 ` the engine and the transmission mechanism or
(Figs. 6 and 7) extending radiallyrinward and
between the latter- and the propeller shaft which ‘
5 connected by inclined pins 54, 55, l56, 51, to in
is connected4 to the driving wheels through the _5
diiferential. The spring in the cylinder tends to
plate 58 encircling the shaft 23 and carried by disengage the clutch, and does so unless the oil
tar'ms 59 extending out between disks I5 and I 6‘ pressure back oi’ the piston is s'uñicient to over
clined recesses in a centrally apertured circular
into‘ connection with a vcontrol ring 60 (Figs. 1
10 and 2) ; so that when'the ring is rotated the rock
lers 4I, 42, 43, 44 are rocked in the cage 45, there-_
byv shifting or displacing equally all the roller~
v* carriers simultaneously and bodily in line with
their axes of precession (which pass through the
15 centers of the balls by which the carriers are sup
ported) and thus causing the rollers to swing, or
precess, on the said axes toward a higher or low
er speed ratio position according tothe direction
- of the displacement of the carriers, as explained
20 in my prior Patent 1,865,102 referred to above.
In accordance with the principle explained in the
patent just mentioned the axes of precession are
slightly inclined to the planes of the disks (for ex
ample by suitable location of the balls on the
25 rockers or the sockets in the carriers) to cause
the rollers, as they precess, to return to the posi
` tion of equilibrium. So long as the axes on which
the rollers rotate (not those on which they pre
cess) intersect the axis of the disks, the rollers
3Q have no tendency to precess. When, however,
the rollers are displaced in line with their axes
of precession by rocking the supporting rockers
the roller axes do not intersect the disk axis but
pass the same on one sideA or another and preces
35 sion at once begins; but as the precession con
tinues the roller axes are swung back into inter-‘
section with the disk axis (becauseof the inclina
tions of the precession axes) and precession then
ceases. The position of _intersection is conven
4o iently termedthe equilibrium position.
To prevent all possibility of the rollers precess
ing too far in either direction the cage 45 is pro
vided with stops 84, Figs. '1 and 2, arranged to be
engaged by the roller carriers before the rollers
45 themselves can pass oil’ the disks or come into
rubbing contact with any stationary- part.
come the spring.- With the engine idling and the
valve 'Hd in the position shown in full lines the110
oil from pipe 14 escapes freely to the sump by way
of ports 10a, 1lb and pipe 1 I e and hence the pres
sure is insuiiicient’to advance the control pistón
or engage the clutch but as the driver- speeds up
the engine the‘clutch piston 18 is gradually ad- 15
vanced and the car starts, the control piston 10
remaining in the low speed position. As soon as
the car starts, further speeding up the engine
increases the oil pressure suiliciently to advance
the control piston, thereby causing the transmis- . 20
sion rollers to precess to a higher speed ratio
position. Up to a certain point this precession
will continue (to higher and higher speed ratio>
positions) as long as the engine `continues to in
crease in speed and therefore continues to ad- 26
Vance the control piston 10; but when the latter
ceases to advance, the precession of the rollers
brings the roller axes (i. e., the axes on which the
rollers rotate) again into intersection with the
disk axis and the precession then ceases. If at 80
any time the load reaction exceeds the torque of
the engine the latter is slowed down and the oil
pressure is correspondingly decreased, permitting
the rollers to precess to lower speed-ratio posi
tions until the engine torque and load reaction;
are again in balance. Other conditions being the
same, this decrease of speed-ratio can only be
prevented by increasing the throttle opening,
thereby keeping up the speed of the engine.
As the operator turns the control valve ‘lld >40>
_thereby uncovering the by-pass channel or pas
sage 80, more and more oil passes through pipe
1| c to the sump. and less pressure is developed on
control piston 10, thereby decreasing the> tend
ency of the rollers to take higher speed-ratio 45
positions asz the engine speed increases, and when
The control ring 60, Figs'. 1 and 2, is -connected ~th_e valve is turned far enough, say tov the dotted
by a link 65, Fig. 5, to a finger 66 on a rock shaft
61 which is connected by an arm 68 and rod 69
50 to a skirted control piston 10 ina control cylin
der 1|. A spring 12 urges the piston toward the
position at which the control ring and rollers
.are in the low speed position, that is, with the
line position, the pressure on clutch piston 18
is insuiiicient to hold theV clutch engaged and
the engine is disconnected from the transmission 50
mechanism. 'I'his adjustment oi’ the valve is use
ful for starting and “warming up" the engine, for
purposes of test and repair, and also provides
rollers `at angles such as are shown in Figs. 1 ` for/adjustment> of the relation of engine >speed
` 55 and 2. The cylinder is connected by a pipe lla to car speed at the will of the operator. At the 55
to a pipe 14 leading from a pump (which may be
the lubricating pump, not shown, driven by the
engine 15) supplying iluid under pressure, and
hence the rightward movement of the control
60 piston, and consequently the speed ratio position
of the transmission rollers, depend primarily
upon the speed of the engine, which in turn de
pends„other conditions being the same, upon the
opening of the throttle 15a by actuation of the
65 accelerator pedal 14a which is connected to the
throttleby a rod 15e. In the side of the control
cylinder 1I is a port 1lb connected to a drain pipe
1|c discharging into the sump or other'receptacle
(not shown) from which' the pressure fluid is
70 pumped. This drain pipe is provided with a valve
11d, and the skirt oi’ piston 10 has an opening 10a
which registers with the drain port 1lb when
the piston is in a low speed position as indicated
in the figure. Pipe 11a is also connected by
75 pipe 16 to a cylinder 11 containing a spring-actu
same timel the control piston remains in the low
speed-ratio position ready for starting the car
when the valve is again turned to the running
position.
