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Патент USA US2123016

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July `5, '1938.
w, L, MCDANIEL
2,123,016
CRIBBING
Filed June 12, 1937
2 Sheets-Sheet l
2,123,016
Patented July 5, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT GFFICE
2,123,016
CRIBBING
William Lyle McDaniel, Cleveland, Ohio, assigner
to Massey Concrete Products Corporation, Chi
cago, Ill., a corporation of Virginia
Application June 12.,- 1937, Serial No. 147,812
(c1. (s1-i7)
10 Claims.
The present invention relates to cribbing, and
is particularly concerned with concrete cribbing
of the type adapted to be used for dikes and other
flood >control walls.
" ‘ While
the present cribbing
is
particularly
applicable to dike construction, it should be'noted
that it may be used in all cases where cribbing
would be suitable, and I do not wish to be limited
to the preferred form of use of this cribbing.
'
One of the objects of the invention is the pro
vision of an improved closed face cribbing which
is so constructed that a practically impervious
finished wall may be obtained, thereby prevent
ing the leakage of the water into the space behind
the forward cribbing wall, and preventing in
undation or erosion of, the fill;
l
Another object of the invention is the pro
vision of an improved cribbing which is adapted
’ to be laid along a curve, and which primarily
cannot be constructed to extremely close limits of
sizes economically.
»
Another object of the invention is the provision
of an improved anchoring device for cribbing
units, which is more elastic than the concrete of 5
which the cribbing units are constructed, so that
the anchoring members are adapted to give,
rather than the crib unit.
Another object of the invention is the provision
of an improved cribbing arrangement of the class 10
described, in which the forms for the cribbing
units will be of the utmost simplicity possible,
while still accomplishing the foregoing objects.
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will be apparent from the following description 15
and the accompanying drawings, in which similar
characters of reference indicate similar parts
‘throughout the several views:
,
y
Referring to the two sheets of drawings,
Fig. 1 is a view in perspective of a cribbing
depends upon the principle of friction between
the engaging ‘surfaces of the headers Yand
constructed according to the present invention,
stretchers for preventing any appreciable slip
having a portion built as a closed face cribbing;
and another portion built as an open face crib
page between the unitsof the cribbing.
Another object of the invention is the provi
sion of an improved cribbing ofthe class de
scribed, which is provided with a reserve locking
bing;
Fig. 2 is a vertical end elevational view of a
cribbing installation constructed according to
arrangement adapted to positively prevent- the
the present invention, but having stepped walls
relative movement of header and stretcher units
in the event the friction between the headers and
in the front and the back;
Fig'. 3 is a fragmentary View in perspective of
the joint between two stretchers and a header in
30 stretchers is not sufficient, so as to meet _the
requirements of the users of `cribbings of this
type.
`
l
`
Another object is the provision of an Vimproved
_ interlocking arrangement for cribbing members,
such as headers and stretchers, which are fran
gible, so that the inter-locking members will‘be
broken before the concrete stretchers andheaders
1 are ruptured, in theevent of any undue strain
on _the cribbing.
, Another. object of the invention‘is` `the provi
sion of closed face cribbing which may be made
impervious, in. which thereis a maximum .of
bearing surface between thev headers and
stretchers, and in which the design of the crib
45 bing members is such as to provide` forv the
stepping of the wall back, either Von the front
or the rear wall of the cribbing.
Another object of the invention is the provision
of an improved anchoring arrangement for crib
bing, which is adapted to provide sufficient play
between the anchoring members and the cribbing
units, so that the cribbing may be laid along a
curved line, and so as to permit of certain vari
55 ations in the dimensions of cribbing units, which
0
the closed face type of cribbing;
Fig. 4 isranother similar fragmentary view in
perspective;
.
