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Патент USA US2123018

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‘ July 5, 1938'
M. MORRISON ET AL
'
X-RAY
2,123,018
SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 30, 1935
'
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
II.
LINE FOCUS X-RA Y TUBE
FOR WORK WITH CONDENSERS
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GRID are‘.
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1000 .0_
@212 Pas.
500, 000.!!
INVENTORS
Mon/THIRD MOPP/50/V
ALFRED s/ma
BYM.7II
ATTORNE
July 5, 1938.
M. MORRISON ET AL
2,123,018. V
X-RAY SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 50, 1953
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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. ATTORNEY
July 5, 1938.
M. MORRISON ET AL
2,123,018
X-RAY SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 30 , 1933
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3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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ATTORNEY
Patented July 5, 1938
' UNITED
2,123,018
srarss
PATENT OFFICE
2,123,018
X-RAY SYSTEM
Montford Morrison, Montclair, N. J., and Alfred
Simon, Elmhurst, N. Y., assignors, by mesne as
signments, to Westinghouse X-Ray Company,
Inc, a corporation of Delaware
Application December 30, 1933, Serial No. 704,618
26 Claims.
(Cl. 250—34)
Our invention relates to X-ray systems and
has particular reference to such systems for the
X-rays, but of varying intensity which is detri
mental to a radiographic ?lm. Moreover, the
taking of short exposure X-ray photographs to
gether with a control system for operating the
source of energy for energizing the magnetic
winding must be properly insulated from the
high potential energy ?owing through the dis
charge device to prevent accidental shocks to
patient and operator thus presenting a further
objectionable feature to this particular system.
In the copending application of Montford
Morrison, Serial No. 582,933 ?led December 24, 10
1931 an X-ray system for the taking of short
exposure or so-called instantaneous X-ray pho
tographs is shown and described which obviates
the objectionable features present in these prior
art systems. In this novel system discharge of
the storage condensers is positively prevented
by the employment of a three electrode discharge
5 ' high tension X-ray system.
In the prior art various systems for the taking
of so-called short exposure or instantaneous pho
tographs are known. In order to obtain suffi
cient energy for the X-ray tube for such short
‘periods of energization thereof condensers are
usually utilized for storing the requisite energy,
which are suddenly caused to discharge through
the X-ray tube. These systems are, however,
subject to numerous objectionable features the
‘ principal one of which is the manner of causing
the discharge of the storage condensers.
The condenser in the system is charged to the
amount desired which when reached causes.
break-down of a series connected spark gap and
'discharge of the condenser through the X-ray
tube with a resulting X-ray photograph. The
resistance. of these spark gaps varies with cli
matic conditions thus rendering the amount of
the energy storable in the condensers uncertain
'and upon the condenser reaching its maximum,
leakage across the gap occurs before complete
dicharge resulting in a non-uniform emission of
X-radiation.
Another system well known to the art is that
30 of maintaining the temperature of the ther
mionic cathode below saturation until the con
denser is completely charged and then suddenly
allowing the cathode to be heated to or above
the saturation value enabling discharge of the
condenser through the X-ray tube. This system
likewise causes a leakage of the condenser before
complete discharge thereof in the same manner
as the aforementioned system employing a
spark-gap and in addition an appreciable time
‘lag follows closure of the switch before the
cathode reaches saturation which is lost to the
actual exposure time.
It has also been proposed to control the dis
charge of a condenser in an X-ray system by
45 ‘utilizing a discharge device connected in series
with the X-ray tube and condenser and con
trolling the ?ow of energy therethrough by
means of a magnetic ?eld.
In such a system,
however, due to the high potential heavy cur
-rent energy to which the X-ray tube is sub
jected the magnetic ?eld cannot successfully be
maintained at sufficient magnitude to entirely
prevent the how of energy through the discharge
device. This results in a constant energization of
‘the X-ray 'tube with attendant emission of
device, the main electrodes of which are con
nected in series with the X~ray tube and the
condensers and are thus subjected to the same
voltage-current characteristics as the X-ray
a
tube. By impressing a suf?ciently high negative
potential upon the grid or control electrode from
an auxiliary source of energy, the high tension
energy is prohibited from ?owing between the
main electrodes of the discharge device and
consequently from the condensers to the X-ray
tube.
When it is desired to take a radiographic ex
posure the polarity of the potential impressed by 30
the auxiliary source upon the control electrode
of the discharge device is changed from nega
tive to positive causing the instantaneous dis
charge of the condensers through the discharge
device and X-ray tube resulting in a radio
graphic exposure of predetermined uniform in
tensity.
Our present invention constitutes an improve
ment upon the system shown in this copending
application and incorporates a novel manner of
control of the same. In this prior Morrison ap
plication the energy for supplying the X-ray tube
for the taldng of the X-ray photograph is stored
4.0V
in condensers in the same manner as in the pres
ent application. However, the quantum of en 45
ergy stored in these condensers is largely de
pendent upon the time period of closure of the
switch controlling the high tension transformer
and the operator must carefully scrutinize the
indicating meters during charging of the con 50
densers in order that the desired quantum of
energy is stored therein or the proper setting for
the charging rate must be determined empiri
cally before an actual exposure is made.
It is also possible that in the event the switch 65
2
2,123,018
controlling the high tension transformer should
be left closed upon completion of an exposure
and the operator or patient accidentally con
tact certain parts of the apparatus serious shocks
may result. Moreover, when the condensers
are caused to suddenly discharge through the
controlling discharge device and X-ray tube this
rush of energy frequently causes deleterious re
sults to the ?lamentary cathodes of both of these
10 tubes which, if not entirely disrupting the same,
considerably shortens the useful life thereof.
In the present invention We provide a duplex
X-ray generator which constitutes what may be
conventionally termed a condenser discharge sys
tem or single impulse generator and a pulsating
X-ray generator. In operating the system as a
condenser discharge generator numerous advan
tageous results are obtainable with our present
system which have not been possible with such
systems of the prior art. For example, in the
conventional so-called condenser discharge sys
tems three variables must always be considered in
the taking of X-ray photographs, namely, the
energy supplied to the X-ray tube expressed in
25 milliamperes, the time of energization of the X~
ray tube, and the potential expressed in kilovolts.
It is usual in the X-ray art to express the product
of the ?rst two variables in terms of milliampere
seconds and it will accordingly be so termed
30 throughout our speci?cation and claims.
The quantity of electrical energy stored in
condensers, although generally expressed in the
electrical art in coulombs or microcoulombs, is
frequently expressed in the X-ray art in milliam
35 pere~scconds.
In storing a condenser at a prc~
determined potential a desired amount of energy
or milliampere—seconds can be stored therein by
?xing a de?nite ratio between the charging po
tential and the condenser capacity which governs
40 the quantity of energy or milliampere-seconds.
In our present condenser discharge system we
?x this ratio at one to one, thus if the condensers
having a total capacity of 1 microfarad are caused
to be charged at 80 k. v. they will store 80 milli45 ampere~seconds of energy. This energy may
likewise be discharged from these condensers at
any desired rate i. e. assuming 80 milliampere~
seconds are stored in the condensers the X-ray
tube may be energized at 800 milliamperes for
50 316 of a second or 4000 milliamperes for 1130 of a
second.
In our novel system we dispense with the neces
sity of a timing device for controlling the dis»
charge of the condensers and utilize the ?lament
1' heating for the X-ray tube to control the discharge of the condensers and consequently the
exposure period. Thus it can be readily appre
ciated that the higher the temperature of the
cathode of the X-ray tube the faster the discharge
60 and period of exposure, and the cooler the cathode
the slower the discharge and longer the period of
exposure. The amount of energy delivered to
the X-ray tube is very precisely measured, as
before explained, by regulating the milliampere
05 seconds stored in the condensers and the timing
of the X-ray exposure accordingly ceases to be a
factor due to this predetermined amount being
delivered to the X-ray tube thus dispensing with
the necessity for precise time control. It fre
70 quently happens, however, that an extremely fast
speed of exposure is desired, over that required
for usual routine exposures, in order to radio
graph at rest some particular portion of the
human anatomy, which is normally in motion,
_ ‘such as the heart and lungs.
Accordingly under
these conditions we enable the cathode heating
temperature to be increased in order to pass the
energy through the X-ray tube in a shorter period
of time.
In dispensing with time and milliamperes as
separate factors in our present system a timing
device is not only unnecessary, but likewise a
milliampere meter is not required, which greatly
simpli?es the system for the operator. This
leaves only the factors of distance and potential 10
to be determined and, as the former is usually
predetermined by the manufacturer upon a scale
for the various parts of the body, the concern
of the operator is limited to that of the proper
kilo-voltage or potential.
To further simplify 15
our system we provide the auto-transformer
which regulates the energization of the high ten
sion transformer and consequently the charging
rate of the associated condensers with dials grad
uated in numerals.
20
These dials are operable with the auto-trans
former control knobs and the latter are con
nected to the auto~transformer in such a manner
that not only the potential is regulated in 10
kilovolt steps but in units as well.
The opera
25
tor can, therefore, readily set the auto-trans
former for any desired kilovoltage from 1 to 99
and the correct milliampere-seconds will be stored
in the condensers.
It must be appreciated, however, that the set 30
ting of the auto-transformer is initially cali
brated at a ?xed line voltage at the factory and
in order for this to remain uniform the line volt
age must likewise be equivalent to that at the
time of calibration. In order to assure this set
ting we provide our system with a voltatge regu
lator together with a voltmeter having a single
graduation.
The operator need only adjust this
voltage regulator until the needle of the volt
meter is on the single graduation which indicates
that the auto-transformer is receiving the proper
voltage and the setting of the energy for the high
tension transformer and condensers unfailingly
follows with absolute precision.
When the system is in readiness for an ex 45
posure the discharge of the condensers is caused
by the controlling discharge device in the same
manner as in the aforementioned copending Mor
rison application. However, in order to prevent
the sudden rush of energy from the condensers 50
through the controlling discharge device or “trig
ger tube,” as we prefer to term it, and the X-ray
tube, from deleteriously affecting these tubes, we
provide means to suppress this sudden flow for a
short period of time to allow the gradual rise in 55
the flow of energy as hereinafter more fully de
scribed.
