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Патент USA US2123166

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July 12, 1938.
A. CLARKSON
2,123,166
STEAMTGENERATING SYSTEM
Filed June 21, 1957
3 Sheets-Sheet l
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July 12, 1938.
A. CLARKSON
2,123,166
STEAM'. GENERATING SYSTEM
Filed June 21, 1937 ‘
'"..
3 ‘Sheets-Sheet 2
2,123,166
Patented July‘ 12, 1938
)‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,123,168
STEAM GENERATING SYSTEM
Aiick Clarkson, Elmluu'st, Ill. '
Application June 21, 1937, Serial No. 149,465
8 Claims.
(Cl. 122-448) ,
This invention relates to certain new and use
ful improvements in a steam generating system,
and more particularly to improved means for au
tomatically controlling the relative proportions
of fuel and feed water as supplied to such a steam
generating system. This application is a con
5
tinuat-ion in part of the copending application
of‘ Alick Clarkson, Serial No. 99,736, ?led September, 8, 1936.
10
The generator used in this system is of the
forced circulation type in which a de?nite amount
of excess water is circulated over and above
Fig. 2 is a partial elevation and partial ver
tical section, on a larger scale. of a portion of
the mechanism at-the right hand side of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a vertical central‘ section through the
improved separator.
5
Fig. 4 is a detail horizontal section taken sub
stantially on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
Brie?y described the system comprises the
steam generator A provided with a burner B, the
apparatus C for separating the steam and ex- 10
cess water, the fuel pump D, the air pump E, the
' the temperature of this feed water is utilized to
feed water pump F, the heat exchanger G, the
thermostatic mechanism H, which functions in
response to temperature changes of the feed wa
ter as heated by ‘exchanger G to actuate a por- 15
tion of the valve mechanism J which controls
the flow of fuel to burner B, and a shut-off mech
anism K for stopping the flow of fuel to‘the burner
in case the pressure in the feed water supply
line is reduced below a predetermined minimum. 20
The generator A is preferably of the forced
circulation type through which feed water is
control the supply of fuel to the generator-heater
thereby controlling the proportion of excess wa
ter circulated through the system. Means are
also provided whereby the failure of the feed
water supply will automatically cut off the supply
forced under pressure, a portion of the water be
ing evaporated into steam and a ?uid mixture
consisting of steam and excess water being dis- 2.")
charged into separator C. A preferred form of .
generator A is disclosed more in detail and
that which is evaporated, the ?uids from the
generator being discharged into a‘ separator op
erating preferably on the centrifugal principle,
in which the excess water is separated from the
steam. This excess water at hightemperature
and pressure is caused by means of a heat ex
changer to give up its heat to‘the incoming feed
water before such feed water is delivered to the
generator.
Thermostatic means-influenced by
of fuel to the heater.
‘
The principal object of the invention is to pro
30
It is sumcient
whereby there will always be an excess of water
for present purposes to state that this generator 30
consists of a plurality of vertically extending
pipe coils or modi?ed helices l, 2, 3, Ii, 5 and ii.
The feed water is supplied through ?tting ‘I and
inlet pipe 8 to the lower end of the outer coil i,
and from the upper end of coil lthrough pipe 9 35
to the upper end of the next inner coil 2, and
circulated through the generator.
so on throughout the series.
vide an improved steam generating system of the
type briefly described hereinabove and disclosed
more in detail in the speci?cation which follows.
Another object is to provide an improved
means for automatically controlling a steam gen
erating system of the forced circulation type
.
Another object is to provide improved me
for controlling the supply of fuel to the heater
40 of a steam generating system of the type here
inabove set forth.
.. _
Another object is to provide improved mean
of controlling the relative proportions of fuel and
feed water delivered to the generator.
Another object is to provide an improved ap
A
paratus for separating the excess water from the
‘i
steam.
.
Other objects and advantages of this inven
tion will be more apparent from the following
:10 detailed description of‘one approved form of ap
paratus constructed and operating according to
the principles of this invention.
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic plan view of the
65
claimed in the parent application Serial No.
. 99,736, hereinabove referred to.
assembled apparatus.