Fig. 5 is a view in perspective of one end of a
5
foundation stretcher member for the closed face
type of cribbing;
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary view in perspective of
one end of a stretcher member for an open face
type of cribbing;
Fig. ‘7 is a fragmentary .view in perspective of
one end of the ordinary stretcher member for
a closed face type of cribbing;
Fig. 8 is a top plan View of the joint between a
stretcher and a header in a cribbing constructed
according to the present invention;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary View in perspective of
a header member which is particularly adapted
to be used at the point where the cribbing is
stepped` back;
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary plan view of the joint
»J
between a stretcher and a header at a corner
of the wall of Fig. 1, showing the intercom
municating grooves above and below the header.
and stretcher members in the front wall for the 55
2
2,123,016
purpose of permitting the use of a sealing cement
or compound to provide an impervious wall;
Fig. 11 is a vertical sectional view taken on
the plane of the line l I--II of Fig. 10, looking in
Cir the direction of the arrows, showing a wall having
grooved cribbing members, the wall having its
spaces ‘and grooves filled with mortar for the
purpose of providing an impervious front wall;
Fig. l2 is a top plan View of the form of inter
locking joint provided between two stretchers
which are arranged at right angles to each other,
as, for example, the stretchers 3D and Il of
Fig. 1.
Referring to Fig. 1, lll indicates in its entirety
a cribbing installation whichv is built up of head
ers lil-2S and stretchers ill-4|. The stretchers
are those units which extend longitudinally of
the cribbing installation, and the headers are
those units which extend transversely of the
20 length of the complete installation. Of` course,
the cribbing is covered with ñll, except its for
ward and exposed wall composed of the cribbing
members Liu-4|, and the ñll is omitted in Fig. l
merely to show the structure of the cribbing.
25
Referring to Fig. 1, it- will be noted that both
the header members and the'stretcher members
are preferably rectangular in cross section, -being
provided with two plane rectangular sides, with
two plane rectangular ends, and two plane rec
3.0 tangular upper and lower surfaces. This simpli
ñes the construction of forms and gives a maxi
mum amount of b-earing area. The -cribbing
members are particularly shaped at their ends
in order to provide for interlocking engagement
35 between the headers and the stretchers, and it
will be noted that the wall is built up in the cus
tomary manner of building upa cribbing wail.
For example, first the stretchers 33, 31, and ¿il are
laid; then the rear stretchers 23, 25 andZS are
4 O laid parallel to `the :first-mentioned stretchers,
but spaced therefrom so as to` engage only the
end portions of the headers. , Then the headers
I 4, Il, and 2i) are laid, with their end'portions
located at the joints between the rear stretchers
45 and the front stretchers, and overlapping these
joint portions so that the ends of the headers are
flush with the outer surfaces of the stretchers.
This provides a cribbing wall having no projec
tions which are apt to be broken off or which
50 might mar the .appearance of the wall.
Thereafter, the next course of stretchers is
laid, then the next course of headers, and so on,
until the cribbing wall is built -up as shown in
Fig. l.
55
_ Referring to Fig. 2, this is a similar structure,
in which the headers are made in various lengths
for the purpose of providing a stepped wall. Ob
viously `>the wall may be stepped at the back and
made a plane ñat surface in front or it may be
stepped in front and provided with a plane flat
In the embodiment of Fig. 2 the uppermost
series of stretchers Sli-5l are of the same width as
the last series mentioned. These last two series
of stretchers are substantially square in cross sec
tion.
The headers in Fig. 2 have been numbered
58-65. In this embodiment they comprise two
sets of headers, each set having a number of
headers of the same length, but the headers de
crease in length toward the top.
It will be observed that the lowermost headers
58-59 are longest, thereby providing a step 'Hl
and a step l5. The second series of headers Gti,
6l are shorter by such an amount that the front
and rear stretcher walls, comprising the stretch
ers 46-49, still rest on the front and rear stretch
er walls, comprising stretchers ‘l2-Mi.
In a similar manner the headers S2, 63 are
shorter than the headers B0, El by an amount
which brings the location of the stretcher walls 20
5ß«53 above at least a portion of the stretcher
walls #L6-49.
In the uppermost series of headers Sli, '55 there
is exemplified a structure in which the stretcher
walls` 54-51 are'completely offset with respect to 25
the stretcher walls Sil-53 and the uppermost
stretcher walls rest on the transverse headers 63
at the top of the third series of headers. This
is permissible because this section E4, @5 of the
stepped cribbing is located at the top of the 30
assembly, where there is less weight to carry.
Referring to Fig. 1, the present cribbing de
pends primarily upon the weightof the cribbing
members and of the ñll acting on the cribbing
members to produce friction at the interengag 35
ing fiat surfaces of the stretchers and headers.
Years of experience with cribbing have convinced
me that for most practical purposes this friction
between the stretchers and-headers at their` points
of engagement is sufficient to prevent any move
ment of the stretchers and headers when prop
erly constructed.