When not actually utilized for the purposes of
an exposure we further provide our present sys
tem with means to render it shockproof to pre
60
vent injury resulting to operator or patient should
they accidentally contact the apparatus even
though the main switch may have been inadvert
ently left in the closed position. The entire con
trol for the high potential portion of our con 65
denser discharge machine is centralized and re
motely disposed from the high potential portion.
Upon setting the controls for the desired amount
of energy, operation of the entire system auto~
matically follows actuation of a single control 70
button in predetermined sequence and at the
proper time, thus producing a simpli?ed and effi
cient condenser discharge or single impulse X
ray generator.
Under certain circumstances a different tech 75
3
2,123,018
his is required wherein it is preferable to utilize
a pulsating X-ray generator instead of a single
impulse or condenser discharge generator. When
this necessity arises our system may be readily
converted from one form of generator to the
other by manipulation of a single switch as here
inafter more fully set forth. The unitary re
motely disposed control stand is operable to con
trol the system under either condition of op
10 eration thus maintaining all the novel features
as hereinbefore mentioned relative to our sys
tem when utilized as a single impulse or con—
denser discharge machine.
It is accordingly an object of our present in
vention to provide an X-ray system for the tak
ing of short exposure X-ray photographs where
in the quantum of energy for the energization
of the X-ray tube can be de?nitely determined
by the operator before the actual exposure.
Another object of our invention is the provi
sion of an X-ray system for the taking of short
exposure X-ray photographs wherein the system
is automatically rendered shockproof when not
actually in operation for the taking of an ex
posure, thus obviating the possibilities of disas
trous shocks resulting to operator or patient.
Another object of our invention is the provi
sion of an X-ray system for the taking of short
exposure X-ray photographs wherein a discharge
device is employed for controlling the energy
from a high tension source to the X-ray tube and
in which the sudden rush of energy through the
discharge device and X-ray tube is prevented
from deleteriously affecting either of these tubes.
Another object of our invention is to provide
an X-ray system for the taking of short exposure
X-ray photographs wherein the operation of the
system is remotely controlled and is automati
cally responsive to actuation of the control cir
cuit by the operator.
Another object of our invention is the pro
vision of a novel control system for short ex
Referring now to the drawings in detail where
in each sheet discloses a portion of our X-ray
system which, when placed together in the order
of the ?gures as above described reading from
left to right, constitutes our entire system, we
have shown in Fig. 3 an alternating current
source of electrical energy of the usual commer
cial potential, such as the conductors LI and L2.
A main line switch 5 extends through the panel
of the control stand and is provided with a pair 10V
of terminals 6 and 1 to which the alternating
current source is connected. An auto-trans
former 8 has one of its ends connected, by means
of a, conductor 9, to one of the main line switch
terminals I B and a further terminal I2 of the 15
main line switch is connected, by means of a con
ductor 13, to the adjustable arm of a voltage
regulator 14.
This voltage regulator is provided with a se
ries of taps, as indicated, for the purpose of 20
connecting one side of the supply source to any
one of a plurality of turns of the auto-trans
former which are calibrated in 2 volt steps.
A voltmeter l5 having but a single graduation
is connected to the switch terminal Ill and to
one tap of the auto-transformer which we have
designated as zero volts.
When the line volt
age of the supply source Ll, L2 is normal, which
is assumed and consequently calibrated for 220
volts, the voltmeter !5 will record this voltage 30
with the pointer thereof aligning with the single
graduation of the dial.
If the line voltage is above or below standard
of 220 v. the line voltage regulator i4 is moved
by 2 volt steps, above or below the zero volt 35.
tap, to increase or decrease the voltage of the
auto~transiormer to thus cause the necessary
variation in the pointer of the voltmeter until
it aligns with the single dial graduation which
then sets the entire system to the correct volt
posure X-ray photographic systems wherein the
complete operation of the X-ray system occurs
age for which it was previously calibrated.
The panel of our control stand is provided with
a pair of adjustable knobs that are adapted to
rotate a pair of arms l6 and I1, respectively, each
in a predetermined sequence and at predeter
mined periods of time.
of which engage various taps constituting the
output terminals of the auto-transformer 8. The
Another object of our invention is the pro
vision of an X-ray system for taking short ex
arm l6 engages various taps of the auto-trans
former for the purpose of selecting various out
put voltages of a ?ne degree, such as units of
voltage, whereas the arm I‘! is arranged to
select various taps of a large range calibrated
as indicated in ten volt steps. A pair of dials
(not shown) are arranged to rotate with the
arms l6 and I1 and are marked with numerals,
posure X-ray photographs of the single impulse
50 or condenser discharge type which may be read
ily converted to an X-ray system of the pulsat
ing type.
A further object of our invention is the pro
vision of a novel control system for short ex
posure X-ray photographic systems wherein the
operation of the X-ray system follows actuation
of the control system automatically with minute
precision and in which the operation of the en
tire apparatus is rendered exceptionally simple
60 thus dispensing with the necessity of a skilled
operator.
Still further objects of our invention will be
come apparent to those skilled in the art by ref
erence to the accompanying drawings in which
Figure 1 is a diagrammatical representation
65
of the high tension circuit control portion of an
X-ray system together with certain safety fea
tures thereof,
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatical representation con
stituting in the main the high tension portion
of our X-ray system, and
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatical representation of
the low tension and control portions of our sys
tem which in the main is housed within and con
75. stitutes the control stand therefor.
corresponding in terms of kilo~voltage, which are
so illuminated that the operator can set the auto
transiormer for any desired kilo-voltage in tens
and units ranging from 1 to 99 kilovoltages, and
such setting is clearly visible at the control stand.
A double throw switch l8 (Fig. 2), which is pro
vided with a plurality of blades, is arranged when
moved to the left as viewed from the ?gure to
render our system a single impulse generator or
condenser discharge machine and in its other
position converts the system to a pulsating gen 65
erator as hereinbefore noted.
For the sake of
simplicity our system will ?rst be described when
functioning as a single impulse or condenser dis
charge system With the switch I8 moved to the left
as indicated by the arrow.
70
The auto-transformer arm I? is in electrical
contact with a segmental contact strip l9 in order
that it be made conducting whenever the arm en
gages one of its associated auto-transformer taps
and a conductor 20 connects this strip 19 to one of
2,123,018
the switch blades 22 of the switch l8 through a
terminal connection AA2. A second conductor 23
is likewise connected to this same switch blade 22
and extends to the primary winding 24 of a high
tension transformer 25. The other end of this
primary winding 24 is in turn connected, by means
of a conductor 26, to another switch blade 21 of
the switch l8, and, when this switch is in the
position assumed, is thus connected to a switch
10 terminal 28.
This latter switch terminal 28 is connected, by
means of a conductor 29 and terminal connection
A2, to the normally open armature 30 of a relay 3|,
with a charging indicator 32 constituting a modi
?ed form of ammeter as hereinafter more fully
explained interposed in this conductor 29. A nor
mally open contactor 33 of the relay 3| is con
nected to one side of a resistance element 34 and
a further normally open contactor 35 is connected
20 to the other end of this resistance element 34 and
also by means of a conductor 36 to the unit auto
transformer arm l6.
Accordingly the circuit for
energizing the primary winding 24 of the high
tension transformer 25 is normally interrupted
25 and is not completed until operation of the re
lay 3|.
The high tension transformer 25, shown in Fig.
2, is provided with a secondary winding 31 one end
of which is connected to the cathode of a recti
30 fying valve VI and the anode of a second recti
fying valve V2 and the remaining end of this
winding is likewise connected to the anode and
cathode, respectively, of a pair of rectifying valves
V3 and V4. A conductor 38 connects the cathodes
of both valve tubes V2 and V3 to a switch blade
39 which in turn is connected to a switch terminal
40 when the switch I8 is in the left hand position.
A further conductor 42 connects the terminal
40 to one side of a bank of condensers 43 with the
40 input circuit for the latter being completed
through a conductor 44, which extends through a
grounded junction 45, to the mid-point of the
secondary winding 31.
In a similar manner the anodes of the valve
45 tubes VI and V4 are both connected, by means of
a conductor 46, to a switch blade 41 which in turn
is connected to a switch terminal 48 when the
switch IB is in the assumed position. A conductor
49 then connects the terminal 48 to one side of a
50 bank of condensers 50, similar to the bank 43, and
the input or charging circuit therefor is com
pleted by a conductor 52 connected to the ground
ed junction 45 and thus to the midpoint of the
secondary winding 31. This portion of our high
55 tension circuit for charging the condensers 43
and 50 will be readily recognized as the usual
full wave rectifying system and further descrip
tion of the manner of current ?ow therethrough
during each half wave of the alternating current
60 cycle, upon energization of the transformer 25 is
deemed unnecessary as it is well known to the art.
An X-ray tube XRZ (Fig. 1) is provided for gen
erating X-rays upon discharge of the condensers
43 and 50 and has its cathode connected by means
65 of a conductor 53 through a conductor terminal
54 to the conductor 49 and thus to the condensers
5|]. The anode of the X-ray tube XR2 is con
nected by means of a conductor 55 to the cathode
of a three electrode controlling or trigger tube 56,
70 as hereinbefore mentioned, with the anode of this
trigger tube being in turn connected, by means of
a conductor 51 and through a conductor terminal
58, to the conductor 42 and thus to the condensers
43. During the accumulation of a charge in the
75 condensers 43 and 50 from the high tension trans
former 25 any discharge or leakage through the
X-ray tube is prevented by impressing a high
negative potential upon the grid of the trigger
tube from an auxiliary source of energy which is
independent of the high tension
When it is desired to take a
posure the potential impressed
instantaneously reversed to a
source.
El
radiographic ex
upon the grid is
positive polarity
without interrupting the auxiliary circuit by the
operation of a remotely controlled relay as here 11)
inafter more fully set forth.
The condensers 43 and 50 are also provided with
a further output circuit which constitutes a novel
safety feature of our present system. A conduc
tor 59 is connected to the conductor 51, and thus 15
to one side of the condensers 43, and extends
through the contact terminals of a normally
closed relay 6!! and a ?xed resistance 62 to the
grounded junction 45 to which the remaining side
of these condensers is also connected.