The mixture of
steam and water is discharged from inner coil
6 through outlet pipe ll), ?tting II and pipe iii
to the separator C. The individual turns or loops 40
of adjacent coils are preferably staggered with
relation to one another so that the hot products
of combustion from burner B which are intro
duced inside the stack or bank of coils and which
flow outwardly between the several coils will 45
engage a maximum surface area of the coils and
thus transfer a maximum of heat to the ?uids
therein.
a
-
-
The separator 0 comprises an outer casing con
sisting of outer shell l3, top member HI, and bot- 50
tom member l5, which encloses the inner ?uid
holding assembly with interposed insulating
spaces, such as indicated at 16.
The inner as
sembly comprises an upper structure I’! formed.
with a depending circular ?ange l8 having, pref- 55
9,198,160
erably, an outturned lower lip U. The outstand
ing ?ange 23 on structure i1 is connected by' bolts
2| with a ring 22 and the outstanding flange 23 at
the upper end of inner casing 24._ The steam and
water mixture from the generator enters from
pipe l2 through a substantially tangential inlet
port 23 in ring 22 into the annular space 23
formed between the bailie ?ange I3 and the ring
22 and inner casing 24. The water is discharged
10 by centrifugal force against the inner face of
- ring 22 and passes as a film down the inner face
of this ring and shell 24. The out-turned lip |3
forces this fuel through pipe 3|, T-iitting 32. T
?tting 33, and pipe 34 to the burner B of the gen
erator-heater. This burner B is of the type pro
vided with a valve which opens only under a cer
tain predetermined minimum fuel pressure. In
other words, if the pressure under which the fuel
is supplied falls below this minimum, the valve
will close and cut off the supply of fuel to the
heating apparatus.
The lower passage leading from fitting 32 dis
charges into a chamber 33 having an outlet nor
mally closed by a valve 33 held against its seat
tendsto keep the water ‘against the outer wall of by spring 31. When valve 33 is lifted from its
this chamber. The steam issuing out through the , seat (in the manner hereinafter described) the
constricted annular opening 21 between lip i3 and
shell 24 passes upwardly thrpugh member i1 and
out of the separator through pipe 23 which may
be provided with a pressure reducing valve'23 (see
Fig. 1).
Positioned below the baiile structure I3 is a'
hollow cone frustum 33 having an opening 3| in
its upper end which is partially enclosed by a con
ical cap member 32 supported from cone 33 by the
interposed spacers 33. The cone 33 is provided
with an outer cylindrical ?ange 34, of smaller '
diameter than the inner diameter of shell 24,
which ?ange is secured to the shell at 33 through
interposed spacers 33.' This leaves a passage 31
between ?ange 34 and casing 24 through which
the water flows into the lower portion of the sep
arator. Inner casing 24 is connected at its lower
end with the lower conical hopper member 33 ori
- ?ced at 33 for discharge through a blow-o?.’ valve
43. The hopper member is also provided with a
36 second outlet passage 4| for discharge of water
fuel can ?ow from chamber 33 through pipe 33
and fitting 33 and discharge pipe 13 back to the
fuel tank or other source of supply. The pipe 1|
leading from the other outlet of T-?tting 33 dis
charges into a chamber 12 formed in the casing
13 of valve assembly J. The two ports 14 and 13 20
lead from valve chamber 12 into valve chamber
13 from which fuel is discharged through pipe 11,
fitting 33 and discharge pipe 13 back to the fuel
tank. The discharge through port 13 is con
trolled by valve 13 carried by stem 13 threaded 25
into thimble 33 of packing 3|, the stem 13 being
manually operable by means of handle 32. The
flow of fuel through the other port 14 is con
trolled by a valve 33 mounted on stem 34 pro
iecting upwardly through packing 34' in the up 30
per end of casing 13. Spring 33 con?ned between
a bracket 33 in valve casing 13 and a stop 31 on
the stem 34 tends to lift valve 33 and increase the
valve opening. Valve 33 is forced downwardly
to close the valve opening against the resistance 35
into the pipe 42 leading to the heat exchanger G of spring 33, by the thermostatic assembly H, as
(see Fig. 1). The valve 43 cooperating with hereinafter described.