‘
'
Pipe 1i a is also connected by pipe 'He to a port 60 `
‘Hf in a’valve cylinder 11g having a drain 1|h`
leading to theA sump. In the cylinder is a slid
ing sleeve valve 1li provided with a port ‘Hic and
connected by a rod 15b> to the accelerator pedal
14a in such manner that when the pedal is in 65
the position at which the throttle is closed as far
as permitted by the stop 15e the port 1Ik is at
the left of port, 1|f and the latter is therefore
closed.
,
`
Control cylinder 1I also has a port 11m, con-v 70
nected by pipe 1in to a port'TIp in valve cylin
der 'Iig so that. as the sleeve 1li is advanced by
depression of the accelerator pedal, port 1|1c in
the sleeve can be brought into register with said
port 11p in the valve cylinder. Control piston 75 i
4
2,123,006 »
10 has a port 1|r which opens port 1Im 'when
the piston reaches a certain `position in_its ad
I vance or rightward movement.
'I'he purpose and
operation of these devices are as follows.
_
-
In the'flrst place; the gear ratio at the differ I
ential of the car, that is, between the driving
shaft or propeller shaft and the driving wheels,
>is made “low”, for example 2 to 1; which means
that with a conventional sliding-gear'transmis
10 sionl in direct drive or “high” speed, the engine
through port 1|1c in sleeve 1li. The resulting de
crease of pressure behind the control piston per
mits the latter to drop back, with corresponding
decrease of the speed ratio of the transmission
and increase of engine speed and pull on the
driving wheels. If the engine then begins to slow
down, the resulting decrease of oil pressure lets
the piston move back still farther and open port
10a still farther. rI'his farther relief'of the pres- .
sure (through valve 1|d) permits the piston to 10
would make two revolutions to one of the driving ` move back farther still, making it still easier for
wheels. With such a transmission a ratio of the engineto carry the load. If the engine does
not maintain the desired car velocity, with the
2 to 1 would usually be too low, as is well under
stood,-and a conventional valuewould ordinarily accelerator pedal fully depressed and port 1lp
15 be used. Secondly, the port 1Im in the control therefore Wide open, the continued decrease of 15
, cylinder 1I is located not at the point (in the engine speed may permit the control piston to
rightward path of the piston) at which the speed move back far enough to close port 1Im. The
ratio of the transmission mechanism has its transmission mechanism is‘now below the over
highest value, but at the point at which, with drive range, and with increasing load resistance
due regard to the low gear-ratio at the differential' the piston may move back to the extreme low 20
and the power of the engine, the engine can speed position, at which the maximum pull is
delivered to the driving wheels. If at any time
drive the car with the maximum velocity.
With the control devices in the positions shown before port 1Im is closed by the leftward move
in Fig. 5, the car standing still and the engine _ment of the piston and the car velocity increases
idling, to start the car the operator depresses the too much, the operator simply lets the accelerator
accelerator pedal in the usual way. 'I‘he clutch pedal rise, thereby restricting port 11k: more or
is engaged at once, and as the car velocity in- ' less, or even closing- it entirely, and causing in
creases, the operator depresses the pedal fully, Icreased pressure behind the control piston and
thereby giving the throttle its widest opening and
bringing port 1llc of valve 1li into register with
port 1li». The inertia of the car, however, keeps
the engine speed down. As the car velocity in
creases, the engine speed increases and the con
corresponding increase "of speed ratio, decrease
of engine speed, and corresponding decrease of '
car velocity.
.
From the' foregoing it will be seen that by
proper design of the parts, location and shape of
trol piston 10 advances, with the result that the ‘ the various ports, etc., the movement of the ac
maximum car velocity the operator keeps lthe
celerator‘pedal necessary to control the speed of 35
the car by opening and closing the port 1lp can
pedal depressed. If, then, the load and road con
ditions do not prevent (by keeping the engine
be made to have only relatively slight eiîect on
the throttle opening, which means that under
car accelerates rapidly.v Desiring to attain the
speed down), the advancing control piston 10 vaverage driving conditions the throttle can be
opens port 1Im, permitting enough oil to escape practically wide open; and this without any 40
through pipe 1in, port 11p and registering port_
11k to prevent further advance of the piston,
thereby keeping the transmission mechanism at
the speed ratio which, with the gear ratio at the
differential and the power of the engine, will en- ,
able the engine to drive the car at maximum ve
locity. If the velocity thus attained is too high
the operator simply lets the pedal rise, as he
naturally would. The ñrst eiïect of this is to
move the valve sleeve 1li rightwardly far enough
to close port 1Ip so that oil can no longer escape
change in the accustomed use of the accelerator n
by the driver. That is, to increase the speed of
the car the pedal is depressed, thus opening port
11p and thereby decreasing the pressure _on the -
control piston and permitting the engine speed 45
to increase (and with it the car velocity) without
increasing the speed ratio of the transmission
mechanism. While to decrease the speed of the
car it is only necessary _to let the pedal rise, thus
closing port 1Ip and thereby causing the trans 50
mission mechanism to “change up” so fast in the
over-drive range that the engine speed, and car
-velocity, are kept down. At any time, however,
drive" range. This has the effect of operating the if the load resistance is so highrthat port 1lm`
in the control cylinder is closed by the receding 55
car at maximum engine torque but reduced en
piston and transmission mechanism is then in
gine speed, resulting in high economy of opera
tion. If the pull of the engine at the maximum a low speed ratio and, port 1lb being wide open,
over-drive is sufficient to drive the car faster a relatively high engine speed, depending on~the
than desired, the operator continues to raise the 4adjustment of valve 1Id, can be attained without
60
u
accelerator pedal in the usual way, thus closing causing the piston to advance.
To stop the car it is .only necessary to let the
the throttle until the desired velocity is attained.
