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Патент USA US2123134

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July 51938.
W. w. COWGILL
‘
PROCESS OF TREATING FOOD MATERIALS
Filed Jan.’ 6, 1957
2,123,134
‘
Si’atented July 5, 1938
' 1
2,123,134
UNITED. STATES~ PATENT OFFICE
2,123,134
I
raocsss or TREATING roon MATERIALS
William W. Cowgill, Fail-?eld, Conn., assignor to
Sardik Incorporated, Jersey City, N. J., a cor
poration of Delaware
Application January 6, 1937', Serial No. 119,186
2 Claims. (01. 99-204)
This invention relates to the preparation of the freshness of the material or its food value,
If desired, it can be subjected to a drying opera
tion in the presence of an inert gas as has been
natural food materials such as fruits and vege
heretofore suggested, but the di?iculties of dry
tables it is necessary to expose the inner struc
ture thereof to the atmosphere thus subjecting
the material to deleterious oxidation. Such oxi
10 dation with resulting discoloration takes place
more rapidly with some fruits and vegetables
than with others but generally the action is more
rapid and more destructive with respect to ?nely
divided material.
Efforts have been made to prevent such oxida
tion by performing the drying operation in an
inert atmosphere of nitrogen or some other inert
gas. While this has reduced oxidation somewhat
the results have not been as satisfactory as de
2
color, vitamin content or the like having been
affected to any substantial degree by oxidation.
certain types of food material and to the subse
quent treatment‘such as the drying thereof to
render the materialv resistant to deterioration.
In the preparation of numerous products from
ing in an inert atmosphere are manifold and
render such an operation impractical from an
economic and commercial view point due to the
fact that in any drying operation carried on com 10
mercially large volumes of moisture are driven
off from the material being dried and‘ must be
removed as rapidly as driven off.
Obviously, the ‘
inert atmosphere into which the moisture is driv
en, when the drying operation is conducted in 15
such an atmosphere, is removed with the mois
ture and the operation of separating such mois
ture from the inert gas andreturning the latter
. to the drying chamber requires an expensive out
sired, considerable oxidation being present‘ in- the lay of apparatus and considerably increases the 20
?nished material in spite of such use of inert ;cost of drying without any corresponding ad
:' vantage in so far as the step of extracting mois
An object of this invention. is to provide a proc " ture is concerned.
ess ‘of preparing and drying food materials,.of ‘ ‘I prefer to provide a process of preparing the
such character as to produce a ?nished product .‘fresh material for such a subsequent treatment
substantially free of oxidation and discoloration. as ‘drying in which the material is protected
against any noticeable oxidation or the like dur
A further object is to provide a process’ of pre
paring and drying food materials so that the ing the preparatory steps and then subjecting
the prepared, unoxidized, fresh material to a-dry
finished product will be substantially free of oxi
30 dation and discoloration without the necessity of ing operation of such character that the mois
ture is reduced'to the desired point and the ma
‘ conducting the drying operation in a non-oxidiz
terial is rendered deterioration resistant so quick
ing atmosphere.
These and other objects are accomplished by ly as to substantially prevent oxidation during
the present invention which can be carried out the drying treatment even'though such treat
in any suitable apparatus such, for example, as ment is conducted in the ordinary atmosphere.
While the present invention can be carried out
that shown diagrammatically in the accompany
with any desired apparatus the mechanism shown
ing drawing.
.’
diagrammatically in the drawing is typical. The
The present invention contemplates a prepara
tory treatment of the material of such characterv illustrated arrangement ‘includes a hopper l of
40 that substantially no oxidation -or discoloration any desired size and construction which, if de
can occur while the material is being subjected to sired, can be sealed against the atmosphere after
such preliminary operations as are required‘ to the material is placed therein. The hopper is
condition it for whatever subsequent treatment is connected through a valve-controlled line 2' with
intended such, for example, as drying. In the a source of inert gas such, for example, as a car
present process the material is not only protected ’ bon dioxide tank 3. It is also connected through
against oxidation resulting from direct contact a second valve-controlled line 2 with a vacuum
pump or similar apparatus (not shown) so that
with the atmosphere, but, where necessary,’ pro
, vision is made forlikewise protecting it against the air in the hopper can be evacuated prior to
oxidation resulting from such air or_oxygen as admitting inert gas thereto, should it seem desir
50 may be incorporated or entrapped in the fresh able to do so. A feed worm 4, driven from' any
or untreated material. By suitable control of suitable source of power (not shown), is located
the preparatory processes to which the material in the bottom of the hopper and extends part
, is subjected it can be maintained in substantially way into a valve-controlled feed line ,5 leading 'to
_§,“.,,.,-.its original fresh condition and subjected to such a housing 6 within which is located a pulping
55 ,a ?nal treatment as, for example. drying without mechanism 1 operated by a rotatable shalt v8
8&8.
