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Патент USA US2123212

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July 12, 19°
-
.
H. SCHOLLER
'
PROCESS
OF
EXTRACTION
Filed Sept. 24, 1954
I '26
2,123,212
>
Patented July 12, 1938
2,123,212
UNITED STATES
PATENT" OFFICE
‘ 2.12am
mocnss or nxmcrron
‘
_
Heinrich Soholler, Solln, near Munich, Germany
Application September 24, 1934, Serial No. 745,376
‘
In Germany September 28, 1933
12 Claims.’ (0]. 87-28.)
‘ This invention relates to a process oi’ and appa
ratus for the extraction of vegetable materials for
the purpose of obtaining the valuable extractives
contained therein.
The nature and objects of the invention will be
5
come apparent from the following description,
appended claims and accompanying drawing
wherein the ?gure shows diagrammatically and
partly in section an embodiment of an apparatus
10 for carrying out the instant invention.
In accordance with the principles of the instant
invention, the material to be extracted is intro
duced into an extraction chamber of the type
commonly known as percolators. Predetermined
" batches of an extraction medium are intermit
tently at. predetermined intervals 01 time intro
duced into the extraction chamber and caused to
?ow therethrough. During the course of the
process, the successive batchesoi' the extraction,
20 medium may be individually smaller than that
corresponding to the volume of the substance to
be treated. . The extraction medium after ?owing
through the substance within the extractor and
25 ditions whereby the material being treated is
maintained in a moist state, the material being
which is of a temperature lower than that of the
material to be extracted.
In many cases, particularly with material sensi
tive to the in?uence oi’ temperature, it is expedi 15
ent to operate with'decreased pressure and tem
peratures below 100° C. In such procedures, the
extraction medium is drawn into the extraction
vessel by the difference in pressure. Also, in this
procedure the withdrawal oi.’ the extraction 20
medium containing the extractives may also be
accomplished by vacuum.
In one embodiment of the invention the process
C., if in view of the conditions such temperatures 25,
are admissible.
and heating under pressure may be utilized simul
taneously to constitute a single operation. In
such a procedure‘ the extraction medium passes 30
through the material to be extracted during the
concerns physical processes and not chemical
application of pressure and heat.
reactions, it will be understood that this ter
In many cases, it is advantageous to maintain
the material to be extracted at low temperatures
under decreased pressures and thereafter pro 35
ceeding later to the extraction under pressure. In
this- manner the ?rst fractions may be removed
with great care.
Vacuum extraction and pressure extraction
minology is proper and interchangeable.
,
The process may be utilized for the extraction
of any vegetable material. All‘oi the solvents,
such as water, benzine, benzene, carbon tetra
chloride, trichlorethane, etc. may be used as the
extraction mediums.
40
Thus, the inven 10
According to the present invention, extraction
- -
For the sake of convenience and brevity, the
term “vapors” is used throughout to include both
30 ‘vapors and gases, particularly also the vapors oi
the solvents in question. Since the invention
35
the interspaces themselves.
tion contemplates utilizing an extraction medium >
contemplates utilizing temperatures above 100°
containing the extractives is removed under con
surrounded by vapors.
fact that the extraction medium, penetrates the
material more easily and has a better extractive
eilect it it is of a lower temperature than the
material to be extracted. Without restricting
myseli to any theory, I believe this phenomenon is
probably due to the fact that in consequence of
its lower temperature the extraction medium is
able to condense the vapor present in the inter
spaces and parts of the material and to penetrate
T
The preferred materials to be treated are tan
may-likewise be combined so as to use excess 40
ning and dye woods as well as resinous and oleif- ' pressure only when the extraction medium is
erous substances. With the ?rst two substances,
water and water vapor may be used as the ex
traction medium. When resinous and oleiferous
45 materials are to be treated, the extraction is con
forced through the material. During the re
mainder of the procedure, the process may be
operated under diminished pressure.
The material, for example oak chips, to be 45
ducted with an organic solvent employing, if _ extracted is piled up uniformly and closely in the ~
percolator. It is also desirable that the extrac
tion medium be supplied with such a speed that at
The extraction medium, in accordance with ?rst it collects above the material to be extracted
5 the principles of the instant invention, is applied in the upper part of the extraction vessel. The 50
at the top of the percolator. Thus, the ‘extrac
liquid extracting medium then travels as much
tion medium is able to ?ow through the material as possible as a compact liquid mass downward
to be extracted in the percolator.
through the material until it is withdrawn at the
Experiments and research carried on in con
bottom of the percolator.