In a like manner a conductor 63 is connected to
the conductor 53, and thus to one side of the con
densers 50, and also extends through the contact
terminals of a normally closed relay 64 and a ?xed
resistance 55 to the grounded junction 45 to which IL :1
the remaining side of these condensers 50 is also
connected. Accordingly any energy left in these
condensers upon completion of each exposure is
automatically discharged to ground thus obviating
any possibilities of accidental shocks to a patient .
or operator.
In order to supply heating current for the
cathode of the Xsray tube XRZ we provide a
low tension transformer 556 with one end of the
secondary winding El thereof connected to the “
conductor '15 and thus to one side of the cathode
of the tube through switch blade 41, terminal
48, and conductors 49 and 53. The remaining
end of this low tension secondary winding 5'1
is connected by means of a conductor 88 which 40
extends to a switch blade (59 in turn connected
to a switch terminal ‘it when the switch I8 is
in the left hand position. A conductor ‘12 then
connects the switch terminal 10 to the other
side of the cathode of the X-ray tube XRL’ and
a condenser 73 is connected in parallel relation
with. respect to the cathode and its heating source
or secondary winding 61 which functions to pre
vent deleterious results to the cathode upon en
ergization of the tube by discharge of the con~ .
densers 43 and 5D.
The primary winding 14 of the heating trans
former 56 is connected, by means of a pair of
conductors l5 and 15, to switch blades 17 and
18, respectively, which establish contact with a
pair of terminals '19 and 8!) when the switch I8
is in the left hand position as viewed from Fig. 2.
These latter terminals are in turn connected,
by means of a pair of conductors 32 and 83.
through conductor terminals 84 to the blades or”
a double throw switch 35 as shown in Fig. 3
provided in the control stand panel. Each of
the supply terminals of this switch 85 is con
nected to a suitable source of electrical energy
such as the auto-transformer 8, but to taps there 65
of of different voltage. This is to enable the
switch 35, when in the position indicated as
“high”, to supply the primary winding 74 of the
cathode heating transformer 66 with a higher
voltage than normal for the purpose of increas 70
ing the speed of discharge of condensers 43 and
5'? when it is desired to take an ultra-rapid ex
posure so as to radiograph at rest a part of the
anatomy normally in motion, such as the heart
or lungs. On the other hand when the switch 75
5
2,123,018
85 is in the position indicated as “low” the heat
ing transformer is energized by a lower voltage
for the usual type of radiographic exposures which
require a slightly longer period for discharge of
the condensers with attendant energization of the
X-ray tube XRE.
The thermionic cathodes of the rectifying
valves Vi and Vil are supplied. 1 th heating cur
ance i 53. The remaining plate of condenser Ill
and other terminal of resistance lid is connected
to the conductor $52 which in turn is connected
to the midpoint of the winding i533, through a
conductor H9. A conductor 22E? connects one
plate of the condenser are and high resistance
Hill to the grid of the trigger tube 555 and is also
rent from a low tension source, such as the re“
relay i225, while another terminator‘ this relay
10 spective transformers 3E and 22', having their pri~
322 is connected, by means of a conductor 523
through ?xed resistance
to one side of the
respective resistances i
H53 and also one plate
of the condenser ill.
The primary Winding I25 of the transformer
Q3 has one of its ends connected, by means of a
conductor I26 extending through a conductor
terminal l2'l, to one of a pair of conductor ter
minals 528, which latter terminals are directly
connected by means of a pair or" conductors I29
and Hill to “control supply” voltage taps of the
auto-transformer 8, as shown by that legend in
mary windings connec ‘ed through conductor ter~
minals 88 and
respectively, to desired voltage
taps of the auto-transformer as indicated for the
sake of simplicity “to auto-tr. tap” in Fig, 3. In
a similar manner the thermionic cathodes of the
rectifying valves V2 and V3 are supplied with
heating current from a low tension source, winch
in this instance, may be a single heating trans
former Eli due to the respective cathodes not
being connected directly to opposite ends of the
transformer secondary Bl and being only alter
nately conductive. Likewise the primary winding
of this transformer is connected through
_
r
of conductor terminals Q2 directly to the appro~
priate voltage tap oi auto-transiorm.er 8 as in
d'icated.
Referring now more particularly to
l which
discloses our auxiliary source of energy forsup
plying a negative and positive potential to the
control electrode or grid of the trigger tube 5?;
which is independent of the high tension sour e,
we have shown a high tension transformer as
A low tension secondary winding ilii is provided
upon the core of this transformer and is con-
nected by means of a pair of conductors Q5 and
95 to the thermionic cathode of the trigger tube
56. Another low tension winding ill is wound
upon the core of the transformer {53 and is con
nected,by means of conductors 93 and 2% to
the thermionic cathode of a rectifying valve loll,
while a still further low tension secondary wind~
ing
supplies heating current through a pair
of conductors
and Hill to the thermionic cath
odes of a pair of rectifying valves i155 and i??
respectively.
,
A high tension secondary winding divided into
two sections iii"! and tilt-l is provided for gener~
ating a positive and negative potential in order
that it may be selectively impressed upon the
grid of the trigger tube
One end of the wind
ing till‘, which generates for example 10,000 volts,
in
is connected to the conductor Q9 and thus to
the cathode of the rectifying valve
and the
anode of this valve is connected, through a suit
able high ?xed resistance its having a de?nite
Fig. 3.
The remaining end of primary winding
£215 is connected, by means of a conductor I32
through a. conductor terminal 533, to a switch
terminal lid of switch l8, which is arranged to be
contacted by a blade m5 thereof, when the switch
is in the assumed or left hand position, and this
conductor I32 likewise extends to one end of the
respective windings of the condenser short cir
cuiting relays 6E! and 64, The switch blade I35
is in turn connected by a conductor 535 to the re
maining conductor terminal of the pair I28 and is
thus connected directly to the other side of the
“control supply” source of the auto»transformer
8.
As soon as the transformer 93 is energized the
relay I22 is simultaneously energized, as herein—
after more fully described, which will cause the
thermionic cathodes of the trigger tube '55 and.
the rectifying valves IM, I05 and I06 to be heated 40
by their respective low tension heating sources.
Immediately therewith the winding ill‘! will, dur
ing negative half waves of the alternating cur~
rent cycle, charge the condenser ill] by the cirn
cuit extending from one end of the Winding I'll‘!
through conductor 99, valve tube Illll and resist
ance Hill, to the condenser I It! and thence back to
the winding it)? by means of the conductor H2.
At the same time a high negative polarity will
be impressed upon the grid of the trigger tube 58 50
by the conductor IZB with respect to the cathode
thereof, the latter of which is connected by the
conductor I i 3 to the positive plate of the condens
er Ill].
'
to one plate of a condenser Mil. The remaining
plate or” this condenser l iii is connected by means
of a conductor M2 to the opposite end of the
secondary winding i?l, and also by means of a
conductor it?» to the conductor 95 and thus to
The secondary Illa is likewise energized and 255
during one half wave of the alternating current
cycle will charge the condenser Ill by a circuit
extending from one end of the winding I98,
through conductor H4, valve tube H795 and resist
ance I iii to one side of condenser I I1, and thence 60
back to the midpoint of winding ‘H38 through the
the cathode of trigger tube
The Winding
I853, which generates for example a total of 4,060
or reverse half wave of the alternating current
ohmic resistance of, for example, 5%,000 ohms,
volts has one of its ends connected, by means
of a conductor lid, to the anode of valve tu e
“35 and its other end connected, by means of
a conductor H5, to the anode of rectifying
valve M6;
The thermionic cathodes of both rectifying
11/
connected to one terminal of a grid contactor
valves i535 and the are connected, through a
suitable ?xed resistance its having a de?nite
ohmic resistance of for example 3.909 ohms, to
one plate of a condenser Ml having a capacity
greater than that of condenser
and to one
side of another comparatively high
resist
conductors H2 and H9. During the remaining
cycle the only difference in the charging circuit
for the condenser I I? resides in the valve tube I06‘
becoming conductive in lieu of the valve tube
I05. Thus it becomes obvious that charging of
the condenser I I‘! is during the entire alternating
current cycle by full Wave recti?cation while the
charging of the condenser III} is half wave rec 70
ti?cation.
The energy thus stored in the condenser ll‘l,
has at this particular instant, no e?ect upon the
high negative polarity impressed upon the grid
of the trigger tube.
When itis desired to render TI
6
2,123,018
the trigger tube conducting in order to cause cur
rent ?ow between the anode and cathode thereof
the relay I22 is merely deenergized thus allowing
closure of its contact terminals. This immedi
ately impresses a positive polarity of lesser mag
nitude upon the grid of the trigger tube from
the condenser II1 through resistance I24 and
conductors I23 and I20 while the cathode now
becomes negative with respect to the grid due
10 to the conductor I I3 being connected to the neg
ative plate of the condenser II1. As the con
denser II1 is charged only with a maximum of
2000 volts positive from the 4000 volt source
while the condenser H0 is charged with 10.000
15 volts negative from its charging source the dif
ference in magnitude is readily apparent.
Moreover, the reversal of the grid polarity is
accomplished without an interruption in the aux
iliary source which precludes the high potential
20 current ?owing through the trigger tube from in
herently building up a negative polarity upon
the grid and again preventing current flow. The
high ohmic resistance I09 also prevents a nega
tive charge from being impressed upon the grid
25 during closure of the relay I22 and the resistance
elements H6 and I24 function to slightly retard
the immediate application of the maximum posi
tive polarity to the grid to thus prevent too steep
a wave front to the initial surge of current
tends to one side of a pilot light I59 utilized to
give a visual indication upon the control panel
when the entire system is set for a single impulse
or condenser discharge generator.
This conductor 158 is also connected to the
movable armature I60 of a relay I62, employed in
conjunction with the stereoscopic shifting mech
anism, if utilized, as more fully hereinafter ex
plained, as well as the movable armature I63 of
the relay I49 and through a conductor terminal .
I64 to the switch terminal I34 of the switch I8.