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'
30
35
'
40
45
50
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r
2
2,123,134
driven from any desired source of power. A stir
ring device 9 is also provided in the housing 6 for
thoroughly mixing the pulped material. The
pulping mechanism has a waste outlet III for dis
charging seeds, stems or the like which are sepa
rated from the pulp by such apparatus. A valve
controlled line H leads from the housing 6 to a
distributing head l5, or the like, located near a
distributing roller l5’ and adjacent a drying sur
10 face which is illustrated as being formed by the
outer face of an interiorly heated rotatable drum
16 having associated therewith a scraper or blade
IT for removing the dried material therefrom.
The bottom of the pulper is preferably large
15 enough to form a reservoir in which a suitable
quantity of fresh pulp can be held to provide a
constant supply for the distributing head regard
less of- the operation of the pulper.
In the drawing a second hopper I is shown
20 which is also connected to the housing 6. The
provision of two hoppers is desirable to permit
the cleaning of one hopper without requiring any
interruption to the process.
' The pulping mechanism is connected to the
25 carbon dioxide tank and to the source of vac
uum by the valve-controlled lines'ill and 2|, re
not be obstructed by any excess of pressure in the
pulper.
When conditions are such that delivery of in
ert gas to the apparatus can not alone be de
pended upon to properly remove all air there
from, or when the material is of such character
as to contain a relatively large amount of en
trapped air or oxygen, it may be desirable to sub
ject the apparatus and the material therein to
a vacuum before the inert gas is delivered there 10
to. Such a vacuum not only helps to remove air
and oxygen from the different parts of the appa
ratus, but also effects the extraction of the great
er proportion of any air or oxygen entrapped in
the material.
‘
15
As illustrated, this can be done by connecting
the hopper I and the housing 6 with the vacuum
pump or the like by opening the valves controlling
the lines 2 and 2|. Subsequently these lines are
closed and the inert gas is admitted to the hop 20
per and to the associated and connected appara
tus from the tank 3 through the valve-controlled
connections 2’ and 20. Obviously, the use of
the vacuum is optional.
After the‘ material has thus been separated
25
from any contact with the atmosphere and the
apparatus has been ?lled with the inert gas, the
The supply of'gas from the tank‘ 3 to the valve
material is fed by the worm I through the line 5
controlled lines 2' and 20 leading to the hopper into the housing 6 where it is made into a pulp
30 and pulper, respectively, is controlled by a main ,
by the pulping mechanism 1, and the pulp so 30.
tank valve 22. connected to the valve-controlled formed is thoroughly mixed by the stirring device
lines through a union 23.
spectively.
e
In accordance with the present invention the
selected fruit or vegetable or any combination of
35 fruits, or of vegetables, or of fruits and vegetables
is cleaned and any stems or-the like are re
moved. With some materials such as bananas
the skins will also be removed, but ___with other
materials such as apples the skins may, if de
sired, be left on the fruit and the whole fruit
subjected to the process. The material may be
cooked or uncooked as desired, but for the pur
poses of the process no cooking is required ex
cept that which may be necessary to soften such
45 materials as apples, beets or the like sufficiently
to permit the forming of a satisfactory pulp
thereof. Apples, for example, are usually divided
into approximately 8 or 10 pieces and are cooked
in a steam kettle or the like su?iclently to soften
5,0 them so that a suitable pulp can be easily pre
pared. Tomatoes, on the other hand, can be in
troduoed directly into the hopper without any
preliminary treatment other than that of wash
ing and cleaning. Bananas can also be intro
duced directly into the pulping mechanism upon
the removal of the skins.
The material so pre
pared is placed in the hopper I.
Thematerial in the hopper is protected against
oxidation by separating it from contact with the
air. This can be done when it is not necessary to
remove entrapped air and oxygen from the ma
terial,-by introducing an inert gas into the hopper
in such a way as to displace the air therefrom and
to surround the material with such inert gas.
At the same time, the air in other parts of the
apparatus, such as the housing 5 is displaced by
_ inert gas.
Inthe illustrated embodiment this is
accomplished by opening both the main valve 22
and the valves controlling the connecting lines
between the tank 2 and the different parts of the
apparatus. After the hopper and pulper are full
of gas the main valve 22 is closed but the valves
in the lines 2' and 20 are left open to provide a
means for equalizing the pressure in the hopper
78 and pulper so that the free ?ow of material will
9. The pulp then ?ows through the valve-con
trolled line H and is delivered to the drying ap
paratus through the. distributing head i5.