If the pull >of the engine is not enough at the accelerator pedal rise and apply the brakes. Sud
maximum over-drive ratio to drive the car at den stops may stall -the engine, with the control
the desired velocity the operator depresses the piston in an advanced position and ports 1lb
pedal again far enough to partially open port 1 i p, ' and 1|p both closed, in which case the clutch 65
thus reducing the pressure in control cylinder would remain engaged by reason of the oil
through pipe 1in, whereupon the control pis
ton `begins to 'advance and is now in the “over
1I andljallowing piston 10 to recede until the - trapped in the fluid pressure system, and the en
proper ratio for the desired velocity is obtained.
’ The car is now traveling at the desired velocity.
70 At the same time the throttle is practically wide
î open and the engine is therefore operating at a
high eiiiciency. Coming to an up-grade> and de
siring to maintain his speed, `the voperator de
presses the\accelerator pedal, thereby opening
more or less the port Hp in valve cylinder 11g
gine could not be started again. To obviate this
difi‘lculty a release pedal 15f is provided which
may be positioned for operation by the left foot, 70
in place of thevusual clutch pedal. Then before
attempt is made to start the engine this pedal is
depressed, causing its pin 15g to lift the acceler
ator pedal and thereby shift the valve sleeve 1li
rightwardly, bringing port 1Ik into register with
5.
2,123,006 '
the port Tlf. This gives the entrapped oil an
outlet, `permitting the spring in the clutch cylin»
der to disengage the clutch, and the spring in
the control cylinder to retract the control piston
‘to the low speed position. The relief pedal may
endof the apparatus but it may be positioned at
the other endif desired. The pressure-producing
mechanism described in this paragraph is not
l be the brake pedal. In either case, whether .the
in my copending divisional application Serial No.
pressure-producing mechanism at the driving.
claimed in the present application but is claimed -
relief pedal is in place of the clutch pedal or is_
186,016, filed January 21, 1938.
the brake pedal, the operator in stopping the
car would naturally depress the pedal, thereby
10 preventing the engine from stalling.`
o
The speed ratio control plate 58, by which the
rockers are actuated to produce speed ratio
changes, 'also constitutes an equalizing device to 10
produce automatic equalization of the load be
tween the two sets of rollers. In performing such
Springs 15h, `I5i balance each other and pref
ventlthe two pedals from iiopplng about' when
the throttle is closed by _spring 15m and neither function the plate moves axially in one direction
pedal is engaged by the foot. 'A stop 15e limits or the other, and to permit the slight movement
15 the upward movement of the accelerator pedal
-necessary' a >clearance is provided for the con
-to the point at which port 'IIk is in register with trol ring 50, Fig. 2, on both sides of the same, and
port Tlf.
the link 65, Figs. 1 and 2, is loosely connected to
'I'he amount of power transmissible to the load.
on the driven shaftv 26 depends, otherthings be
ing the same, upon the >friction between the roll
-
'
15
,
, the ring or to the arm 66 or both“, The plate 58 also
effects equalization between the rollers of each
set. In performing this function it'moves trans 20
ers and the disks, with the result that overload ' versely. or radially of the disk axis. <In this move
may cause slippage, with resulting wear and
damage. This may be obviated by making the
pressure of the disks or. races on the rollers great
25 enough; but in that case the pressure is 'un
necessarily high for lighter loads. `Accordingly
the present invention includes a novel torque
loading construction by which the pressure be
tween the rollers and disk depends upon the -load
30 resistance, increasing as the latter increases,
and vice versa, though not necessarily in a strictly
linear manner. For this purpose the inner part
ment the plate; the arms 59, and the control ring
60 tilt as a whole on the ball bearing 60a,- Fig. 1,
the balls of which work on ungrooved races.
Assuming vthat the driving shaft 23, Fig. 1, is 25
rotating in the direction of the arrow, i. e., _clock
wise as viewed from the left, it will be seen
`that the ring or disk assembly I6-I8 and driven
shaft 26 will be rotated inthe opposite direction,
which would drive the‘car in the forward direc so
tion.
To permit forward or reverse drive at will -
the gear system housed in the rear part> of the ,
23a of the two-part driving shaft 23, Fig. 1, is -casing~28
is provided, as illustrated in Figs. 1 and "
journaled at its outer end in the outer part 23h
35 which is equipped with a cup 85 having teeth in its
edge cooperating with teeth on the periphery of
la cam member or collar 86 rotatable and axially
movable on the inner shaft-part 23a. 'I‘hreaded
on the journal of the latter is a ball thrust-bear
ing 81, and between the collar 86 and the disk
I5 are three or more balls 88 working in cam
grooves or depressions 89 in the collar (see Figs.
3 and l1) and similar depressions 90 in thedisk.
'.Each groove deepens gradually from its ends to_
45 its central portion. From study of the construe-_
tion described it will be seen that if there is
overload on the mechanism the shaft 23h will
run ahead of disks I5 and |'I and shaft 23a. As
this occurs the balls 88 are rolled into shallower
v4, comprising a gear 95’splined on shaft 26 and
shiftable by a fork 96 and hand lever 91 to bring 35
its clutch teeth 98 into engagement with the co
operating teeth 99 in the face of gear |00 which
is connected with the driving flange |0I. When
the clutch is engaged forward drive is obtained.
When the gear is shifted to the position shown in
the drawings it is meshed with gear |02 rotatable
on the 'countershaft |03 and connected by'sleeve '
|04 to gear |05 meshing with a reverse idler gear
|06 which in turn meshes with gear |00, thus
giving
reverse
drive.
'
\
>
45
The form of tneinvennon illustrated in Figs. 1_3 ’
to 16 differs from the first in the mannerv in
which the rollers are mounted and controlled.
parts of the cooperating depressions or recesses,
thus urging disk I5 toward `the right, and collar
In this second form the rollers I I0, I I I are mount
.ed on ball bearings whose inner races, as |I2, 50.