40
y
In order to assure the frictional engagement
between the headers and stretchers, it will be
noted that the stretchers and the headers, even 45
in a’closed face wall, such as shown at the left in
Fig. 1 are so constructed that there is a slight
crack ‘I6-18 between the stretchers and the cracks
‘IS-8D between the headers.
’These cracks 'I6-18 may also serve to assist in
making the front wall absolutely water-tight,
since the cribbing members may be pointed up
with mortar .in the usual way of constructing a
stone wall to make an impervious ñnished wall.
Another mode of construction is to lay the 55
cribbing members up with mortar at the time the
cribbing is laid and then finish the job by point
ing.
Thus the present cribbing is adapted to
provide an impervious cribbing wall which. is per
_fectly adapted for dike construction or other flood 60
surface in back, or both walls may have plane . control walls becausev the front wall is impervious
flat surfaces, as shown in Fig. l, or both walls to" moisture and there is no danger of the ñll
may be stepped as shown in Fig. 2.
being washed out by the action of the water, since
In order to make a structure of Fig. 2, the low
ermost set of stretchers @l2-45 are preferably
made wider in a horizontal direction in order to
increase the strength and bearing surface of the
stretchers at the bottom of the cribbing. The
next set of stretchers 46-49 are preferably made
70 slightly narrower in a horizontal direction, since
they are located at a higher point in the wall.
The next series of stretchers 563-53 are preferably
made still narrower in a horizontal direction, as
»they are located still higher in the wall and need
support less weight than the lowermost stretchers.
the water cannot. penetrate to the ñll.
Referring to Figs. 3_6, thes-e views show the 65
construction of the ends of
stretcher and
header units and interlocking arrangement which
is adapted to provide suflicient flexibility so that
the cribbing can be laid along a curve, and so
that there is a reserve inter-locking means posi 70
tively to prevent the movement of the stretchers
relative to the headers.
In Fig. 4, 82 indicates the end portion of a
stretcher and 83 the end portion of an adjacent
stretcher in the same course.
84 indicates the 75
3
2,123,016
i end portion of a header which is arranged just
above the course 82, 83, and interlocking with
the ends shown.
Except for the two vertically extending grooves
85, 86, which are located in the sides of each
header adjacent each end thereof, the headers
are substantially rectangular in cross section and
provided with plane rectangular faces on their
sides. The grooves 85, 86 are located inward of
the end face of the header 84 at such apoint
that the apex of each `groove ispreferably on
l `the center line of the width of the stretchersu 82,
83.
.
Y
The ends of the stretchers 82, 83 are provided
with the portions 81, 88 ofk reduced rectangular
crosssection, each stretcher beingïcut out above
ñrst dropped into place, and then the pins are
dropped inv from the position shown in Fig. 4.
Thereafter the next course of headers may be
putin place.
‘
`
~
,
It should be noted that when the cribbing is
complete, the pins are not at all visible, nor are
the grooves visible from the outside of the crib
bing, and therefore Fig. 1 may represent not
only a cribbing with such pins, but a cribbing
without the pins, and with or >without mortar 10
grooves.
‘
Referring to Fig. 5, this is a view of a modified
form of stretcher unit which is intended for use
only for the foundation or lowermost stretcher or
for the uppermost stretcher. In this case only 15
one of the horizontal faces of the'cribbing is
cut in at each'end and provided with the tri
and below by an amount which is equalto one
angular groove.
'
’
fourth of the cross-section `of the header. 'I'hus
Referring to Fig. 6, this is a modified form of
the recess which is formed above the joint be
20 tween two stretchers is suñicient to receive slight
stretcher unit which is intended to be used wher
. ever the open face type of cribbing is desired, as,
ly less than half of the depth of the header 84.
for'example, the stretcher units 35, 36, 31 of
The reason for making this cut-out less than
half of the depth of the header is to provide the Fig. l.