The contact terminal I54 is connected by means
of a conductor I65 to one side of a pair of pilot
lights I66 and I61, which are utilized for the
purpose of illuminating the aforementioned au
to-transformer dials as well as the indicating
meters I5 and 3E, and also extends to one of the
conductor terminals I28 which constitutes one of
the control supply conductors. The other ter
minals of the pilot lights I66 and I61 are con 20
nected directly to the remaining terminal I28 so
that it is obvious they are immediately illumi
nated upon energization of the auto-transformer
following closure of the main line switch 5.
A stationary insulating block E68 is rigidly se
cured to the control stand and is provided with
a plurality of contact terminals I69, I10, I12 and
I13 so positioned as to be engaged by the re
spective contact terminals I54, I55, I56 and I51
30 through the trigger tube and consequently the
upon depression of the switch I31. The contact
X-ray tube. Upon deenergization of the trans
former 93 the resistance II8 functions to absorb
terminal I 69 is connected by means of a conductor
the energy left in the condenser H1.
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 3 we
35 provide our control panel with a unitary switch
for causing desired operation of our system in
nected by a conductor I15, to one terminal of a
a preselected manner and in predetermined se
quence. This switch comprises a cylinder I31
normally biased in an upward position, as shown
40 in the ?gure, by suitable means such as a pair
of compression springs I38 secured to the under
side of the panel of the control stand. A rigidly
secured plunger I39 loosely engages the cylinder
I31 of the switch to permit the ingress and egress
45 of air to thus prevent too rapid depression of the
switch. An insulated collar I40 is secured to the
movable portion of the switch I31 and is provided
with a contact member I42 which is connected,
by means of a conductor I43, to one of the con
50 ductor terminals I28 connected directly to the
“control circuit supply” from auto-transformer
8. In the normal or “off” position of the switch
I31 the contact member I42 engages a stationary
contact member I 44 which is connected, by means
55 of a conductor I45, to one side of stereoscopic
shifting mechanism, which may be utilized with
our system if desired, and also to one side of a
pilot light I46 to indicate upon the control panel
the particular stereoscopic exposure about to be
60 taken.
During downward movement of the switch !31
the contact member I42 breaks connection with
the member I44 and establishes engagement with
another stationary contact member I41 which is
65 connected, by means of a conductor I48 to one
end of the winding of a relay I49, and through
conductor terminals I50 (lower terminal in Fig.
2) and I52 to one end of the respective windings
of condenser short circuiting relays 60 and 64.
Another insulating collar I53 is rigidly secured to
the movable switch member I31 and is provided
with a plurality of contact terminals I54, I55,
I56 and I51.
The contact terminals I55, I56 and I51 are
75 connected to a common conductor I58 which ex
I14 to one end of the winding of relay 3| with
the remaining end of this winding being con
pilot light I16 for giving a visual indication when .‘
the system is set as a pulsating generator, and
also directly to the supply conductor terminal I28.
Contact terminal I10 is connected, by means of
a conductor I11, to the other terminal of pilot
light I46 as well as to a contact terminal I18 40
of relay I62, one end of this relay winding, and
to the remaining terminal of the stereoscopic
shifting mechanism, with the remaining end of
the relay winding being connected to one of the
supply conductor terminals I28 by the conductor 45
I 43 which is common to this winding and con~
tact terminal I42, as well as to a further stere
oscopic pilot light I19 similar to the indicating
pilot light I46. This pilot light I19 has its re
maining terminal connected by a conductor I80 50
to a stationary contact terminal I 82 which is nor
mally engaged by the movable armature I60 01
the relay I62.
The contact terminal I 12, also carried by the in
sulating block I68, is connected by a conductor 56
£83 to a stationary contact terminal I84 of relay
I49 which is adapted to be engaged‘ by the mov
able armature I63 thereof upon energization of
the relay, and is also connected to the remaining
end of the winding of this relay I49. The remain 60
ing contact terminal I13 is connected, by means
of a conductor I85, to another stationary contact
terminal I86 of relay I49, which is normally en
gaged by the movable armature I63 thereof, and
this conductor also extends, through conductor 65
terminals I81 (lowermost terminal of Fig. 2) and
I88, to one end of the winding of the grid con
tactor relay I22 with the remaining end of this
latter relay I22 being in turn connected by a
conductor I 89 to the conductor terminal I21 and 70
thus through conductor I26 to one of the supply
terminals I28.
The novel features of our present invention
may be better understood by the operation there
of so it will be assumed an operator desires to 75
2,123,018
take a radiographic exposure of some portion of
the human anatomy utilizing X-rays of a sub
stantially uniform intensity thus requiring a sin
gle impulse energization of the X-ray tube free
from all sinusoidal in?uence. The switch I8 is
then moved to the left as viewed from Fig. 2. The
condensers 43 and 5-8 having, as hereinbefore
mentioned, a total capacity of 1 microfarad thus
establishing a ?xed ratio relative to their charg
1,1,0 ing circuit, which is governed by the auto-trans
former controls at the correct line voltage, ac
cordingly requires only an inspection of a pre
calibrated chart to determine the correct kilo—
voltage for the particular portion of the patient’s
.15
:29
anatomy it is desired to radiograph.
is energized thus allowing the immediate applica
tion of a negative polarity to the grid. This cir
cuit is completed from the source I28, by the con
ductor I26, terminal I21 and conductor I89 to
the winding of relay I22 and thence, through
conductor I85, terminals I88 and I81, stationary
contact terminal I88 of relay I89, armature I63
thereof, to conductor I58 which in turn is con
nected ‘to the remaining supply terminal I28 by
the switch terminal I84 and arm I35 of switch
I3, as well as the conductor I36.
It has been heretofore mentioned that a stereo
scopic mechanism for the taking of two radio
graphic exposures in rapid succession but from
different angles may be utilized if desired. As is
The movable arms I6 and I1 are then moved
to the requisite kilovoltage in tens and units as
indicated by the dials at the control stand. The
?lament switch 85 is then set for either ultra
rapid or usual speed and the main line switch 5
is closed. If the voltage of the source is normal
usual in employing such apparatus one exposure
is made after which both the tube and cassette
the pointer of the voltmeter I5 aligns with the
ally initiated we have merely‘ shown diagram~
matically such mechanism under the designa
tion “stereo shift mech” in Fig. 3. Also in order
to give a visual indication to the operator at the
single graduation of the dial or if there is any
variation the line voltage regulator I4 is adjusted
12.5 until the pointer does align with the single gradu
ation.
Upon closure of the main line switch 5 the auto
transformer 8 is energized which. in turn energizes
the low tension heating transformers 86, 81 and
96 for the respective rectifying valves VI, V2, V3,
and V4. Likewise the low tension heating trans
former 66 for the X-ray tube XR2 is energized
from the auto-transformer through the speed
controlling switch 85 and the blades 11 and 18 of
1.35 switch I8 which thus heats the cathode of X-ray
tube XRZ.
The pilot lights I66 and I61 are immediately
lighted, for the purpose of illuminating the me
ters I5 and 32 as well as the transparent num
bered auto-transformer dials (not shown), due
to- their direct connection to the “control supply”
conductor terminals I28. These terminals I28
being connected by the conductors I29 and I30
directly to the appropriate taps of the auto
transformer 6 will, for the sake of simplicity, be
hereinafter referred to as the source of supply
with opposite instantaneous polarity therebetween
being designated “A” and “B” current.
The pilot light I59, which indicates upon the
50 control panel that the system is set for a single
impulse or condenser discharge generator, is also
illuminated, due to one of its terminals being
connected to one of the “control supply” ter
minals I 28 while its other terminal is likewise
.55 connected to the other “control supply” terminal
I28, by means of the conductor I36, switch blade
I35 and terminal I85, and the conductor I58
which extends through the conductor terminal
I 64 to the armatures I68 and I 68 of the respective
60 relays I49 and I82 as well as the lamp I59.
Also closure of the main line switch causes the
immediate energization of the high tension
transformer 93 as the circuit for the primary
Winding I25 is completed from. the source of sup
.65 ply I28, through conductor I26 and terminal I21,
tray housing the sensitized film are shifted and
the exposure is repeated. The actual shifting
of the cassette tray being accomplished by me 20
chanical means the operation of which is electric
control board whether the ?rst or second stereo
scopic exposure has been made we provide the
indicating pilot lights I19 and I46 which are
marked “1st” and “2st” respectively.
Underthe conditions assumed and upon closure '
of the main line switch 5 the pilot I19 or “1st”
will now be illuminated as one terminal thereof
is connected directly to the “A” current terminal
I28 while “B” current is supplied by the ccnduc- .
tor I 88 and stationary contact terminal I82 of
relay I62, which is engaged by the armature I68
connected to conductor I58 now carrying "13”
current from the source I28 in the manner pre
viously explained.
Energization of the “stereo shift” mechanism
does not at this time occur, despite the fact that
“A” current from the source I28 is supplied there
to through the contacts M2 and IM of the con
trol switch I81. as “B” current from the source
is interrupted by the contactors I55 .and I18.
the insulating block I58.
The contact member
I 42, which is directly connected to the “A” cur
rent terminal I28, upon engaging the contact
member Hi1 completes a circuit to the condenser 60
short circuiting relays 68 and 64 by means of the
conductor I48 through the conductor terminals‘
I58 and
to one end of the respective relay
windings and “B” current is supplied thereto
from the source I23 through the conductor I32 65
which is connected also to one end of the pri
supply terminal. I28, through conductor I32,
mary winding I25. This accordingly disconnects
the output circuit of the condensers. 43 and 50
from ground through the leakage resistances 62
I35.
This in turn causes the associated secon
.70 dary windings to heat the cathodes of the valve
tubes I66, I05, and I66 and to generate the
auxiliary potential for the grid circuit of trigger
45
All conditions for the taking of the exposure
having been now ful?lled the operator depresses
the push button switch I31 causing downward
movement thereof. Imitial movement {of this
50
switch‘ I31 interrupts the engagement of the
contact members I42 and I44 and, upon fur
ther movement causes the contact member I42
to engage the stationary contact member Hi1 prior
to the engagement of the contact members carried
by the insulated block I53 with those affixed to
to the winding I25 and thence back to the other
switch terminal I34 and arm I35, and conductor
UK
and. 55.