55 nection with this process disclosed the surprising
A special preservative and e?ective manner of 55
necessary, water vapors or the vapors of the sol
vents or also inert gases.
2
9,128,219
carrying out the process also contemplates mod
ifying or adjusting the temperature in the ex
traction chamber so that the temperature in the
lower part of the extraction chamber is higher
than in the upper portion of the extraction cham
ber. This should always be e?ected prior to the
introduction of the batch of the extraction medi
um. Such a procedure counteracts the cooling
brought about by the introduction of the cooler
10 extraction medium.
ducing steam from below and/or by removing
the steam from above. The introduction of steam
from below is continued during the introduction
of a batch of the extraction medium and until
the entire batch is introduced. The steam intro
duced in the lower portion of the extraction
chamber rises and prevents the too easy pene
tration of the material by the extraction medi
tanks 5, 3, l and 8 are provided for the reception
of more or less concentrated liquid secured in
the manner hereafter explained. A container 3
for fresh water is also provided. These con
tainers 5, 6, ‘I, 8 and 9 may also be heat-in
sulated and provided with a heating device, if
desired. Each of the containers 5, 3, 'I, 3 and 9
is connected by means of piping to the pipe 20
leading to the pump 2|. Speci?cally, the con
tainer 5 is provided with a pipe I0 and a valve
I5; the container 6 is provided with a pipe II
and a valve I6; the container ‘I is provided with
can be accomplished by shutting oiT the intro—
a pipe I2 and a valve II; the container 3 is pro
vided with a pipe if! and a valve i8; and the con
tainer 9 is provided with a pipe I4 and a valve I9.
The pump 2I is connected by means of a pipe
22'to a heat exchange device 23. The heat ex
change device 23 is also connected at any suit
able point thereof to an intermediary or batch
container 25. The batch container 25 is suit 30
ably connected with a steam pipe 26. It may
After the entire ,batch of extraction medium
has been introduced into the extraction chamber,
the introduction of steam in the lower portion
of the extraction chamber is shut off. The batch
30 of extraction medium is then in a compact form
lying on the material to be treated.
Steam is
- then introduced at the top whereby the extrac
tion medium is forced through the material to be
treated. The downward flow of the extracting
35 medium may also be promoted by withdrawing
the steam from the lower part of the extraction
chamber. If desired, both operations, 1. e. the
introduction of steam from above and the re
moval of steam from below, may be utilized.
In order to render the forcing through of‘the
extraction medium by means of steam especially
e?ective, it is expedient to have the steam in
troduced in the upper part of the extractor at a
pressure considerably higher than that corre
45 sponding' to the saturated steam pressure of the
temperature of the material.
In practical operation, it has been found to be
especially advantageous to gradually increase
during the process the pressures and also the
50 temperatures of both the extraction medium and
the- material being treated. When this pro
cedure is utilized, the ratio between the tem
peratures and the pressure should be main
tained.
,
The process is particularly suitable for use in
connection with single extraction chambers.
Also, the process may be utilized with a plurality
of extraction chambers. When a plurality of
extraction chambers are utilized in the process,
60 they may be connected in series or parallel and
55
liquid free of the solid material may be obtained.
um, thus avoiding any ineffective or ine?lcient
use of the extracting medium. This same effect
» duction of the steam in the upper part of the ex
25 traction chamber.
40
The cone at the lower portion of the extraction
vessel I is provided with a filter 4 whereby the
At some suitable or convenient place, storage 10
The modi?cation or adjustment of tempera
ture just referred to may be eilected by intro
Y 15
Referring now to the drawing wherein like
reference numerals designate like parts, the ref
erence numeral I designates the extraction vessel
(percolator) which is almost completely ?lled
with the material 2 to be treated. The extrac
tion vessel I is provided with heat-insulation 3.
also be provided with an additional heating de
vice of any convenient type and which in the
drawing is shown to be a heating coil 21. The
purpose of the heating device is to bring the
batch of extraction medium in the container 25
to the desired temperature before it is introduced
into the extraction vessel. The batch container
25 is also suitably connected by means of a piping
28 to the top of the extraction vessel I. A valve 40
29 is provided in the line 28, whereby the ?ow
from the container 25 to the extraction chamber
may be obtained, or vice versa.