85 (and with it the shaft 23a and disk I‘I) toward
ed by ball and socket joints on the radial arms
H3, m of piste H5 (Fig. 15), wnicn'forms a "
the left, thereby increasing the pressure of disks
I5 and I8 on rollers I9, 20, and the pressure of
55 disks I6, I‘I on rollers 2|, 22. The friction of
these parts on each other is thus increased so
that no slip of one on the other can occur. ` It
will be observed that the operation described is
entirely automatic. Ii at any time the load re
action on shaft 23h is decreased the lessened
tendency of shaft 23a to lag permits the balls to
roll back to deeper parts of the recesses, thereby
decreasing the pressure exerted 'on the‘disks and
rollers. In this way the pressures of the parts
on each other is always proportional tothe load
and unnecessarily high stresses and losses. are
avoided. It will also be observed that in the ac
tion described there is no rotary movement ,of
disk I5 relative to disk I1, or vice versa.A ,This
70 is a novel and advantageous feature, since such
relative rotation would cause one set of rollers
to drive the rigidly connected disks I6-|8 at a
different rate than the other set, with resulting
slip and wear which would sooner or later cause
serious damage. It is advantageous to have the
constituting carriers for‘the rollers, are support
iioating support for rollers IIO, I I I, and is ca-'
pable of slight rotary movement about a sleeve 55
IIS carried by arms II‘I extending outwardly
through the annular space or gap between disks
I5 and I6. Alongside of plate II5 is a similar
plate II8, spaced from the first by a ball bear
ing IIS, having radial arms |20, |2| ' (at right
angles to the arms H3, I | l) , on which rollers |22,
en_
|23, Fig. 14, are carried by ball and socket joints.
Each plate is capable of slight radial movement
in directions transverse or at right angles to its Y
two roller-supporting arms.
65
Referring to Fig. 13, if the roller I|0 is tilted
on an axis indicated by dotted line |25, coplanar
with the disk axis, the roller will precess on an
axis perpendicular to the plane of the figure and
passing through,the center of the ball on which 70
the roller is supported. Assuming that disk I5
is rotating counterclockwise as seen from the
right, and that the roller is tilted counterclock
Wise as seen from the upper end of axis I25,`the
roller will precess clockwise toward a higher speed
6
,
2,123,096
,ratio position. Similarly, if the roller is tilted (on
|52v suitably fixed in any convenient stationary
part. The sleeve constitutes an equalizing device
and
eiîectsA automatic equalization of the load be
lower speed ratio position. For the purpose of tilt~
tween'the 'sets of rollers and between the rollers
, ing the rollers to bring about automatic and pro
5 gressive or gradual 'change of speed ratio by pre ' of each set, as will now be described.
Suppose that in its precessional movement, say
cession in the manner just described, they are
' axis |25) ' in the other direction it will precess to a
toward a higher speed ratio position,'rol1er, H0,
provided with.~ axial stems or anns |26, |21, |28, rig.
13, shoum run ahead of rouer nl. In such
|29, extending loosely into helical slots or grooves
|30, I3I, |32, |33 formed in arc-shaped flanges case it drives disk I8 faster 'than roller II I drives
it, and hence roller ||| tendsqto roll upwardly on
10 |34, |35, |36, |31 on a ring |38 arranged be
tween the disks I6 and I8. This ring is provided the disk, toward the observer. At the same time
with a pair of arc-shaped arms |40, |4| whiclf> roller | I0 also tends to roll up on-the disk, toward
extend out through the annular space between the observer, since it is transmitting the larger
of the power and is subjected to the drag
_disks I5 and I 6 for connection with a suitable share
15
15 control ring 60a, which may be rotated by a crank exerted on the disk by the other roller. Both
rollers,
therefore,
roll
upwardly
on
the
disk,
the
pin 60h working in a radial slot 60e. Keeping
H5, which carries the roller-supporting
in mind the?cpnstruction just described,I it will plate
arms ||3,'||4, sliding on its pins I5I, Fig. 14. In
be seen that if control ring 60a.' is given a slight
such movement the stem |26 of rollerA I |0 swings
rotary movement the roller stems, and with them upwardly
on its end in groove |30 as a pivot. 20
20 the four rollers, will be tilted, some in 'one direc
This is in fact a down-swing on its supporting ball;
tion and some in the other, according to the direc ~ and remembering that such down-swing produces
tion in which theY ring was rotated, thereby caus
ing the rollers to rock or precess toward higher precession toward a lower speed position it will be
or lower speed ratio positions, as the case may be. seen that the roller precesses in that direction, 25
and that as it does so the stem swings up on its
Rotation of the ring |28 in the clockwise di
25
rection (as viewed from the left of Figs. 13 and ball support and brings the roller to equilibrium
14) swings stem -|26 of roller I|0 upwardly and position. n At the same time. thevstem |21 also
the stem |21 of roller |||. downwardly, thereby swings upwardly on its end in groove |3| as a
tilting» the rollers correspondingly and causing pivot, which movement is in fact a down-swing 30
30 the two to precess to higher-speed ratio positions. ' on its supporting ball, and accordingly roller |||
As the roller ||0 precesses, its stem |26, Fig. 13, precesses to a higher speed position. The net
moves clockwise in the helical groove |30, and '» result is that the two rollers take the same inter
position, at whichl they drive disk I8 at
upon reference to Fig.' 16 it will be seen that since mediate
the
same
speed. It will be observed that the
the groove has a righthand twist (relative to the
,roller-supporting
plate I|5, which supports the 35
35 axis 'of precession) `the movement of the stem
rollers
||0,
I||,Fig.13,
fioats on the pins |5I, I5I,
therein swings the stem downwardly (in Fig. 13),
Fig.