In order to avoid the necessity of conducting
the drying operation in an inert atmosphere and
at the same time to avoid oxidation of the ma
terial during the step of reducing the moisture
content thereof, I employ a drying operation in
which the extraction of moisture from the ma 40
terial is accomplished in such a way as to fore
stall substantially all oxidation thereof even
though the drying is conducted in the ordinary
atmosphere. The process of drying described in
the Sartakoff Patent No. 1,908,489, May 9, 1933, 45
is especially suitable for use in connection with
the present invention.
'
In this drying operation the material is dis
tributed by a suitable distributing mechanism
such, for example, as the distributing head I! 60
and roller I!’ over a heated drying surface in
such a way as to disperse the particles of pulp on
the surface so that substantially each particle
is directly exposed to the drying heat and is not
insulated therefrom by any substantial accumu 65
lation of intervening particles. As illustrated,
the drying surface is the outer surface of an
interiorly heated, rotating. drum IS on which
the‘ particles are dispersed by the distributing
head and on which they are dried during the
rotation thereof. The ‘dried particles are re
moved by a suitable scraper II which is prefer
ablyof ?exible steel pressed against the drying
surface with sumcient pressure to insure a close
contact across the entire surface so that the 65
scraper removes all the material thereon as the
drum rotates. The dispersed particles, the mois- .
ture content of which has been reduced to any
predetermined point and preferably to between
3 and 6 per cent, are consolidated by thescrap
er I‘! and form a thin'?lm ll of dried material
70
in which the individual particles are held to
gether by the natural binding substances of the
original material and which moves acrom the
blade and can be collected in any desired man
'75
i
2,123,134
ner.
By dispersing the particles over the dry
ing surface in the manner described the mois-'
ture content is reduced to the desired point so
quickly that the material is rendered deterioration
resistant before any noticeable oxidation or dis
coloration occurs, and the moisture is driven oil‘
in such volume as to assist in keeping the ma
terial on the drum out of contact with air. The
?nished product is composed of particles hav
10 ing substantially the color, vitamin content,
?avor and food value of the fresh material, and
a moisture content such that it can be kept
without substantial deterioration over prolonged
periods of time.
15
I claim:
‘
'
1. The improvement in the art of preparing
a concentrated food product of reduced moisture
'content from material of cellular formation,
3
moisture content to a predetermined point so
quickly as to forestall substantial oxidation
thereof during‘the drying operation, and con
solidating said“ particles at a temperature'such
that the constituent binding substances of the
original material will hold said particles together.
2. The improvement in the art of preparing a.
concentrated food product of reduced moisture
-content from material of cellular formation,
which comprises charging the material, softened 10
by cooking if necessary, into a closed receptacle,
evacuating the receptacle, thereafter filling, it
with an inert atmosphere, withdrawing the ma
terial from the receptacle without admitting Vair
thereto and passing it out of contact with air to 15
a second receptacle in which air has been re
placed by an inert atmosphere and in said re- '
ceptacle converting the material into a pulp con
taining ?nely divided particles of cellular mate- by cooking if necessary, into a receptacle, then‘ rial all without access of air thereto, withdraw 20
?lling‘said receptacle with an inert atmosphere, ing said material from said receptacle through a
withdrawing the material from the receptacle closed passage terminating in close proximity to
which comprises charging the material, softened
without admitting air thereto and passing it out
of contact with air to a second receptacle in
which air has been replaced by an inert atmos
phere and in such- receptacle converting the
material into a pulp ‘containing finely divided
particles of cellular material, withdrawing said
material from said receptacle through a closed
'30 passage terminating in close proximity 'to a
heated drying surface and then distributing the
material over said surface to substantially sepa
rate said particles thereon so that each parti
cle will be subjected to a substantially equal
35 amount of heat, subjecting the particles in dis
persed condition to heat sui?cient to reduce the
a heated drying surface and then‘ distributing the
material over said surface to substantially sep
arate said particles thereon so that each parti 25
cle will be subjected to a substantially equal
amount of heat, subjecting the particles in dis
persed condition to heat su?icient to reduce the
moisture content to a predetermined point so
quickly as to forestall substantial oxidation 30
thereof during the drying operation,-and consoli
dating said particles at‘a temperature such that
the constituent binding substances of the origi
nal material will hold said particles together.
WILLIAM W. COWGILL.
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