Further downward movement of the switch
button I31 then causes the respective engage
tube 56 as hereinbefore described.
ment of contact members I54, E89; I55, I16; I56,
Moreover, simultaneously with energization of
the transformer 93, the grid contactor relay I22
12 and I5'i, I18 while contact member I42 is
still maintained in engagement with the member 75
8
2,123,018
I41 due to the slight spring action of the
latter.
The contactor I54, being connected directly to
the “B” current terminal I28 by the conduc
tor I55, upon engagement with contact member
I69, completes a circuit to the winding of relay
3I through conductor I14 with the other end of
this relay winding receiving “A” current direct
from the supply terminal I28 through. the con
ductor I15. The armature 30 of this relay 3I is
accordingly attracted thus ?rst establishing an
engagement with the contactor 33 and then im
mediately causing the engagement of the contac
tor 33 with the contactor 35.
Closure of the respective contactors of this
relay immediately causes energization of the high
tension transformer 25, by completing the nor
mally open circuit previously described for the
primary winding 24 thereof, with the resistance
20 34 being momentarily connected in series in the
circuit to absorb the initial surge of current but
almost immediately short circuited by the en
gagement of contactor 33 with ccntactor 35.
The secondary winding 31 then charges the re
spective condensers 43 and 59 with unidirectional
energy as is well understood until they become
completely charged. The operator accordingly
retains the push button switch I31 in its down
most position until the condensers have accumu
lated their charge which is indicated by the
modi?ed form of ammeter 32 connected in elec
trical series with the primary winding 24. When
this latter winding is initially energized the
pointer of this meter, the dial of which may be
calibrated in terms of milliamperes, is sharply
de?ected but in a few seconds falls to zero thus
indicating to the operator that the condensers
are then fully charged and the push button is
ready to be released.
The contact member I55, which is now sup~
plied with “B” current from the source I28
through the conductor I58, in engaging the con
tact member I10 completes a circuit, through the
conductor I11 and stationary contact member
I18, to the winding of relay I62 and also sup
plies “B” current to the “stereo shift” mechanism
but the latter is unenergized as “A” current
thereto is now interrupted by the disengagement
of the respective contact members I42 and I44.
50 However, the relay I62 becomes energized due to
its other end being connected by the conductor
I43 directly to the “A” current supply terminal
and its armature I60 is thus attracted and en
gages the stationary contact terminal I18 to form
a self holding coil by supplying “.13” current from
the conductor I 58 to the winding of the relay
I62 independent of the circuit formed by the
engagement of the contact terminals I55 and
I10. This movement of the armature I60 like
60 wise causes disengagement thereof with the sta
tionary contact terminal I82 of the relay I60 and
thus interrupts the circuit to the pilot light I19
for the ?rst “stereo” picture.
Engagement of the respective contact members
65 I56 and I12 completes a self holding circuit for
the winding of relay I49, due to “A” current being
supplied thereto by the conductor I43, contactors
I42 and I41, and conductor I48, While “B” cur
rent is supplied from the conductor I58 (now still
70 carrying “B” current as previously explained),
through the contact members I55 and I12, and
conductor I83. This accordingly causes attrac
tion of the armature I63 of the relay I 49 with
the establishment of a contact with the terminal
76 I34 so that “B” current is then supplied directly
to the relay winding from the conductor I58 in
dependent of the engagement of the contact
members I56 and I12.
Movement of the armature I 53 thus causes a
disengagement thereof with the stationary con
tact terminal I36, which would tend to interrupt
the circuit established thereby through a por
tion of the conductor I85 and terminals I81 and
£88 to the grid contactor relay I22, were it not
for the fact that this circuit is now completed 10
through the remaining contact terminals I51 and
I13. The contact member I51 is supplied with
“B” current by the conductor I58 and accord
ingly reestablishes the circuit to the grid con
tactor relay I22, even upon movement of the 15
armature, through that portion of the conductor
I85 extending from the switch contact member
113 to the relay contact member I36 thus main
taining the grid relay energized.
The charging indicating meter 32 having now 20
shown the operator that the condensers are fully
charged he then releases the pressure on the push
button I31, which will then be retracted to its
original position by the potential energy of the
springs I33. This accordingly causes interrup 25
tion of the circuit to the relay 3i which will auto
matically open to its normal position through the
action of a biasing spring and cause deenergiza
tion of the high tension transformer 25 by inter
rupting the circuit for the primary winding 24.
At the same time the contacts I54 and I69 be
come disengaged to interrupt the circuit to the
winding of relay 3|, the contact members I51
I13 are likewise disengaged to cause an inter-
ruption in the circuit to the winding of the grid 35
contactor relay I22, but as this latter relay closes
by gravitation and has a farther distance to
travel before establishing a contact with its asso
ciated terminals, than does the relay 3| before
causing deenergization of the transformer 25, the ‘ 40
latter relay naturally functions ?rst thus pre
venting any sinusoidal in?uence irom the alter
nating current being impressed upon the X-ray
tube XRZ.
Upon closure of the relay I22 a positive polar
ity is impressed upon the grid of the trigger tube
56 in the manner previously described thus ren
dering the latter conductive which causes the
condensers 43 and 50 to discharge in series
through the X-ray tube XRZ with an attendant
exposure. The interruption of the engagement
of the respective contact members I55, I10 and
I56, I12 by the upward movement of the push
button switch I31 has no effect upon the system
at this time for the aforementioned reason that 55
a self holding circuit has been established to the
windings of the respective relays I49 and IE2 by
the armatures thereof.
However, further upward movement of the
push button I31 will interrupt the engagement 60
of the contact members I42 and I41.
This ac—
cordingly deenergizes the winding of relay I49
and the windings of the condenser short circuit
ing relays 60 and 64, as “A” current was supplied
thereto through these contact members I42 and 05
I 41 as before noted. The relays 60 and 64 will
thus fall and bridge their associated contact
members to complete the output circuit for the
condensers 43 and 58 to cause any remaining
energy stored therein to discharge to ground 70
through the respective leakage resistances 62 and
55, thus obviating the possibility of serious shocks
resulting to patient or operator should they acci
dentally contact any part of the high tension por
tion of our system when it is not actually in use. 75
9
2,123,018
Ul
It should also be noted that upon deenergiza
tion of the relay Mil its armature IE3 is auto—
matically retracted to its normal open position
in engagement with the stationary contact ter
separate X-ray tubes for each operation it is to
be understood that a single X-ray tube may be
utilized and throughout the majority of our ap
pended claims only one X-ray generating tube
minal 9853 which will again energize the grid con
tactor relay l 22 by supplying “33” current thereto
in the manner previously described.
will be referred to.
We have found that with X-ray tubes as at
present constructed it is preferable to employ a
line focus X-ray tube in junction with condenser
This again causes the auxiliary source to im
press a high negative polarity upon the grid of
the trigger tube 56 in readiness for another expo
discharge energization thereof, to avoid dele
sure although no energy is at this instant flowing
tremely large quantity of energy passing through
the tube in such an exceptionally short period of
through this tube as the primary winding "it oi
the high tension transformer 25 is not only intere
rupted at the contactors 353,
and 35 of relay
3!, but the condensers {'43 and Eii are new short
circuited to ground.
When the switch I3‘! completes its movement
to its normal or uppermost position contact will
again be established between the contact mem
bers M2 and Mil which will now complete a cire
cult to the ‘ tereo shift” mechanism to cause
shifting of the cassette tray encasing the sensi
tized ?lms as well as change the angle between
the X~ray tube and patient as is well understood
with such mechanism. This circuit may be
traced from conductor 558 (still carrying “B”
current from the supply terminal M28 as before
explained) through the armature ISII to the ter
minal H8 and one end of the relay winding,
30 through conductor ill to the “stereo shift”
terious results to the target because of the ex
time, and also to prevent loss of definition to the
resulting radiographic ?lm.
On the other hand when utilizing our system 15
as a pulsating generator the usual commercial
type of radiographic tube may be employed.
Should it be preferred to utilize but a single tube
for either type of energization without sacri?cing
de?nition it would be more desirable to utilize 20
either a double focus X-ray tube or one having
a rotating anode or target. For the sake of sim
plicity we will accordingly describe our system as
utilizing the usual type of radiographic X-ray
tube XRI for pulsating energization.
The normally operable switch [8 is moved to
the right, as shown in Fig. 2, causing the blades
4'! and as thereof to disengage the switch termi
nals 48 and ‘it! thus interrupting the cathode
heating source for the X-ray tube XRZ as well 30
mechanism and thence back, through conductor
contact members ill-ll and M2, and conductor
M3 to the “A” current supply terminal 528 by
as the conductor liQ which is common to one side
of the condensers 58 and the high tension con
ductor 53, and causes these blades 4'! and B9 to
means of the conductor M3.
engage another pair of switch terminals I92 and
One exposure having been previously made
when the X~ray tube was previously energized
and upon energization of this “stereo shift”
mechanism the second ?lm is moved into position
for an exposure. Moreover, the fact that the
40 second exposure is in position is now indicated
to the operator at the control stand by the pilot
light
which becomes illuminated simultane
ously with the engagement of the contact mem
bers Hi2 and Mil with attendant shifting of the
sensitized ?lms as “B” current is supplied there
to through the conductor Ill and “A” current by
the contact members hi2, I44 and the conductor
10
H93, respectively.
The terminals I92 and I93 are .
connected by conductors I94 and I95, respec
tively, to the cathode of an X-ray tube XRI thus
supplying heating current from the secondary
winding 6? of the transformer 66, as well as high
potential energy from one output terminal of the
high tension recti?ed source which is connected
directly to the conductor 46 extending from the
winding 61 to the switch blade 41.
The switch blade 39, which is connected to the
other output terminal of the high tension recti
?ed source, also disengages the switch terminal
40 thus interrupting the charging circuit to the
M5.
The entire system is thus in position for an
other exposure and upon initial depression of
the push button switch I3‘! with disengagement
of the contact members I42 and I44 the pilot
light Mt becomes extinguished and the second
condensers ‘iii, and this blade will engage a fur~
ther switch terminal I96 which is connected to
the anode of the X-ray tube XRI by means of a 50
conductor IQ'I.
exposure is made in the identical manner as just
stated.