14
(the
pins
shown
_in a horizontal position
thus tilting the stem and roller lback toward lthe in Fig. 15), soas to- be free
to move transversely
position of equilibrium, in which position the axis
of the sleeve | I6 and the axis of the disks or races '
of rotation of the roller intersects or is c_oplanar ,in
response to variations of the torque trans 40
40 with the axis of the disks. 'As the precession con
mitted by any one >of the rollers -of the set com
tinues the roller eventually reaches the full equi
librium position, and at that position its pre- ~ posed of rollers H0, |||, and that such trans
verse movement, causing precession or tilting of
' cession ceases, leaving the roller in a new, and
higher, speed ratio position.` Evidently the ex
45 tent of- this reverse tilt is in every case equal to
the initial or forward tilt which caused the pre
cession, and it will therefore be clear that the
farther the roller is tilted to initiate the‘preces
sion the farther will the roller precess and the
50 higher will be the new speed ratio. It is also
evident that if the roller is in the extreme high
one roller on its axis of precession to a lower
speed-ratio position, and the other- to a higher 45
speed-ratio position, serves to bring both rollers
of the set to an intermediate position at which
they transmit equal torque. Similarly, in the
[other set, ñoating plate I`| 8 serves, by its trans
verse movement at right angles to the equalizing 50
e vor in any intermediate position between thé high
’est and lowest, rotation of the control ring 60a
movement oi' plate H5, to adjust rollers |22, |23,
to positions at which they also transmit equal>
torque. Ineach case the iìoating roller-support- v
ing plate is normally centered, that is, with the.
in the lcounterclockwise direction as seen from the disk axis.l When the roller supporting plate
, 55 left or Fig. 13 will swing stem |28 down 'on its moves transversely of> the axis of the disks or`
ball and thereby cause the roller to precess to a `races the axes of rotation of the rollers >carried
lower speed position. Upon reilection it will be by the plate are displaced so that these axes no
clear that rotation of the control ring hes the longer pass through the disk axis, with the result
same effect upon roller ||| as upon roller ||0; that the rollers precess in the directions neces
60 except that to cause precession of roller III from 'sary to bring them to the speed-ratio position in
the low speed position of Fig. 13 to a higher po ywhich they transmit equal torque.
sition, arm |21 must be tilted downwardly, that is,
Again, suppose one set of rollers takes a differ
„away from the observer looking at the figure ent speed ratio position from the other set, the
named. And of course rollers |22 and |28, Fig. 14, lagging set, say I I0, |||,Figs. 13 and 14, will then 65
65 operate in 'the same way as the other two.
a slight planetary movement, counterclock
The sleeve H6, which extends through the have
wise as seen from the left of Fig'. 13. Stem |26
plates H5, H8, is provided at its ends with in
therefore swings down on the end in groove |30wardly extending inclined or helical slots |50, en
as a pivot. This is equivalent to an up-swing of
gaged by radial pins IBI mounted in the plates the stem on its ball support, and accordingly the 70
70 IIS, ||8 with a smooth viit permitting the plates roller precesses toward a higher speed ratio posi
to move transversely to the disk axis as mentioned
hereinbefore. ' The sleeve is non-rotatable but is
capable of slight axial movement in both direc
tions, and for this purpose the arms I|1 which
75 support the sleeve are mounted to slide on studs .
tion. At the same time stem |21 swings up on its
end- in groove I3| as a pivot and hence roller .I | I
also precesses toward a higher position.
Fur
ther, by reason of the described planetary rn/ove-/ß/
2,123,006
ment the pins' |5| (Fig. 14) which extend from
plate || 5 into the inclined or helical slots in
sleeve |I6 exert a cammlng'effect on the sleeve
which, since it can not rotate, is thereby shifted
.5 axially toward the left in Fig. 14. This axial
an annulus or rim |9| (see also Fig. 22).
7
The
sleeve being rotatable about shaft |69l and inside
of sleeve |68, it will be,seen that by giving the
rim |9| a slight movement of rotation in either
direction the rockers -| 86 will be rocked corre
movement ofthe sleeve permits the pins ISI, Fig. spondingly
on their pivots. This movement of
13, and plate ||8 `which carries the pins, to have ' the rockers will either shift the carriers in line
a slight planetary movement also, but in the with their axes of rotation in
the rockers, or tilt
clockwise direction.> This causes stems-|28, |29 to
iov swing
on their ends in grooves |32, |33 as pivots,
«
them about the axes on' which the rollers rotate,
or both shift and tilt them, according to the 10
and upon reflection it will’be seen that this will , angular relation of the arms .|81 to the ball and
cause the two rollers to preeess to a slightly lower socket joints by which the carriers are mounted,
speed ratio position. The net result is that the as explained, in my copending applications Serial
two sets are brought to the same speed‘position.
15
It will be seen that equalization of the rollers No. 361,031, filed May 7, 1929, now Patent No.
1,865,102, issued June 28,v 1932, and vSerial No.of one or both sets may take place while the two 590,360,
ñled'April 29, 1932, now Patent No.
sets are equalizing, and it will also be seen that
1,9l9,218,`_
issued July 25, 1933, which were co- j`
the action is entirely automatic. This is a highly pending with
my present application. In any
advantageous feature, as it takes care of consid
20 erable inaccuracy in the manufacture and fitting case the rollers preeess to a higher or lower speed
ratio, according to the direction in which the 20
of the parts, which otherwise would have to be of sleeve
|89 was rotated„ as described in my co
the highest precision. Even then, very slight un
pending patents just mentioned. Preferably the
equal -wear* or the like would result in an unbal- v
axes of precession of the rollers and carriers are
anced condition which would cause further un
inclined tothe planes 'of the disk so that the ex
25 equal wear, and so on, with the result that the tent of precession of the rollers and carriers will
«mechanism would' in a relatively short time be _ depend upon the amplitude of the yrocking move 25
seriously injured.