In this case the portion of reduced cross sec
cracks 18 between the stretchers, which may be
tion at the end may be substantially six inches
25 filled with cement or pointed up in the usual
in depth, the end being cut out to a depth of
way.
one inch, and the total height of the stretcher
In other embodiments of the invention em
being eight inches. This leaves the relatively
ploying the mortar-filled grooves of Fig. 11, no
cracks need be used. The faces 89-92 at the ends wide spaces 89-l8l between the stretcher units
in Fig. l in the right hand portion of the wall,
30 of the stretchers are also provided with vertically
extending grooves 93-96, the groove 95 not being illustrating what is called an open face cribbing.
visible in Fig. 4. These grooves 93-96 are also 1 Such a cribbing is not deemed of the best con
struction for flood control, since it cannot be
located midway between the front and rear faces
made impervious.
of the stretchers so as `to be substantially in
Referring to Fig. '1, this is a fragmentary View
35 alignment with the grooves 85, 86 when theend
of the end of a‘stretcher unit of the same type
of the header is flush with the outer face of the
shown in Fig. 4 and used for a closed face‘ crib
stretcher.
.
‘
It will thus be observed that as the grooves
Referring to Fig. >1, it should be noted that
all run in a vertical direction there are no pockets
where‘ the c'ribbing isf to be provided with two
40 of any kind within which water might be located
bing.
'
'
"
forward faces at right angles to each other, such
is frozen. Any water may, therefore, leak out
the rear face of the cribbing wall, even though
the forward face has been pointed or closed with
stretchers 38-33, special stretcher units should
The grooves 85,Y 85 and 93-95 are preferably
. triangular in section, as viewed from the top (see
Fig. i0); that is, of such shape that when the
grooves in adjacent stretchers and headers are
in registry they forman aperture of rectangular
shape, preferably square. This square aperture
is adapted to receive inter-locking members 91,
88, which are dropped in place, and which are
slightly smaller than the aperture into which they
55 are dropped, due to the spacing of the end of
`the stretcher from the side of the header.
The dimensions of the triangular grooves may
v correspond to the dimensions of the inter-locking
members, but by spacing the cribbing members,
60 such as, for example, a quarter of an inch apart,
25
30
35
-
or retained so as to cause damage when the water
45 mortar.
20
as faces of the header l2-I4 and the faces of
be constructed, the ends of which are substantial
ly the same as the header units -i 5-I1, but the
rear faces of the stretcher'units 38-33 and head
er units I2-|4 are provided with grooves like the
grooves 93-94 to interlock these stretcher units
at the corner. The specific constructionis illus
trated . in Fig. 12, showing theV interlocking
stretcher units lat a kright angled corner.
Due to the play between the ends of the stretch
ers, the'- stretcher wall may be laid along the
curve, or the corner may be made slightly dif
ferent from‘ a right vangled corner, if desired.
55
Referring to Fig. 8, this is a plan view of the
top of a stretcher and header, the header being
numbered 84 and the stretcher 83. The clear
ance between the stretcher and header and be
tween these members and the interlocking mem 60
ber 98 is apparent in this figure. If desired, a
similar clearance may be used between the ends
of adjacent stretchers, and such clearance in the
a predetermined amount lof play is provided be
tween the grooves and the interlocking members.
These interlocking members are preferably
made of a material which is cheap and which has
65 a greater flexibility than the concrete so that
fthey are adapted to give before the concrete
I prefer to use creosoted oak pins sub
» breaks.
same course is absolutely necessary at that point
stantially square in cross section and of a length
substantially equal to or slightly less than the
70 depth of the headers. Thus each header engages
Fig. 2', where the wall has been stepped inward
toward‘the top. It will be observed that the
headers 63, 6l Yand 58 are each required to have 70
two of such pins at each end, and each of the
two pins engages parts of two stretchers.
Referring to Fig. 3, here the two stretchers are
provided with such pins, shown in place without
75 the header, although in practice the header is
when the wall is- made curved.
Referring to Fig. ‘9,‘this is a view in perspec
tive of the end of a header of the
65
used in
two grooves of the stretchers above and below
such headers. Thus each particular header H32
is provided with pairs of grooves H13-iii@ on each
of the vertical faces.`
Y
Referring to Figs. 10 and 11, these are views 75
4
2,123,016
showing the method of providing the tops and
bottoms of stretchers and headers with suitable
grooves of such construction that they may be
filled with a water sealing compound or cement.
The stretcher IIJ‘I has on its upper face IUS
a tapered or wedge-shaped groove IûQ and a sim
ilar groove I iEl on its lower face. On-the stretch
er» these grooves extend longitudinally of the
stretcher.
120
The `same is true of all of the other stretchers
in the forward face at least of the cribbing as
sembly.