It should be noted, however, that even after
completion of the second exposure the winding
of relay I62 is still energized due to the self hold
the high recti?ed pulsating potential generated
thereby will be supplied directly to the X-ray 55
mg circuit established by its armature Iiit). But
(if) as both exposures have now been completed and
the operator is ready to remove the ?lms he nat
urally deenergizes the entire apparatus by open
ing the main line switch 5 which causes deener~
gization of the relay Hill, or should he desire to
65 convert the apparatus to a pulsating generator,
movement of the switch it to the right as shown
in Fig. 2 will also interrupt the circuit with at
tendant deenergization of the relay Itil.
Having thus described our novel system when
a single impulse or condenser dis
70 utilized
charge generator we will now describe the same
when it is converted, for certain other classes of
work, to a pulsating X-ray generator. It should
also be stated that although we have shown as a
prefer red embodiment of our invention the use of
Consequently upon energization of the high
tension transformer 25 as hereafter explained,
tube. At the same time the switch blade I35 of
switch Ill will disengage the terminal I34, inter
rupting the supply of energy from the “B” sup
ply terminal I23 to the primary winding I25 of
transformer 93 as well as to one end of each relay 60
winding til and 64, and the blade I35 engages
another switch terminal Hit. A conductor I99 in
turn connects this latter switch terminal I98,
through a conductor terminal 2%, to one termi
nal of the pilot light I76. As the conductor I99 65
is supplied with “B” current from the supply
terminal I28 through conductor I36 and the blade
I35, this pilot light is immediately illuminated to
give a visual indication at the control board that
the system is set as a pulsating generator due to 70
the circuit to this lamp being completed to the
“A” current terminal I28 through the conductor
I15.
The switch blades ‘i1 and ‘I8, which are di
rectly connected to the primary winding 14 of
10
2,123,018
low tension heating transformer 65, disengage
the switch terminals ‘I9 and 80, respectively, to
interrupt the supply of energy thereto from the
auto-transformer 8 through the two position
speed switch 85, and establish an engagement
other manner except that just noted. It should
be mentioned, however, that although in our sys
tem. as shown we have made no provision for the
means of a conductor 204 through a conductor
utilization of a stereoscopic mechanism there
with when the system is operable as a pulsating
generator the same may be readily adapted there
to. In the majority of instances when a stereo
scopic examination is desired the more rapid ex
terminal 295 and variable resistance 20B upon
posures obtained with our system operating as a
with a pair of switch terminals 202 and 203. The
switch terminal 202 is in turn connected, by
10 the panel of the control stand, to an appropriate
condenser discharge or impulse generator appear
tap of the auto-transformer 8. The terminal 203
to be preferable thus rendering the provision of
such mechanism unnecessary for pulsating X-ray
generation.
The energization of the X—ray tube by pulsating
energy being dependent upon the operator main—
taining the push button IS? in the depressed
is likewise connected, by means of a conductor
20'! and conductor terminal 208, to the auto
translormer 8 for the purpose of enabling ener~
gization of the heating transformer 56 with the
series connected rheostat 206 governing the
quantity of current supplied thereto.
The switch blade 22, which is connected directly
to one end of the primary winding 24 of high
tension transformer 25 and to the segmental bar
H) of the adjustable arm II, will now engage
a switch terminal 209; connected by means of
a conductor 2H! through a conductor terminal
AAI, to a further segmental bar 2|2, positioned
to be engaged by the adjustable arm ll to allow
a slightly higher voltage to be supplied to the
primary winding 24, than when the arm is in
engagement with the segmental bar 19. The
switch blade 21, which formerly engaged the
30 switch terminal 28 connected to the charging
indicator 32, Will now engage a switch terminal
2|3 which is connected, by means of a conductor
2|4 through a conductor terminal Al, to the con-
ductor 29 ahead of the indicating meter‘ 32 to
thus short circuit this meter so that it is no longer
in series with the energizing circuit for‘ the pri
mary winding 24. Again this latter circuit is
not completed as yet due to its being interrupted
at the contactors 39, 33, and 35, of relay 3 I.
The operation of our system as a pulsating
X-ray generator is as follows: the main line
switch 5 is ?rst closed which energizes the auto
transformer 8 with attendant energization of
the cathode heating transformers 66, 86, 81 and
-15 90 as well as the illumination of the pilot lights
I66, I61, which are directly connected to the
supply terminal I23, and the pilot light I16. The
rheostat 206 is then set to give the desired mil
liamperage of current and the control knobs I6
and I1 set to the kilovoltage required as noted
upon the chart for the particular portion of the
anatomy to be radiographed.
The system is,
therefore, in readiness for the exposure which is
made by the operator depressing the push but
ton switch I31.
This again closes the contact members I54 and
I69 and energizes the winding of relay 3| thus
causing closure of the respective contactors 3D,
33 and 35 with attendant energization of primary
(50 winding 24 and X-ray tube XRI, as long as the
operator retains the push button I31 in its down
most position. Immediately upon release of this
push button the relay 3| is deenergized and opens
its contactors thus deenergizing the X-ray tube
05 XRI.
Moreover, no other circuits which were com
pleted in the manner previously described by
movement of the push button switch I31 are at
this time affected. This is due to the conductor
70 I58, which carried “B” current from the supply
terminal I28 when the switch blade I35 was in
contact with the terminal I34, being now inter
rupted by this switch blade. Accordingly none
of the former mentioned circuits are now con
75 nected to the “13” current supply terminal in any
position thus renders timing somewhat uncer
tain. In order to obviate this uncertainty a
timing device (not shown, but indicated in Fig. 3
“to timing device”) may be connected to our 20
system by a pair of conductors 2I5 and 2|6,
which extend to the respective conductors I99
and I14, thus providing a switch for causing
energization of the relay 3| for preselected periods
of time, independent of the switch I31.
It thus becomes obvious to those skilled in the
art that we have provided an X-ray system which
is operable either as a single impulse or pulsating
X-ray generator as desired and may be immedi
ately converted from one type of generator to 30
the other. When the system is utilized as a single
impulse or condenser discharge generator the
quantum of energy for the X-ray tube may be
de?nitely determined before the exposure and
this energy precisely delivered to the X-ray tube.
Also when the system is not actually in use and
immediately after its use, it is rendered shock
proof thus eliminating the hazard of shocks re
sulting from the accidental contact of the various
parts by an operator or patient. Moreover, due ~10
to the manner of controlling the discharge of
the condensers and the slight retardation in the
speed of impressing a positive polarity upon the
grid of the trigger tube a steep wave front in the
initial surge of energy through the X-ray tube is ,
prohibited thus preventing deleterious results to
X-ray or trigger tubes.
The entire operation of our system is remotely
controlled from a control stand which gives an
accurate visual indication to the operator of the
entire condition of the system at each moment
during its operation. Also the entire operation
of the system is in response to a single actuating
switch which causes‘ preselected operation of
various parts of our system in a precise and pre
determined sequence thus rendering the opera
tion of the system as a whole very simple so that
an exceptionally skilled operator is not required.
Having thus described our invention we do
not desire to be limited thereto as various other 60
modi?cations thereof may be made without de
parting from the spirit and scope of the ap~
pended claims.
What is claimed:
1. In an X-ray system, the combination with s!
a pair of X-ray tubes, of a high potential source
of recti?ed alternating current electrical energy,
energy storage means adapted to be connected
to said source for accumulating a charge therein,
means interposed between one of said X-ray tubes "
and said energy storage means and operative to
cause energization of said last mentioned X-ray
tube by a single impulse of energy from said
energy storage means, and means operative in
one position to disconnect the other of said X-ray 75
2,123,018
tubes from said source and to connect said source,
said energy storage means, said ?rst mentioned
means and said last mentioned X-ray tube, in
circuit to operate as a single impulse X-ray gen
erator; and said last mentioned means being
operative in another position to disconnect said
energy storage means and said last mentioned
X-ray tube from said source and for rendering
said ?rst mentioned means ineffective, and to
10 connect the other of said X-ray tubes to said
source in order to energize the same by pulsating
energy derived therefrom.
2. In an X-ray system the combination with a
pair of X-ray tubes of a high potential source
15 of recti?ed alternating current electrical energy,
energy storage means adapted to be connected
to said source for accumulating a charge there
in, means connected to one of said X-ray tubes
and said energy storage means for causing dis
20 charge of said energy storage means through
said last mentioned X-ray tube, and means
operable in one position to disconnect the other
of said Y-ray tubes from said source and to con
nect said source, said energy storage means, said
25 last mentioned X-ray tube, and said means for
causing discharge of said energy storage means,
in a circuit to cause said system to operate as an
impulse X-ray generator; and said last men
tioned means being operable in another position
30 to disconnect said energy storage means, said
last mentioned X-ray tube and said means for
causing discharge thereof from said source, and
to connect the other of said X-ray tubes to said
source in order to energize the same with pulsat
35 ing electrical energy derived therefrom.
3. In an X-ray system the combination of a
high potential source of recti?ed alternating cur
rent electrical energy, energy storage means
adapted to be connected to said source for en
ergization thereby, an X-ray tube energizable by
the discharge of said energy storage means, a
second X-ray tube adapted to be energized by
said high potential source, means interposed be
tween said ?rst mentioned X-ray tube and said
energy storage means operable to cause dis
charge of the latter through said X-ray tube,
and means operable in one position to disconnect
said second X-ray tube from said source and to
connect said energy storage means to said source
11
said second X-ray tube from said source and to
connect said energy storage means to said source
of electrical energy and said ?rst-mentioned X
ray tube to said energy storage means, and oper
able in an other position to disconnect said ener
gy storage means from said source and said X
ray tube from said energy storage means and to
connect said second mentioned X-ray tube to
said high potential source and said rectifiers for
energization by energy of one sign only from said 10
source,
5. In an X-ray system the combination of a
high potential source of electrical energy, energy
storage means adapted to be connected to said
source for energization thereby, a plurality of 15
recti?ers interposed between said high potential
source and said energy storage means for caus
ing electrical energy of one sign only to be stored
in said energy storage means by said source, an
X-ray tube adapted to be energized by said en 20
ergy storage means upon the discharge thereof,
means operable to electrically connect said en
ergy storage means to said X-ray tube to cause
energization thereof by the discharge of said en
ergy storage means, a second X-ray tube adapted 25
to be connected to said high potential source
and said recti?ers for energization by electrical
energy of one sign only from said high potential
source, and means operable in one position to
disconnect said second X-ray tube from said 30
source and to connect said energy storage means
to said high potential source to cause energiza
tion of said first mentioned X-ray tube by the
discharge of said energy storage means upon
operation of said means electrically connecting
said X-ray tube to said energy storage means,
and said last mentioned means being operable in
another position to disconnect said energy stor
age means from said high potential source upon
40
connection of said second X-ray tube thereto.