,
ment imparted to the rockers, as explained in my
The equalizing method described hereinbefore copeiiding applications referred to. For this’ pur
`is not limited to mechanisms in which sets of pose the sockets in which the ball ends of the
30 rollers are arranged in thesame plane but 'can'
be employed to advantage when the sets are carriers aremounted may be voffset as indicated 30
in Fig. .26, in which it will be observed that the
spaced apart axially. An embodiment of this upper
socket is offset to the left and the lower
’ type is illustrated in Figs. 18 to 25 inclusive. In
to the right of the vertical center line `of the
this construction thefdisks |65, |66 correspondin rocker
|86. It will be understood that in Fig. 20
'35 general to the disks -I 5, |1Jof Figs.' 1'v and 13, but
the upper socket of the rocker at the upper left 35
are spaced apart to accommodate disk |61, which of the figure is nearer the observer than is the
corresponds to disks I6, I8 arranged back to back. lower
of the same rocker, whereas the
Disk |61 rotates on a‘sleeve |68 encircling the upper socket
socket
of
the rocker at >the upper right is
shaft |69 and extending _axially from a three
farther >from the observer than is its lower socket.
armed spider one arm of which is shown at |10, Similarly the left hand socket of the lower rocker
40,
l Fig. 18, the spider being integral with .a trans
is nearer the observer than .is the right hand
verse plate or diaphragm I1| ñxed solidly between socket of that rocker.
'
.
the two parts |12, |13 of the transmission hous
The rollers |11 of the- other set, Fig. 18, are
ing. On the right end of the sleeve |68 is splined similarly mounted with their axes of precession .
45 asimilar spider, one arm of whichis shown at4
inclined to the planes of the disks in 'a direction
|14. Disk |65 is rigidly connected to shaft |69,
to inclination of .the first> set, and the
but disk- |66 is slidably keyed to the shaft, so ` opposite
arms |93 of their rockers |94 engage slots |95 in
that by tightening nut |15 against the spring i, the
flange or ring |96, Figs.` 18 and 19, splined in
Washers |16 disk' |66 is urged leftwardly against "l a fixed position on the adjacent end of the equal
vthe three rollers between the disk mentioned and 'izer sleeve. It-will therefore beseen that when
’ the middle disk |61,~one of which rollers -is shown the sleeve is rotated by `rim |9| as described in 50
at I 11. At the same time the shaft |69 and disk connection with the first set of rollers the carriers
|65 are drawn rightwardiy against the rollers |18. of the second set will be similarly actuated,
Both sets of rollers are thus pressed against theV causing like precession of the rollers.
55 middle. disk to ‘giveuthe necessary frictional ‘en
The slots |88, |95 at the two ends of the equal
gagemen't to drive the middle disk when shaft» izer sleeve |89 are inclined in opposite directions 55
V|69 and disks |65, |66 are the 'driving element, l for the same purpose as are the similar slots |50
or to rotate disks |65, |66 and shaft |69 when ln sleeve || 6, Fig. 17,' that is to say', to provide
‘the middle disk is the driving element. In either automatic equalization of load between the sets
60 case disk |61 is splined to the edge of a. drum |19vv
of rollers. It will be understood that rotative
which surrounds rollers |11 and is connected to movement of the sleeve |89 is intended to rock 60
shaft |80 in which the inner end of shaft |69 is all the rockers equally, to cause equal precessional
mounted. Shaft |80 has a flange |8| for connec- , movement of the rollers to change the speed-ratio
tion with any'desired mechanism, for example a of the mechanism. Transverse or radial move
mechanism which is to drive, or be driven by, the ment of either or both' ends of the sleeve causes
(ifiV
differential rocking movement of one or more
The transmission rollers |18 are mounted -in rockers to initiate equalizing precession'of the
carriers |85, Figs. 18 and 20, which are themselves appropriate rollers of the respective set, as does
rotatably supported byball and socket Joints in- transverse or radial movement of the plate 58,
the rockers |86 pivoted on the spider |10,»Fig. 18, Figs. 1 and 2. Longitudinal or axial mov ent of
and provided with inwardly extending arms |81 the sleeve equalizes the load between the two sets 70
having ball ends engaging slots |88 in the ter
of rollers, as does axial movement of plate 58,
» minal flange at the adjacent end-of an equalizer
transmission.
-
ì
v sleeve |89 encircling'the shaft |69. This equal
p just mentioned. In explanation of the equali'zing
action between sets of rollers, let it be noted first
>izer sleeve is connectedby arms or spokes |90 toA that
the frictional forces exerted on the rollers,
8
2,123,006
when the transmission mechanism is driving a
load, tends to revolve the rollers around the disk
axis in planetary fashion, thereby taking up all
control shaft 205 (described hereinafter) through
the axial play or clearance which the roller car
a universal connection therewith. .For this pur
riers have with respect to their supporting- rock
pose the ring is connected at opposite sides by
links |98, Figs. 18, 20, and 22, to a bail |99, Fig.