The upper end of the extraction vessel I is
connected with a steam pipe 30 and a vacuum
pipe 3|. Valves are provided in each of these
two lines, whereby the introduction of steam
or vacuum may be permitted or not as desired.
The lower cone of the extraction chamber is
also connected to a steam pipe 32 and. a vacuum
pipe 33. As in the case of the similar lines con
nected to the upper portion of the extraction
chamber, the lines 32 and 33 are also provided
with valves whereby the introduction or cut-cit
of the material introduced thereby can be se
cured.
After the extracting medium has passed
through the extraction chamber and has en
riched itself with extract, it leaves the extraction
vessel through the ?lter 4 and passes by way of
the pipe 34 into the heat exchange device 23 and
they should be of corresponding sizes.
then to the pipe 35 having branches leading to
The extraction medium containing the extrac
the containers 5, 3, ‘I and 8 respectively. Each of
tive may be concentrated in any suitable man
the branches is provided with valves designated
ner. In the instant process the individual ex
65 tract portions are separately collected. and con~ by reference numerals 36, 31, 38 and 39. By
centrated by again ?owing through extraction proper adjustment of the valves 36, 31, 38 and 33,
the material withdrawn from the extracting
chambers. In this procedure the most concen
trated solutions are made to act on the freshest‘ chamber will be supplied to the desired storage
material to be extracted and the most exhausted vessel.
70 material is treated with fresh extraction medium.
The heat exchange device 23 is of such con
To accomplish this, the process contemplates a struction that the material withdrawn from the
countercurrent battery or an arrangement of extraction chamber preheats the extraction me
corresponding intermediate vessels which collect dium supplied from the tanks 5, 6, ‘I, 8 and 3, as
and store the solutions having the various de
the case may be, to the batch container 25. The
75 grees of concentration.
arrows on the drawing indicate the direction of
55
60
65
70
75
8,188,818
1n
?ow of the extraction medium from the supply
tanks tothe batch container and aiso'ths‘ direc
tion of ?ow of the material withdrawn from the
extraction chamber i.
.
v
>
H17; mm Hr.
‘
The batch tank 2! permits the introduction of
‘(1)
, so
Suction vabove to pressure 0.4
' predetermined quantities of extraction medium -
40
.'to the extraction chambe‘ . It is independent of
the operation of the pum 2!. The batch chain-4
ber >25 may be supplied with the desired amount
10 of extraction medium by the pump 2|, after the
extraction medium previously in the batch tank
atm.;
.
A
admission of a batch:
temperature of the batch 45°;
sizeoithebatchpertonofdry
10
_ wood substance 54; ohm; '
batch liquid: second fraction
' has been supplied to the extraction chamber. If
desired, the pump 2! may be of the metering
type or the container 25 maybe provided with a
15 suitable. mechanism for cutting oil’ the operation.
~
of v preceding operation; si
multaneous steaming from
below and suction from 15
of the pump when the desired quantity of liquid ‘
has been introduced therein.
:
above:
'_ pressure above 0.85 atm.;
' a
As indicated above. the process contemplates .
'
pressure below 0.6vatm.;
concentrating the extracts: This is secured in
45
manner. when the extraction yes‘
20 the following
sel i is ?lled with the fresh material to ‘be ex- '
tracted, the storage tank possessing the highest _
concentration is connected with the pump 2i and
this material is supplied to the batch container
25 and thereafter forced through the extraction
steaming from above’ to 2
_ atma. batch
20
?ows idcwn
wards;
45
bag: flows- out of the'percola
\chamber. Then the extraction liquor containing
the next highest concentration is utilized. This
procedure is ‘carried on until the extraction me
25
the batch liquid is separated as
the first fraction;
temperature of the ?owing-oi! '
dium of the lowest concentration is reached. '
batch‘: 60-65".
Instead of a single extraction vessel, as shown
30
in the drawing, a plurality thereof may be used. ‘
'
Such extraction vessels may be connected in par
allel or series.
.
(2)
There ‘is now a repetition of
when the process is carried out utilizing th
countercurrent principle, the process may be em
the , operations
as
under
III/(1‘) in the samechrcnc
ployed by having the individual liquid batches
, logical order;
'
pass directly without the presence of a storage
tank from one extraction vessel to the other.