`
‘
Header II I is provided with similar transverse
grooves II2, II3 spaced inward of the end of
125 the header a distance suiiîcient so that these
grooves register with the grooves H19, I IIE on the
stretchers when the'end of the >header is flush
with the face of the stretcher.
Various methods of ñliing such grooves may be
20 employed, such as the injection of liquid mortar
under pressure or the ñlling of the grooves with
mortar before the laying of the cribbing in place.
The mortar in the upper and lower grooves joins
together and effects a seal as` soon as the crib
25 bing is placed. The grooves are tapered in order
to provide for the removal of the-form from
the grooves.
It will also be observed that this form of water
seal may also employ cement or sealing com
30 pound, such as tar in between the cracks 'l5-'I8
at the cribbing face. At a corner of the type of
Fig. 1 the grooves are so arranged in the upper
and lower surfaces of the cribbing, except the
top of the uppermost cribbing member and the
35 bottom of the lowermost, so that the grooves
extend longitudinally of the stretchers to‘a point
midway between the faces of the wall at the cor
ner, and thence longitudinally of the other
stretchers along the wall midway of the wall.
Referring to Fig. 12, this shows how the in
terlocking elements are arranged at thecorner
of Fig. 1, where a stretcher and header are ar
ranged at right angles to each other. The in
terlocking element I I4, shown in full lines, is that
which interlocks between the header II and
stretcher 30.
The interlocking element II5,
’ shown in dotted lines, is illustrative of those
used between the rear face of the stretcher 30
and the end of header `I I.
Y
It will thusbe observed that I have invented an
improved closed face cribbing and improved crib
bing units which are adapted to be used for I>the
construction of dikes and other flood control
walls. In some embodiments of my invention the
55 cribbing units may be constructed without the
use of any interlocking members, depending
wholly upon the friction of the engaging faces
of the stretchers and headers to prevent move
ment of these members. 'I_‘he friction is greatly
60 increased by the weight of the i'lll and the’ weight
of the cribbing members above the joint.
I prefer to use the interlocking members shown,
which have greater elasticity than concrete, and
which act as a reserve interlocking means. They
65 are, however, adapted to be broken before the
concrete breaks. The interlocking arrangements
are such that there are no pockets that can be
ñlled with water, causing breaking of the con
crete by freezing. Furthermore, the present crib
70 bing may be constructed as a closed face cribbing
which can be pointed up in the usual manner to
make an impervious wall, or it may be laid in
mortar, or it may be provided with mortar or
sealing compound in the grooves above and be
75 low the cribbing members.
While I have illustrated a preferred embodi
ment of my invention, many modifications may
be made without departing from the spirit of
the invention, and I do not wish to be` limited
to the precise details of construction set forth,
but desire to avail myself of all changes within
the scope ofthe appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent of the United States, is:
1.A In a concrete cribbing., the combination of
a plurality of headers with a plurality of stretch
ers, said headers comprising prismatic concrete
members having plane rectangular ends and
sides, and said stretchers comprising concrete
members having plane rectangular sides and
ends, but having an end portion of reduced sec
tion whereby a recess is formed between two ad
jacent stretchers to receive the end of a header
and whereby said stretchers are adapted to form
a closed face wall, said stretcher and header
members being laid alternately one upon the
other to form a cribbing, and being retained in
place by virtue of the friction between the inter
engaging surfaces of the stretchers and headers,
said friction being increased by the weight of
superimposed cribbing members and fill, said
cribbing- members being provided with vertically
extending depressions for receiving interlocking
members, said depressions comprising grooves
located `in the vertical sides of said members ad
jacent the ends thereof, whereby said grooves are
adapted to drain clear of any water to prevent
damage by freezing of the water, and interlock
ing members arranged in said vertically extend
ing depressions.
2. A cribbing member comprising a header of
prismatic form having plane rectangular ends,
sides, top and bottom, and constructed of con
crete, said header being provided at each end with .40
a pair of vertically extending` grooves, one on
each side of the header, adjacent the end thereof,
for receiving parts of interlocking members with
out possibility of retaining water in the depres
sions, a cribbing member comprising a stretcher »_
having plane rectangular ends, top and bottom,
said ‘stretcher having portions of reduced rec- .
tangular cross section adjacent each end, the
cross section being reduced by an amount equiva
lent to slightly less than half the depth of an DI)
adjacent header, forming a stepped surface par
allel to the ends of each header, said stepped sur
face being formed with a vertically extending
groove for receiving an interlocking member, and
an interlocking member located between said ..
stretcher and header in said vertically extending
groove.