23, the legs 200,of which are pivoted to ears 20|
on a transverse “scale beam” lever 202 fulcrumed
between its ends at 203 in the plate |1| and the
end wall of the housing |13. It will be observed 10
ers. If' (after this `play is taken up) allthe rollers
are in the same speed-ratio position, then both
sets drive the load at the same speed;.but never
theless the aforesaid frictional forces constantly
10 _tend to shift the rollers farther in planetary fash
ion, which farther shift would, if it occurred,
cause precession of the rollers to a lower speed
ratio position. But this tendency is resisted by
" 15
The ring |9-| and equalizing sleeve |89 are ro
tated to bring about change of speed-ratio by a'
that in all positions of the lever 202 the bail can
swing up or down (in Fig. 20) on its pivotal con
nection with the lever, that is, in a plane trans-Y
the control mechanism with which the sleeve is
verse to the lever, thus permitting the ring |9|
connected for actuation, that is, the rocker arms
and sleeve |89 to tilt up or down. Also, the links
|81, |93, ring |9|, links |98, lever |99, etc., Fig.
|98 areloosely connected to the ring and to the
tween the two sets the aforesaid frictional'forces
23 and 25, thus giving the sleeve universal free
dom of movement, permitting it to move bodily in
20; hence, when the load is equally divided be- y bail, as by means of the ball joints shown in Figs.
cause the rocker arms |81 of one set and the
20 rocker arms |93 of the other set toexert equal
pressures on the inclined cam surfaces of the
both axial directions, to move bodily in all radial 20.
directions, and to tilt at each end in every radial \
recesseswhich the arms engage in the collarsl on
direction, without being materially resisted by the
the equalizing sleeve. wIn other words, the forces
connection with links |98, bail |99 and lever 202.
The sleeve is thus enabled' to perform in an
25 in equilibrium, and there is no tendency for the ' efficient manner all the equalizing functions of 25
on the two sets are equalized, i. e., the forces "are
sleeve to be cammed axially in one direction
rather than in the other. But suppose that for
some reason one set is in a higher speed-ratio
Since it
30 tends to drive the load faster than does the other
or “lagging” set, the frictional forces due to load
‘ position. . Call this the “leading” set.y
sleeve | I6,- Fig. 13, and of disk 58, Fig. 2.
The`adjustment of lever 202 to bring about
. `
changes of speed ratio is effected by means of a
threaded axially stationary control shaft 205,
Figs. 20'and 21, working in a non-rotatable nut 30
206 having trunnions 201 extending into longi
reaction are unbalanced and the rocker arms of . tudinalslots 208 in the arms of a'yoke 209 piv
one set therefore exert greater pressure on the oted at their lower ends to the adjacent end o_f
equalizing- sleevethan do the arms of the other
35 set, with the result that the leading set can move
in the` planetary manner in the direction ofthe
frictional forces on it, thereby rocking its rockers
and thus causing the arms of its rockers to cam
the sleeve axially. The planetary movement just
referred to causes the leading set of rollers to
precess toward a lower speed-ratio position, and
at the same time the axial movement of the
sleeve swings the rocker arms of the other set
(by the cam action of the inclined recesses en
45 gaging the latter arms) in the direction to cause
precession of its rollers to a higher speed-ratio
position. The net result is that the two sets come
to an intermediate position at lwhich both drive
the load at the same speed. At this position the
50 load is equally divided between the two. Equali
zation among the rollers of a set in Figs. 2 and
20, for example, is in principle the same as be
tween sets of rollers. Instead, however, of the
sleeve being shifted axially it is shifted trans
55 versely, thereby causing differential precession of
one or more rollers of the set. It will be observed
that in Figs. 2, 18 and 20, the equalizing device
the single floating ring or plate 58 in Fig. 2 and
the floating sleeve |89 with its two recessed collars
60 in Figs. 18 and .20-are capable oi' movement
lever 202. Between the yoke and the bearing 2 |0
of shaft 205 is an expansion spring 2li. It will
be seen in the construction described that when
the shaft is rotated clockwise (as seen in Fig. 24)
the nut and yoke are causedto descend under
the influence of spring 2|-|, thereby rocking lever .
202V and bail |99 counterclockwlse, with resulting
precession of the rollers to a different speed-ratio
position-_to a higher speed ratio position than
that shown in Figs. 18 and 20 if driving shaft
|69 is rotating inthe direction of the arrow.
Similarly, counterclockwise rotation oi' the con
trol shaft _raises nut 206 and yoke 2,09 against the
and bail |99 clockwise and causing the rollers to -
precess to a lower speed-ratio position. At all
times the rollers are subjected to the reaction of
the load which the mechanism is driving, tend»
Aing to shift the roller carriers in a direction toV
cause precession to a lower speed-ratio. This
reaction is exerted against and is resisted yonly
by the tension of spring 2li, and- when at any 55
speed ratio position of the rollers and yoke 209
the reaction exceeds the spring tension the spring
will yield and permit the yoke to rise and lever .
202 to rock clockwise, independently of nut 206,
thereby causing precession of the rollers to a 60
axially and transversely, so that >equalization
among the rollers of a set, and equalization bel
tween sets, can take place concurrently. Thus
correspondingly lower speed-ratio position; such
the sleeve c_an tilt or move as a. whole transversely
65 in any direction, with or without simultaneous
tween the same and the nut 206. If later the
load‘reaction on the yoke decreases to a value
independent movement of the yoke being per
mitted by the slot and trunnion connection be
movement axially. In any case the action is auto
matic and is effective within the limits of the pre
less than the tension of the spring the latter
depresses the yoke until the tension and the re
cessional adjustment incident to the'axial play
of the carriers with respect to their rockers. It
will also be seen that the equalizing device func
âcäelnding yoke is arrested by the nut trunnions
tions, as such, only when there are on the rollers
forces which are unequal, and that the ultimate
effect of the equalization is to make a change, in
the magnitude of one or more of the forces, which
-75 will make them equal.y
45 ..
tension of vspring 2| |, thereby rocking lever 202
action are again in balance, or until the de
y1n the path òf me lever 2oz as the latter is
swinging to or toward a predetermined low speed
ratio position is a spring-raised button 2|5, Fig.