Each of the vessels 5, 0, '_I, 8 and l is also pro--‘
‘vided with a piping system comprising the pipe
40, the valve 4i and the pipe 42 whereby the ma
terial in said tanks may be conducted to a suit
admission of a batch;
able coliection vessel or storage tank after the ‘
temperature of batch: 45°;
process has been completed.
size of batch: per ton of dry
45
wood substance: 1/: cbm'.;
batch liquid: second fraction
of the preceding operation;~
simultaneous steaming from
suction from above ‘to’ pres
sure 0.4 atm.;
Hereafter there is set forth a specific illustra- ’
tive example disclosing a practical method inor
der to more clearly define the nature of the in
vention.
.
EXAMPIE son Onraumwa TANNING Mam snout
>
OAK Woon
Time
51
Hr. Min. Hr. Min.
'
e
0
00
I
and
above;
‘
suction
from
pressure below: 0.6 atma
05
-0
,
'
-
‘sucking "of! from above to
0.25 atm.
n
—1
.
Heat to 60° by steaming from
below and simultaneous
5.5
,
a
'1 steaming from above to 2 atm., - 55
batch ?ows down;
05
batch ?ows off, separated as
?rst fraction;
‘
temperature 60-65“,
2o
(3)
batch into the upper part of
the percolatort'
the liquid batch is the second
'
> size of batchperton of dry
wood substance 1 cbm.:
30 increase pressure above by the ,
> -0
'
under 111/ (1)» '
10
.
supplyoffste'am to 2 atm.;
hatch flows downwards.
'15
‘ Suction
fraction of the tan liquor of
the preceding operation:
pressure above 0.2 atm.;
pressure below 0.5 atm.;
25
' Repetition oi the Operations as
‘
temperature of hatch 45°;
v75
80
In?ltration /
‘Introduction 01 the initlal'
0
’
50
pressure above: 0.35 atm.,_ '
Heating
20
-
below
40
15'
vabove to pressure 0.4
atm. ;
' admissio'nof ‘a batch:
70
temperature of batch: 45°;
size of batch: 1% ohm. per ton
of dry wood substance; ’
batch liquid: 2nd fraction of
' preceding operation;
auras-12
Hr.Min.Hr.Min.
HnMinJ-ILMin.
simultaneous steaming from
below and suction from
above;
15
—
20
2
admission of a batch;
temperature of a batch: 55°;
size of batch: 1/2 cbm. per ton
of dry wood substance:
I
pressure above: 0.35 atm.;
pressure below: 0.6 atm.; ,
2o
-
25
1
batch liquid: 3rd fraction from
steaming irom above to 2 atm.;
preceding operation;
simultaneous steaming from
below and evacuating from 10
batch flows down:
10'
25
-
30
1
?owing-off of the batch, sepa
rated tor 1st fraction;
above;
pressure above: 0.55 atm.;
pressure below: 0.8 atm.;
temperature: 65-70“. _
I
15
3o
'20
-
1
v2
Repetition of the operations as
under 111/ (1)
2
-
25
steaming from above up to 2
atm.; batch flows down;
25
as
.
20
(4)
—
30
?owing-oil’ of the batch; sepa
rated to 2nd fraction;
suction above to pressure 0.5
temperature: 75-80“.
atm.;
'35
_
40
1
(7)
admission of a batch:
.batch temperature 50";
size of batch: 1/2 cbm. per ton
of .dry wood substance;
batch liquid: 3rd fraction of
25
30
—
35
2
suction above up to pressure
preceding operation;
simultaneous
0.6 atm.;
steaming .from '
belowv and
30
suction
35
from
-
40
2
admission of a batch;
above;
temperature of batch: 55°;
pressure above: 0.45 atm.; ‘
i
40
_
45
1
steaming from above to 2 ‘atm.;
batch flows down;
45
-
preceding operation;
simultaneous steaming from
‘
50
below
?owing-off of batch, separated
1
to fraction II;
-
5o
-
40
—
atm.; batch flows down;
-
45 I2
50
?owing-off of the batch, sepa
rated to 2nd fraction;
.
55,
temperature: 80-85".