3. In a cribbing, the combination of a plu
rality of stretchers, said stretchers being of the
same type, but being of increasing width toward (il)
the bottom of the cribbing, and being arranged in
series, the lowermost series being the widest, with
headers also being arranged in series, said head
ers being of uniform cross section, but' being of
greater length toward the bottom of the cribbing,
said headers and stretchers being laid alternate
ly, one upon theV other, to form. a cribbing', with
each successive series of headers and stretchers
the stretcher walls being stepped inward as the
cribbing proceeds upward.
4. In a cribbing, the combination of a plu
rality of stretchers, said stretchers being of the
same type, but being of increasing width toward
the bottom of the cribbing, and being. arranged in
series, the lowermost series being the widest, with
¿A
5
2,123,016
headers also being arranged in series, said head
ers being of uniform cross section, but being of
greater length toward the bottom of the cribbing,
said headers and stretchers being laid alternate
ly, one upon the other, to form a cribbing, with
each successive series of headers and stretchers
the stretcher walls being stepped inward as
the cribbing proceeds upward, the stretchers of
each of said series being still arranged above a
10 portion of the stretchers belov»r said series to in
crease the bearing area between the series of
stretchers.
-5. In a concrete cribbing, the combination of
a plurality of stretchers and headers of rectangu
15 lar cross section, said stretchers and headers hav
ing complementary end formations interengag
ing and forming a substantially closed face
stretcher wall, with a plurality of wooden inter
locking' members carried by said cribbing and
located in apertures formed by registering
grooves in opposing stretchers and headers be
tween the ends of each stretcher and header to
form a reserve interlocking arrangement.
6. In a concrete cribbing, the combination of
25 a plurality of stretchers and headers of rectangu
lar cross section, said stretchers and headers hav
plane from the plane of the side of the body, said
stretcher having a surface at right angles to the,
axis of the body between said bearing surface and
the main body of the stretcher, and having a
groove formed by two plane surfaces at right
angles to each other extending outward from
each of said bearing surfaces to the outside of
the main body portion.
8. In a concrete cribbing member, a header
comprising a concrete member having a body 10
portion with four plane sides and plane ends,
said body portion having its vertical sides adja
cent one end thereof formed with a pair> of
vertically extending grooves, each of said grooves
being deñned by a pair of plane surfaces at 15
right angles to each other, whereby the grooves
are adapted to ñt half of a square interlocking
member.
9. In a concrete cribbing member, a header
comprising a concrete member having four plane 20
rectangular sides and plane rectangular ends,
said header having adjacent one of its ends on
each side a pair of vertically extending grooves
located in the vertical sides thereof, said grooves
being spaced from each other and each groove 25
being defined by a pair of plane surfaces at
ing complementary end formations interengag
substantially right angles to each other whereby
ing and forming a substantially closed face
stretcher wall, with a plurality of wooden inter
the header is adapted to receive half of two rec
tangular interlocking members on each side, said
30 locking members carried by said cribbing and
located in apertures formed by registering
grooves in opposing stretchers and headers be
tween the ends of each stretcher and header to
form a reserve interlocking arrangement, said
stretchers being formed with grooves in their
upper and lower surfaces adapted to be ñlled
with a sealing cement to form an impervious
stretcher wall.
7. A concrete cribbing member comprising a
stretcher having a body portion with four plane
sides and having plane ends, said body portion
being provided adjacent one end with a pair of
plane bearing surfaces, one above and one below,
each of said bearing surfaces, being on a different
interlocking members being located to engage 30
headers in different vertical planes.
10. In a concrete cribbing, the combination of
a plurality of stretchers and headers, said stretch
ers and headers being formed with complemen
tary end formations whereby they may be com 35
bined to provide a closed face, flush type crib
bing, interlocking means for interlocking the
stretchers and headers at their intersections, said
stretchers and headers being provided with
grooves in their upper and lower bearing sur
40
faces, and said grooves being filled with a water
tight composition whereby the closed faced crib
bing wall is made water-tight.
W- LSH-E` MCDANTEL
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