It will be understood. that in normal operation
valve seat 44 and guided in ?tting 43 controls the
discharge of water through outlet passage 4|. the pump D forces fuel through the piping sys
tem under su?icient pressure to open the valve,
when valve 43 is lifted from its seat, water col
lected in the lower portion of the separator flows at the burner B and supply fuel to the heating
out through strainer 43 and ports 41 formed in apparatus. It also pumps an excess volume of
fuel so that a limited amount may be by-passed
?tting 43 and thence into and through the dis
charge passage 4|. Movable valve member 43 is through either port 14 or port 13, chamber,"
connected by link 43 with one end of a lever 43 and discharge pipes 11 and 13, back to the source 45
pivoted at 33, the opposite end of this lever being of supply. In normal operation the valve 33
connected through link 3| with one end of a lever will be seated and valves 13 and 33 will be par
32 pivoted at 33 and carrying ?oat 34. When a tially closed. At any time the amount of fuel
bypassed may be adjusted by manually operated
su?lcient head of water has collected in the sep
arator chamber, ?oat 34 will be elevated, thus valve 13. Under certain conditions, when valve
lifting valve 43 from its seat and permitting the 33 is partially open, a su?lcient pressure to sup
discharge of water from the separator. As the ply fuel to the burner may be obtained by closing
water level in the separator falls, the valve 43 the valve 13. However, if both valves .13 and
will be lowered toward its seat thus diminishing 33 are opened, the amount of by-passed fuel will
the volume of the water stream discharged from be sufficient to lower the pressure and cut off 55
the separator. In this manner the size of the the supply at burner B. Also, if valve 33 is lifted,
stream of excess water discharged from the sepa— the fuel will be by-passed through this valve
rator will be proportioned to the rate at which opening and pipe 13 so as to shut off the flow of
water accumulates in the separator, that is in fuel to the burner B.
The feed water pump F receives water from a 60
proportion to the volume of excess water passing
through the generator. The separator may be source of supply through pipe 33 and discharges
this water through pipe 33 into chamber 33 of
provided with a water-gauge indicated at M.
The heat exchanger G (Fig. 1) consists of a diaphragm casing 3| of the shut-off device K.
The diaphragm 32 mounted in this casing carries
vessel 33 in which is positioned a coil 33 con
nected at one end to discharge pipe 42 leading the valve member 33 adapted to cooperate with
from the separator and at the other end with a valve seat 34 at the entrance to discharge pas
water discharge pipe 31 which may lead back to sage 33. Valve member 33 is provided with the
‘the water supply tank, or any other desired point balancing ducts 33 and 31 communicating with
of discharge.
chamber 33 below the diaphragm 32. When feed
The air pump E driven by motor 33 forces air water under su?icient pressure is forced by pump 70
70
through conduit 33 to the burner B and the com
F into the upper chamber 33, the diaphragm 33
bustion chamber within the generator. The fuel will be de?ected downwardly, as shown in the
pump D, which may be driven by the same power drawings, so as to open valve 33 and permit this
water to flow out through passage 33 and outlet
means as pump E draws fuel (preferably oil)
from the source of supply through pipe 33, and pipe 33. A valve stem I33 projects upwardly 73
2,128,108
3
from movable valve member 00, and a spring
discharged from separator C. This will’ expand
IN is con?ned between the upper portion of the
valve casing and an abutment I02 connected with
tube IIS and tend to close valve 83, thus in
creasing the supply of fuel to bm'ner B. The
amount of heat transferred to the feed water
in heat exchanger G will dependupon the amount
and temperature of the excess water passing
valve stem I00.