6. In an X~ray system the combination of a
high potential transformer provided with a pri—
mary and a secondary winding, a source of
electrical energy adapted to be connected to the
primary winding of said transformer for energiz 45
ing the same, a condenser adapted to be connect
ed to the secondary Winding of said transformer,
a plurality of recti?ers connected to said sec
ondary Winding and said condenser for causing
for energization thereby and said X-ray tube to
electrical energy of one sign only to be stored 50
said energy storage means to cause said system
in said condenser by said high tension trans~
former, an X-ray tube adapted to be energized
by the discharge of said condenser, means in
terposed between said X-ray tube and said con
to operate as an impulse X-ray generator, and
said last mentioned means being operable in an
other position to disconnect said energy storage
55 means and said X-ray tube from said source and
denser and operative to cause energization of 55
to connect said second mentioned X-ray tube di
rectly thereto to cause said system to operate as
a pulsating X-ray generator.
ll. In an X-ray system the combination of a
said X-ray tube by a single impulse of energy
from said condenser, a second X-ray tube adapt
ed to be connected to the secondary winding of
said high tension transformer and said recti?ers
for energization by electrical energy of one sign 60
only from said transformer, and a switch oper
able in one position to connect said condenser to
said secondary winding and recti?ers and oper
able in another position to disconnect said con
denser from said recti?ers and secondary wind~
ing and to connect said second mentioned X-ray
tube to the secondary Winding of said high ten
sion transformer and said recti?ers for energiza~
tion by pulsating energy of one sign only from
70
said transformer.
7. In an X-ray system, the combination of a
high potential source adapted to generate a pre
high potential source of electrical energy, ener
gy storage means adapted to be connected to
said source for energization thereby, a plurality
of recti?ers interposed between said high poten
tial source and said energy storage means for
65 causing electrical energy of one sign only to be
stored in said energy storage means by said
source, an X-ray tube adapted to be energized
by said energy storage means upon the discharge
thereof, means operable to cause the discharge
70 of said energy storage means through said X
ray tube, a second X-ray tube adapted to be con
nected to said high potential source and said rec
ti?ers for energization by electrical energy of
one sign only from said high potential source,
75 and means operable in one position to disconnect
cise preselectable quantity of recti?ed alternating
current electrical energy, means connected to said
high potential source having a predetermined ca— 75
12
2,123,018
pacity for accumulating a high potential charge
gy storage means and energizable by the dis
of a de?nite quantity therein of a ?xed ratio rel
charge thereof, means connected with said energy
storage means and said X-ray tube operable to
control the discharge of said energy storage
means through said X-ray tube, means normally
connecting said energy storage means to ground
to render said system shockproof when not in
actual operation, and means operable to cause the
sequent disconnection of said energy storage
means from ground and energization of said gen
ative to the potential of said high potential source,
an X-ray tube adapted to be energized by the
charge accumulated in said means, means con
nected to said X-ray tube and to said first men
tioned means adapted upon operation thereof to
cause said accumulated charge to be supplied to
l0
said X-ray tube, and means electrically associ
ated with said high potential source and said last
mentioned means, and operable to cause the se
quent deenergization of said high potential
source and operation of said last mentioned
means with attendant energization of said X-ray
tube free of the imposition of a sinusoidal Wave
form from said high potential source.
8. In an X-ray system, the combination of
high potential recti?ed alternating current gen~
erating means, adjustable means adapted to be
20 connected to said high potential generating
means and operable to cause the same to gener
ate a precise preselectable quantity of electrical
energy in any position of said adjustable means,
means connected to said high potential generat
ing means having a predetermined capacity for
accumulating a high potential charge of a de?nite
quantity therein of a ?xed ratio relative to the
potential of said high potential source, an X-ray
tube adapted to be energized by the charge ac
30 cumulated in said last mentioned means, means
connected to said X-ray tube and said last men
tioned means and operable to control the energi
zation of said X-ray tube by said last mentioned
means, and means electrically associated with
said last mentioned means and said high poten~
tial generating means, and operable to cause the
erating means by said source of electrical en
ergy.
11. In an X-ray system, the combination with
energy storage means, of generating means
adapted upon energization thereof to store an
electrical charge of high potential and current in
said energy storage means, a source of electrical
energy for energizing said generating means, a
plurality of recti?ers connected to said generating
means and said energy storage means to cause
energy of one sign only to be stored in the latter
upon energization of said generating means, an
X-ray tube adapted to be connected to said ener
gy storage means and energizable by the dis
charge thereof, means connected With said energy
storage means and said X-ray tube operable to
control the discharge of said energy storage
means through said X-ray tube, means normally
connecting said energy storage means to ground,
and means operable to successively cause dis 30
connection of said energy storage means from
ground, energization of said generating means by
said source of electrical energy and consequent
ly the charging of said energy storage means by
said generating means, and operation of said dis~
charge device in order to cause said energy stor
sequent deenergization of said generating means
age means to discharge through said X-ray tube.
and operation of said last mentioned means with
attendant energization of said X-ray tube free of
40 the imposition of a sinusoidal wave form from
said generating means.
9. In an X-ray system, the combination with
energy storage means, of generating means
adapted upon energization thereof to store an
12. In an X-ray system, the combination with
a condenser of relatively large capacity of a high
45 electrical charge of high potential and current in
said energy storage means, a source of electrical
energy for energizing said generating means, a
plurality of recti?ers connected to said generat~
ing means and said energy storage means to
cause energy of one sign only to be stored in the
latter upon energization of said generating
means, an X-ray tube adapted to be connected to
said energy storage means and energizable by the
discharge thereof, means connected with said
energy storage means and said X-ray tube oper
able to control the discharge of said energy stor
age means through said X-ray tube, means nor
mally connecting said energy storage means to
tension transformer, a source of electrical ener
sion transformer and said condenser to cause en
ergy of one sign only to be stored in the latter
upon energization of said high tension trans
former, an X-ray tube adapted to be connected to
said condenser and energizable by the discharge
thereof, means connected with said condenser and
said X-ray tube operable to control the discharge
of said condenser through said X-ray tube, a 50
relay normally operative to connect said con
denser to ground to render said system shock
proof when not in actual operation, and means
operable to successively cause energization of
said relay to disconnect said condenser from
ground, energization of said high tension trans
generating means by said source of electrical en
former by said source of electrical energy, and
operation of said ?rst mentioned means With at
tendant energization of said X-ray tube by the
discharge of said condenser.
13. In an X-ray system the combination with
a high potential circuit including energy storage
means, means for supplying said energy storage
ergy.
means with electrical energy of one sign only, an
10. In an X-ray system, the combination with
energy storage means, of generating means
adapted upon energization thereof to store an
electrical charge of high potential and current
X-ray tube adapted to be connected to said energy
storage means and energizable by the discharge
ground to render said system shockproof when
60 not in actual operation, and means operable to
cause said energy storage means to be discon
nected from ground prior to energization of said
in said energy storage means, a source of electri
cal energy for energizing said generating means, a
plurality of recti?ers connected to said generat
ing means and said energy storage means to cause
energy of one sign only to be stored in the latter
upon energization of said generating means, an
75 X-ray tube adapted to be connected to said ener
40
gy for energizing said high tension transformer, a
plurality of recti?ers connected to said high ten
thereof, and a thermionic discharge device con
nected to said energy storage means and said X
ray tube for controlling the discharge of said
energy storage means through said X~~ray tube; 70
of an auxiliary circuit of relatively low potential
operable to cause operation of said discharge de
vice, remotely operable means associated with
said energy storage means to connect the same
to ground to render said system shockproof when 75
2,123,018
not actually in operation, remotely operable
means associated with said ?rst mentioned means
for rendering the same effective to supply energy
to said energy storage means, remotely operable
means associated with said auxiliary circuit to
render the same effective to cause operation of
said discharge device, a plurality of partially com
pleted low tension control circuits each of which
includes one of said remotely operable means,
and means adapted to be included in each of said
control circuits and operable to complete each
of said control circuits with attendant succes
sive actuation of each of said remotely operable
means.
14. In an X-ray system, the combination of
a high potential source of recti?ed alternating
current electrical energy, energy storage means
adapted to be connected to said high potential
source for accumulating a charge therein, an
X-ray tube, a thermionic discharge device con
nected to said. X-ray tube and to said energy
storage means adapted upon operation thereof
to cause energization of said X-ray tube by the
charge accumulated in said energy storage means,
a second X-ray tube adapted to be energized by
said high potential source, means operable in
one position to connect said energy storage means
in said high potential source and operable in an
other position to disconnect said energy storage
30 means and to connect said second mentioned X
ray tube to said high potential source for ener
gization thereby independent of said energy stor
age means, a control stand, visual indicating
means disposed upon said control stand and op
35 erable by said two position means to indicate
whether said ?rst mentioned X-ray tube is con
nected to said energy storage means or said sec
ond mentioned X-ray tube is connected directly
to said high potential source, a plurality of con
40 trol circuits adapted upon completion thereof to
sequently cause energization of said high poten
tial source and the accumulation of a charge in
said energy storage means, the deenergization
of said high potential source, and the operation
45 of said thermionic discharge device with at
tendant energization of said X-ray tube by the
charge accumulated in said energy storage
means; and means disposed upon said control
stand and operable to complete each of said
50 control circuits in their predetermined sequence.