20, cooperating with an electrical contact 2|6 to
close the same upon contact 2|1, these contacts_„_75
2,123,006
being in a normally closed circuit, represented
by the wires 2 I8, which is associated or- connected
element and concentric therewith, a coaxial driv- I
ing shaft connected with one of the race-ele
ments to drive the same, two sets oi’ transmis
sion rollers arranged in substantially the same
in any suitable way with the power means, not
shown, driving the transmission mechanism. For
example, when the mechanism is driven by an
electric motor, the contacts may be in the motorcircuit so'that the latter is opened whenever the
contacts 2i 6, 2li` are opened by the descending
end of lever 202 as a result of manual adjust
plane between the race elements to drive the 5
other race element from the driving element and
mounted for angular adjustment to vary the
speed ofthe driven disk element, and a driven
shaft coaxial with the race elements and con
10 ment of the control shaft 205 or as a result of load
nected with the driven race element for actua- 10
reaction acting on the rollers and roller carriers,
which latter, it will be remembered, are connected
tion thereby.
4. A friction transmission mechanism com
to lever 202 through rockers |96, 194, equalizer
sleeve _|_89, links |98, ring I9I and bail |99. In
prising a pair of coaxial internally grooved driv
ing disks, _and a pair of internally grooved driven
15 most cases the control button is constructed and
arranged to actuate the contacts when, after the
rollers have precessed into contact with the stops
l10n, Illa, the lever 202 is rocked still farther.
On the control shaft bearing 2I0 is an index
20 disk 220, Figs. 20 and 24‘, traversed by apointer '
22| on the handV crank 222, which disk may be »
graduated to indicate a suitable number of speed
ratio positions. A nut 223 on the control shaft,
having a handle 224, serves tolock the shaft in
25 any position of adjustment.
The spring 2li has the important function of
limiting the input torque of the transmission,
since it is subjected to the load reaction, but its
deflection corresponds at all times to the speed
80 ratio position of the rollers due tothe fact that the
yoke 209, the position of which determines the
maximum speed-ratio at a given instant, rises
land compresses the spring as the tension of the
latter is exceeded by the load reaction. Hence
a by proper choice of the spring and its initial ten
sion the input torque can be limited to any de
' sired value in all speed-ratio positions. For ex
ample, with a constant speed driving motor the
horsepower taken by the transmission can be lim
ited to a substantially constant value.
4
Having now particularly described and ascer
tained the nature of -my said invention and in
what manner the same is to beperformed, I de
clare that what I claim is:
’
'
'
45
1. In a friction transmission'mechanism, in
combination, a pair of axially spaced coaxial
disks having inwardly facing toroidal grooves, a
second pair of axially spaced coaxial disks hav
ing inwardly facing toroidal grooves, a set of`
50 friction rollers arranged substantially in a plane
transverse to the axis of the >disks and cooper
ating with the grooves of the first pair of disks,
a set of friction rollers larranged substantially
9
disks concentric with the driving disks and en- 15
circling the same; a set of transmission rollers
cooperating with one of the driving disks and
a driven disk; a set of transmission rollers in
substantially the same plane with fthe ñrst set
cooperating with the other driving disk and the 20
other driven disk; the rollers of both sets be
ing mounted for angular adjustment relative to
said plane to vary the speed ratio of the mech
anism; and means extending between one of the
driving disks and the encircling driven disk to 25
eifect such adjustment of the rollers.
5. In a friction transmission mechanism, in
combination, an inner race-member having
toroidal grooves, anlouter race member encir
cling the same and having toroidal grooves. two 30
sets of.'v transmission rollers arranged in substan
tially the same planelto cooperate with said race
elements and mounted for angular adjustment
to vary the _speed-ratio of the mechanism, and
means extending between the race elements from 35
outside the same into connection with the roll
ers to vary their angular adjustment.
6. A friction transmission mechanism com
prising a disk element composed of two coaxial
grooved disks, a roller element composed of two
connected sets of transmission rollers arranged in
substantially the same plane and cooperating
with the said disk element, and a disk element
composed of coaxial grooved disks encircling the
first disk element and cooperating with the roller 45
element; one of the three elements being non
revolvable and constituting a reaction element.
'7. In a variable speed friction transmission
mechanism, in combination, toroidally grooved
coaxial races spaced axially apart, an interme
diate toroidally grooved race coaxial with said co
axially spaced races, two sets of transmission
rollers cooperating with said races, supports for
in the same plane as the first set and, cooper
the rollers of the two sets angularly adjustable
ating
with
the
other
pair
of
disks,
supporting
55
respectively in opposite angular directions on
means for said rollers, and means for adjusting axes transverse to their roller axes of rotation 55
the rollers angularly with respect to said plane to vary the speed ratio of the mechanism. an
to vary the speed-ratio of the mechanism.
2. A friction transmission mechanism compris
ing an inner disk and an outer concentric disk
encircling the first, an inner disk coaxialwith
the first inner disk and a! second outer disk con
centric With _the second inner `disk and encir-cling the same, the four disks having inwardly
65 facing toroidal grooves; transmission rollers co
operating with the grooves in the first inner and
the second outer disks ; and transmission rollers
cooperating with the grooves in the-second inner
vand the first outer disks; all said rollers being
70 in substantially the same plane and mounted for
angular adjustment relative to said plane to vary
the speed ratio of the mechanism.
axially movable equalizing member, and means
operatively associating the rollers of both sets
with the equalizing member for converting axial 60
movement of the latter into~ movement of angu
lar adjustment _of both sets of rollers respective
ly in the same angular direction to bring both
sets to'the same intermediate speed ratio posi
tion.
8. In -a variable speed friction transmission 65
mechanism, in combination, a driving shaft, a
driven shaft, and mechanism for driving the lat
ter from the former, comprising coaxial torcid
ally grooved disks, four transmission rollers ar- 70
ranged in two sets cooperating with the grooves
the disks, carriers for the rollers, mounted
3. A friction transmission mechanism com-- in
for preîiessional adjustment of the rollers to
prising a grooved inner race element, a grooved
vary the speed-ratio of the mechanism, and ac
outer race-element encircling the inner race-? tuating members connected with the carriers to
76
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