When the pump pressure nor
mally exerted on diaphragm I00 fails, spring IOI
will lift the valve 93 so as to cut off the water
It will be understood that
through the generator and separator. If the
when valve 93 is closed, the lower pressure exist
ing in the piping system beyond device K will
III be communicated through balancing ducts 90
and 91 to the space 98 below the diaphragm so
that the higher pump pressure will be e?ective
to open the valve. When the pump is in opera
tion, the valve- 93 will not be moved very far
from its seat and the rush of water through the
annular passage around this valve will prevent
the higher pressure from being communicated to
the lower chamber 98 so that the valve will re
main in this partially open position, as long as
the pump pressure is maintained.
supply to pipe 99.
supply of water is insufficient so that no excess
is discharged from the separator, the feed water
will not be heated and thermostatic device H
will act to permit valve 03 to open and thus cut
down or shut off the supply of fuel to burner B,
thus decreasing the temperature of the gener
ator. In this manner, overheating of the gen
erator so as to cause damage to the tubing in
the absence of suiiicient water supply is pre
vented. The proportion of water converted into
steam may be varied by proper adjustment of
the thermostatic regulator. It will be noted that
the heat transferred to the feed water in heat
When the pump F is stopped or the pump exchanger .G is dependent not only on the tem
pressure fails, the valve 93 will be closed by spring perature of the water discharged from the sepa
mi, and the upper end of valve stem I00 will rator but on the amount of such water. If there
engage and lift valve 66 from its seat, thus by
is insufficient feed water supplied to the gener
I; at passing the fuel supply and shutting off the bum
ator, or if an excessive quantity of the water is
er B. Thus the burner cannot operate unless converted into steam, the discharged water will
feed water is being supplied under proper pres
be reduced ‘to such a small stream thatthe heat
sure.
imparted to the feed water will be insu?lcient to
The thermostatic regulator H comprises a pair close valve 03, even though this excess water is
30 of heat expansible tubes I03 and I04 mounted
at a high temperature.
at their lower ends in a connecting manifold I05
If the feed water initially supplied through pipe
which is supported on spacing posts I06 project
99 is heated, this heat will expand the tubes I 03
ing upwardly from valve casing", the manifold am‘ I04 thus lifting the tube “5 and partially
being anchored to the casing by bolts I01. The counteracting the effect of the expansion of tube
upper ends of tubes I03 and I04 are connected
H5. In this way compensation is made for. pre
into a’ ?tting I08. Feed water supply pipe 09 heated water so that the ?nal control of the fuel
communicates with the upper end of tube I03 supply will depend on the amount or tempera
through nipple I09 connected into ?tting I08. ture of the excess water from the separator.
The lower end of tube I03 connects through
I claim:
‘
40 manifold I05 with the lower end of tube I 04, the
' 1. In steam generating apparatus, the combi
upper end of which connects through ?tting I08, nation of a generator through which water is
nipple I I0, and pipe I I I with one end of the heat
circulated and ‘partially converted into steam,
exchanger tank 55. The other end 01' this tank means for delivering feed water to the generator,
connects through pipe I I2 provided with restrict
a heater for the generator, a separator for're
ing valve H3, and pipe Ill with the upper end ’ ceiving the mixture of water and steam from the
of a third heat expansible tube H5. This tube generator and separating the steam from the
H5 is supported'at its upper‘ end by stem IIS water, and means for increasing or decreasing
projecting through ?tting I00 and held by nuts the supply of fuel to the heater as the amount of
‘III, a spring IIB being interposed between the
This spring
II8 may be compressed to permit unusual ex
pansion of tube II! but ordinarily the upper end
50 head of tube H5 and fitting I00.
of tube II5 may be, considered as ?xed to and
moving with the ?tting I00. The lower end of
expansible tube II5 connects through pipe IIS,
?tting I20 and pipe I2I with the inlet ?tting ‘I
of the generator coils. A restricted shunt pipe
connection I22 leads from pipe II2 to ?tting I20.
With valve II3 wide open the greater portion
60 of the ?ow of heated water from tank 55 will
pass downwardly through tube “5, but as valve
H3 is progressively closed a greater portion of
the flow will be diverted through, the restricted
connection I22 to the generator.
A stem I23 projects downwardly from the
lower free end of tube H5 ‘to engage the upper
end of valve stem 04.
It will now be evident that the expansion of
tubes I03 and I04 will tend to lift stem I23 and
permit valve 83 to open, whereas the expansion
of tube II5 tends to close the valve 83. .