0.5 atm.;
50
0o
1
-2
admission of a batch:
preceding operation;
simultaneous steaming from
below
and
(8)
‘
temperature of batch: 50°;
size of batch: 1/2 ohm. per ton
of dry wood substance;
batch liquid: 3rd fraction oi’
suction
from
above; "
Repetition of the operations as 50
. under III/ (1)
50
--
55
2
suction above up to pressure
0.65 atm.;
55
2
00
-3
.
sizeof batch: 1/2 cbm. per ton
60
of dry wood substance;
batch liquid: 4th fraction of
pressure below: 0.7 atm.;
0o
_
05
2
steaming from above up to 2
atm.; batch ?ows down;
05
2
-
preceding operation;
simultaneous steaming from
1o
below and evacuating from
?owing-oil‘ vof the batch; sepa
rated to 2nd fraction;
.
admission of a batch;
batch temperature: 60°;
7 pressure above: 0.45 atm.;
60
40
steaming from above up to 2
suction above up to pressure
_ 55
from
45
2
Repetition of the operations as
under 111/ (1)
1
suction
pressure above: 0.55 atm.;
pressure below: 0.8 atm.;
(5)
45
and
35
above;
temperature: ‘IO-75°.
40
30
size of batch: 1/2 cbm. per ton
of dry wood substance;
batch liquid: 3rd fraction of
pressure below: 0.7 atm.;
35
Repetition of the operations as
under 111/ ( 1)
25
above;
65
pressure above: 0.6 atm.;
temperature: 75-80°.
" pressure below: 0.9 atm.;
00
(6) '
3
--
05
steaming from above up to 2
.
Repetition of the operations as
under III/(‘1)
10
2
75
-
atm.; batch ?ows down;
‘
15'
'
3
suction above up to pressure
05v
--
70
10
?owing-on? of the batch; sep-.
arated to 2nd fraction;
temperature: 80-85°.
16
5
2,128,212
(9)
Repetition of the operations as
under 111/ (1)
- 5 Hr. Min. Hr. Min.
10
steaming from above up to 2
05
15
3
i:
10
?owing-off of batch; separat
suction’ above up to pressur
0.7 atm.;
15-4
ed to 3rd fraction;
(12)
10
Repetition of the operations as
under III/(1)
> ‘admission of a batch:
batch temperature: 65°;
size of batch: l/z chm. per ton
of dry wood substance:
batch liquid: 4th fraction from
10
suction above up to pressure
preceding operation;
15
simultaneous steaming from
below and evacuating from
above;
'
0.90 atm.;
15
20
admission of a batch;
'
batch temperature: ‘75°;
pressure below: 0.9 atm.;
size of batch: 1/2 ohm. per ton
20
of dry wood substance :
steaming from above‘ up" to 2
batch liquid: water;
.25
simultaneous steaming from
atm.; batch ?ows down:
25
below and evacuating from
30
?owing-oil? of batch: separat
ed to 3rd fraction;
temperature: 85-90".
25
above;
20
25
steaming from above up to 2
~ atm.; batch ?ows down;
25
30
30
?owing-off of batch: separat
under 111/ (1)
ed to 3rd fraction;
0.75 atm.;
35
‘
(13)
85
Repetition of the operations as
under 111/ (1)
40
admission oi’ a batch; ‘ -
batch temperature: 65°;
'
size of batch: V2 cbm. per ton
35
of dry wood substance;
batch liquid: 4th fraction from
40
preceding‘ operation;
_
suction above up to pressur
1.0 atm.;
above:
admission of a batch;
size oi’ batch: 1/: cbm. per ton
'
of dry wood substance;
, batch liquid: water;
pressure below: 1.0 atm.;
simultaneous steaming from‘
below and evacuating from
45
steaming from above up to 2
50
above;
atm.; batch flows down;
45
40
batch temperature: 80°;
‘ pressure above: 0.7 atm.;
40
'
35
simultaneous steaming from
below and evacuating from
45
,
temperature: 90-95".
suction above up to pressur
35
25
p; :ssure below: 1.1 atm.;
Repetition of the operations as
30
._
pressure above: 0.8 atm.;
(10)
30
15
20
pressure above: 0.65 atm.; -
20
'
temperature: 90-95".
.
20
10
atm.; batch ?ows down;
.
pressure above: 0.95 atm.;
pressure below: 1.3 atm.;
50
flowing-off of batch; separat
ed to 3rd fraction;
50
45
steaming from‘ above up to 2
temperature: 85-90".
atm.; batch ?ows down;
45
50
55
?owing-oil.’ of batch; separat
ed to 4th fraction;
Repetition of the operations as
60
temperature: 95-98".