15. In an X-ray system, the combination of a
high potential source of recti?ed alternating cur
rent electrical energy, energy storage means
adapted to be connected to said high potential
source for accumulating a charge therein, an
X-ray tube, a thermionic discharge device con
nected to said X-ray tube and to said energy
storage means adapted upon operation thereof
to cause energization of said X-ray tube by the
(30 charge accumulated in said energy storage means,
a second X-ray tube adapted to be energized by
said high potential source, means operable in one
position to connect said energy storage means
to said high potential source and operable in an
other position to disconnect said energy storage
means and to connect said second mentioned X
ray tube to said high potential source for ener
gization thereby independent of said energy stor
age means, a control stand remotely disposed
relative to said high tension source and both of
said X-ray tubes, 2. stereoscopic mechanism for
exposing a plurality of sensitized ?lms in rapid
succession in the ?eld of X-radiation from either
of said X-ray tubes, visual indicating means
disposed upon said control stand operable by
13
said two position means to indicate when said
?rst mentioned X-ray tube is connected to said
energy storage means or said second mentioned
X-ray tube connected directly to said high poten
tial source, visual indicating means disposed upon U!
said control stand for indicating the particular
sensitized ?lms disposed at any moment to the
?eld of X-radiation from said X-ray tube, a
plurality of control circuits adapted upon com
pletion thereof to sequently cause energization 10
of said high potential source andthe accumula
tion of a charge in said energy storage means,
the deenergization of said high potential source,
the operation of said thermionic discharge de
vice with attendant energization of said X-ray
tube by the charge accumulated in said energy
storage means, and operation of said stereo
scopic mechanism to shift the exposed sensitized
?lm out of the ?eld of X-radiation and the other
of said sensitized ?lms into position for an ex
posure; and means disposed upon said control
stand and operable to complete all of said control
circuits in a predetermined sequence to cause
the respective sequential operation.
16. In an X-ray system the combination with 25
a high potential circuit comprising an X-ray
tube electrically connected to a high capacity
condenser for energization thereby, a high ten
sion transformer connected to said condenser
adapted upon energization thereof to charge said
condenser, a plurality of recti?ers connected in
the circuit with said high tension transformer
and said condenser to cause the latter to be
charged with electrical energy of one sign only by
said high tension transformer, a thermionic dis
charge device connected in series with said X—
ray tube and said condenser provided with a con
trol electrode operable to cause and prevent the
discharge of said condenser through said X-ray
tube, means normally connecting said condenser 40
to ground to render said system shockproof when
not actually in operation; of an auxiliary cir
cuit including the control electrode of said dis
charge device and operative to impress a negative
or a positive potential thereupon, means associ
ated with said auxiliary circuit and operable
to cause operation of said auxiliary circuit to
render the control electrode of said discharge
device effective to cause and prevent the discharge
of said condenser through said X-ray tube, means 50
operable to connect said high tension trans
former to a suitable source of electrical energy
for energization thereby, a control circuit for
actuating said condenser grounding means, a
control circuit for causing operation of said means 55
to connect said high tension transformer to a
suitable source of ' electrical energy, a control
circuit for actuating said means associated with
said auxiliary circuit and operable to cause the
same to render said auxiliary circuit effective,
and means operable to cause each of said con~
trol circuits to become effective in a predeter
mined sequence.
1'7. In an X-ray system the combination of
means for storing an electrical charge of high po
tential, an X-ray tube adapted to be connected
to said means for energization thereby, a ther
mionic discharge device provided with an anode
and a cathode connected to said means and said
X-ray tube, respectively, said discharge device
being further provided ‘with a control electrode
to cause and prevent the ?ow of energy between
the anode and cathode thereof and consequently
from said means to said X-ray tube, an auxiliary
source of electrical energy connected to the con
75,
14
2,123,018
trol electrode of said discharge device normally
operative to impress a negative potential there
said system shock-proof, and means operable to
render said last mentioned means ineffective by
polarity of the potential impressed upon said con
disconnecting said condenser from ground and
for causing operation of said ?rst mentioned
means with attendant energization of said X~ray
tube by said high potential source.
21. In an X-ray system, the combination with
trol electrode and cause said means to discharge
generating means including a condenser and
through said X-ray tube, and means connected
adapted upon energization thereof to accumulate
an electrical charge of high potential in said
upon to prevent the discharge of said means
through said X-ray tube, automatic means asso
ciated with said auxiliary source of energy oper
able to cause said auxiliary source to reverse the
with said auxiliary source of electrical energy to
cause the gradual reversal in the polarity of the
potential impressed thereby upon said control
electrode in a fractional part of a second in re~
sponse to the operation of said automatic means
15 to cause a corresponding gradual rise in the dis—
charge of energy from said means through said
X-ray tube.
18. In an X-ray system the combination of
means for storing an electrical charge of high
potential, an X-ray tube adapted to be connected
to said means for energization thereby, a ther~
mionic discharge device in series with said X-ray
tube and said means operable to cause and pre
vent the flow of energy from said means to said
X-ray tube, an auxiliary source of electrical en
ergy connected with said discharge device nor
mally operative to cause said discharge device to
positively prevent the flow of energy from said
means to said X-ray tube, a switch operable to
cause said auxiliary source to reverse the oper
ation of said discharge device and cause the en
ergy of said means to discharge through said
X-ray tube, and means connected with said aux
iliary source of electrical energy to cause the
condenser, of a source of electrical energy for
energizing said generating means, an X~ray tube
adapted to be connected to said generating means
for energization thereby, means connected to said
generating means and said X-ray tube and oper~
able to control the energization of the latter by
said generating means, means normally connect
ing said condenser to ground to render said sys
tem shock-proof, and means operable to render
said last mentioned means ineffective to ground 1-‘
said system and to connect said source of electri
cal energy to said generating means.
22. In an X-ray system, the combination with
generating means including a condenser and
adapted upon energization thereof to accumu- 2.."
late an electrical charge of high potential in
said condenser, of a source of electrical energy
for energizing said generating means, an X~ray
tube adapted to be energized by said generating
means, means connected to said generating
means and said X-ray tube and operable to con
trol energization of the latter, means normally
connecting said condenser to ground to render
said system shockprooi following energization
gradual reversal in operation of said discharge
of said X-ray tube, and means operable to render
device in a fractional part of a second in response
said last mentioned means ine?ective to ground
said system and to connect said source of elec~
trical energy to said generating means and to
cause operation of said ?rst mentioned means
to the operation of said switch to prevent a sud
den rush of energy from said means to said X
ray tube from deleteriously affecting said X
40 ray tube and said discharge device.
19, In an X-ray system the combination of
means for storing an electrical charge of high
potential, an X-ray tube adapted to be connected
to said means for energization thereby, a ther
mionic discharge device provided with an anode
and a cathode connected to said means and said
X-ray tube, respectively, said discharge device be
ing further provided with a control electrode to
cause and prevent the ?ow of energy between the
anode and cathode thereof and consequently from
said means to said X-ray tube, an auxiliary source
of electrical energy connected to the control elec
trode of said discharge device normally operative
to impress a negative potential thereupon to pre
vent the discharge of said means through said
X~ray tube, a relay associated with said auxiliary
with attendant energization of said X-ray tube
by said generating means.
23. In an X-ray system, the combination of
generating means including a condenser and
adapted to accumulate an electrical charge of
high potential in said condenser, a source of
alternating current electrical energy ‘for ener
gizing said generating means, an Xwray tube
adapted to be connected to said condenser for
energization by the discharge therefrom, means
connected to said condenser and said X-ray tube 50
and operable to control the energization of the
latter by the discharge from said condenser,
means normally connecting said condenser to
ground to dissipate any residual energy accumu
lated therein following energization of said X
Li
ray tube for a predetermined period of time,
source of energy operable to cause said auxiliary
source to reverse the polarity of the potential im
pressed upon said control electrode and cause
and means operable to render said last men—
tioned means ineffective to ground said system
said means to discharge through said X~ray tube,
means and disconnection with said source from
and a resistance element connected with said
auxiliary source of electrical energy to cause the
said generating means to prevent a sinusoidal
gradual reversal in the polarity of the potential
impressed thereby upon said control electrode in
tation energy from said condenser.
24. In an X-ray system, the combination with
an X-ray tube and a source of high potential
electrical energy therefor, of a control stand,
adjustable means carried by said control stand
and connected to said high potential source for
‘ a fractional part of a second in response to the
operation of said relay to cause a corresponding
gradual rise in the discharge from said means
through said X-ray tube.
20. In an X-ray system, the combination of a
high potential source of electrical energy includ
ing a condenser, an X-ray tube adapted to be en
ergized by said source, means interposed between
said source and said X-ray tube for controlling
the energization of the latter, means normally
75 connecting said condenser to ground to render
Ci
together with operation of said ?rst mentioned
ripple being imposed upon the X—ray tube exci
minutely controlling the energy supplied to the
latter, and a pair of control knobs carried by
said control stand provided With dials having
indicia thereon indicative of kilovoltage in terms
.of units and tens, respectively, and operable to
regulate said adjustable means to preselect the
quantity of electrical energy in terms of kilovolt
2,123,018
age supplied by said high potential source to said
X-ray tube.
25. In an X-ray system, the combination with
an X-ray tube and a source of high potential
electrical energy therefor, of a control stand,
adjustable means carried by said control stand
and connected to said high potential source for
minutely controlling the energy supplied to the
latter, a pair of control knobs carried by said
15
an X-ray tube and a source of high potential
electrical energy therefor including a trans
former, of a control stand, an auto-transformer
carried by said control stand and connected to
control stand provided with dials having indicia
thereon indicative of kilovoltage in terms of
units and tens, respectively, and operable to
said transformer for minutely controlling the
energy supplied thereto, a pair of control knobs
carried by said control stand provided with dials
rotatable with said knobs and having indicia
thereon indicative of kilovoltage in terms of
units and tens, respectively, and said control 10
knobs being operable to regulate said autotrans
former to a preselected setting corresponding to
regulate said adjustable means to a preselected
the kilovoltage supplied by said high potential
setting corresponding to the kilovoltage supplied
15 by said high potential source to said X-ray tube,
source to said X-ray tube, and illuminating
means carried by said control stand for render
10
and illuminating means carried by said control
stand for rendering the dials carried by said
control knobs readily visible to an operator.
26. In an X-ray system the combination with
ing the dials carried by said control knobs read
ily visible to an operator.
MONTFORD MORRISON.
ALFRED SIMON.
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