As the feed water ?ows through casing 55 of
‘ the heat exchanger G on its way to the generator,
‘ this water will be heated by heat transferred
75 thereto through coil 56 from the excess water
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
water discharged from the separator increases
or decreases.
50
2. In steam generating apparatus, the combi-l
nation of a generator through which water is
circulated and partially converted into steam}
means for delivering feed water to the generator,
a heater for the generator, a separator for re- 55
ceiving the mixture of water and steam from the
generator and separating the steam from the
water, means for discharging water from the sep
arator, a heat exchanger through which this dis
charged water and the feed water going to the
generator are separately passed in heat exchange
relation, and means for increasing or decreasing
the supply of fuel to the heater as the amount of
heat delivered by the discharged water to the
feed water in the heat exchanger increases or 65
decreases.
3. In steam generating apparatus, the combi
nation of a generator through which water is
circulated and partially converted into steam,
means for delivering feed water to the gener 70
ator, a heater for the generator, a separator for
receiving the mixture of water and steam from
the generator and separating the steam from the
water, means for discharging water from the sep
- arator, a heat exchanger through which this dis
charged water and the feed water to the gener
ator are separately passed for heat exchange,
and means for increasing or decreasing the sup
ply of fuel to the heater as the temperature oi
- the feed water delivered to the generator increases
or decreases.
4. In steam generating apparatus, the combi
nation or a generator through which water is
circulated and partially converted into steam,
10 means for delivering feecbwater to the generator,
a heater for the generator, a separator for receiv
ing the mixture of water and steam from the gen
erator and separating the steam from the water,
means for discharging water from the separator,
15 a heat exchanger through which this discharged
. water and the feed water to the generator are
separately passed for heat exchange, and means
for increasing or decreasing the supply of fuel
to the heater as the temperature of the feed wa
20 ter delivered from the heat exchanger is in
creased or decreased.
5. In steam generating apparatus, the combi
nation of a generator through which water is
circulated and partially converted into steam,
means for delivering feed water to the generator,
a heater for the generator, a separator for receiv
ing the mixture of waterv and steam from the
generator and separating the steam from the
water, means for discharging water from the
30 separator, a heat exchanger through which this
discharged water and the feed water to the gen
erator are separately passed for heat exchange,
and means for diminishing the supply of fuel to
the heater as the temperature of the feed water
as delivered from the heat exchanger falls.
6. In steam generating apparatus, the combi
nation of a generator through which water is
circulated and partially converted into steam,
I means for delivering feed water to the generator,
40 a heater for the' generator, a separator for re
ceiving the mixture of water and steam from the
generator and separating the steam from the
water, means for discharging water from the
separator, a heat exchanger through which this
discharged water and the feed water to the gen
erator are separately passed for heat exchange,
and thermostatically controlled means responsive
to temperature changes oi.’ the feed water delivered
from the heat exchanger for shutting oi! the sup
ply of Iuel to the heater when the ?ow of water
10
from the separator is stopped.
7. In steam generating apparatus, the combi
nation of a generator through which water is
circulated and partially converted into steam,
means for delivering feed water to the generator,
a heater for the generator, a separator for re
15
ceiving the mixture of water and steam from the
generator and separating the steam from the
water, means torv discharging water from the
separator, and'thermostatically controlled means
responsive to an increase or decrease in the 20
amount of heat delivered from the separator by
the discharge water for increasing or decreasing
the supply of fuel to the heater.
8. In steam generating apparatus, the com
bination of a generator through which water is 25
circulated and partially converted into steam,
means for delivering'teed water to the generator,
a heater for the generator, a separator for re
ceiving the mixture of water and steam from the
generator and separating the steam from the 30
water, means for discharging water from the
separator, a heat exchanger through which this
discharged water and the feed water to the gen
erator are separately passed for heat exchange,
and thermostatically controlled means responsive 35
to temperature changes of the feed water as de
livered both to and from the heat exchanger on its
way to the generator for controlling the supply of
fuel to the heater.
ALICK CLARKSON.
40
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