’ under III/(1)
50
(14)
55
suctio'n above up to pressure
Repetition of the operations as
0.8 atm.;
55
65
‘
'00
-4
50
admission of a batch;
batch temperature: 70°;
70
' preceding operation;
simultaneous steaming from
below and evacuating from
above;
75
pressure above: 0.75 atm.;
pressure below: 1.0 atm.;
suction above up to pressure 55
.
size of batch: l/z cbm. per ton
of dry wood substance;
batch liquid: 4th fraction of
under III/(1)
55
1.1 atm.;
55
00
-5
‘ admission of a batch;
batch temperature: 80°;
size of batch: 1/2 cbm. of dry 70
wood substance;
batch liquid: water;
simultaneous steaming from
below and evacuating from
above;
2,128,212
’ The process possesses many advantages.
Hr. Min. Hr. Min.
00
05
5
steaming from above up to 2
atm.; batch ?ows down;
05
10
5
?owing-oi! of batch: separated
to 4th fraction;
temperature: 98°.
10
(15)
Repetition of the operations
as under III/(1)
15
10
15
5
‘
suction above up to pressure 1.1
atm.;
15
20
5
admission 01' a batch;
batch temperature: 80°;
size of batch: V2. cbm. per ton
of dry wood substance ;
batch liquid: water;
simultaneous steaming from
below and evacuating from
25
above;
pressure above: 1.0 atm.;
pressure below: 1.3 atm.;
30
20
25
5
steaming from above up to 2
atm.; batch ?ows down;
25
30
5
?owing-oil’ of the batch, sepa
rated to 4th fraction;
temperature: 98°.
35
5
suction above up to pressure 1.1
atm.;
35
40
5
admission of a batch;
_
batch temperature: 80":
size of batch: 1/2 cbm. per ton
of dry wood substance;
batch liquid: water;
simultaneous steaming from
below and evacuating from
above;
60
5
5
and leaving the vegetable material after each
batch of extraction medium has flowed there 50
through in a moist state surrounded by gases and
vapors.
55
to 4th fraction;
temperature: 98°.
vegetable material, withdrawing the medium
containing the extractives substantially imme
-
when working in accordance with the example
the following concentrations are obtained:
'
Per cent
Fraction 1 _____________ __tanning matter..-
2.8
Fraction 2 __________ __' ___________ ....do___._
1.9
Fraction 3 _______________________ __do____
70 Fraction 4
taining the extractives substantially immediately
after the percolation of the vegetable material,
?owing-off of batch; separated
50
_
successive batch of extraction medium being
smaller than that corresponding to the volume
of the vegetable material being treated and the
temperature thereof being lower than that of the 45
vegetable material, withdrawing the medium con
flowing individual batches of an extraction me
atm.; batch flows down;
—
ing individual batches of an extraction medium 40
through vegetable material in an extractor, each
dium through vegetable material in an extractor,
each successive batch of extraction medium be
ing smaller than that corresponding to the volume
of the vegetable material being treated and the
temperature thereof being lower than that of the 60
steaming from above up to 2
45
terial comprising intermittently and rapidly ?ow
material comprising intermittently and rapidly
45
5
‘
2. A process for the extraction of vegetable
pressure above: 1.1 atm.;
pressure below: 1.4 atm.;
40
ed 75% of the tanning matter in the oak wood as 30
tanning matter extract.
Since it is obvious that various changes and
modi?cations may be made in the above descrip
tion without departing from the nature or spirit
thereof, this invention is not restricted thereto 35
except as set forth in the appended claims.
1. A process for the extraction of vegetable ma
Repetition of the operations as
as under III/ (1)
30
gle extraction chamber. This is of special im
portance, if it is intended to utilize the residue
in the extraction chamber for some other pur
pose. The instant process also produces higher
degrees of concentration than have heretobefore
been obtained in the tanning matter industry.
When oak wood is used, the tanning matter eon—
tent of the crude extract, when it is worked up, 10
amounts to 2.8%, while heretofore in the tanning
matter industry the yield has been concentrations
of 1.5 to 2%. In the instant process, the time
of extraction has been very considerably short
ened by reason of the alternate action of liquid 15
and steam and the comparatively rapid passing
of the liquid through the material to be ex
tracted. In consequence, extract of particularly
good quality is obtained.
In the processes used prior to this inven
tion, the commercial products contained 45-50
parts of non-tanning matter for each 100 parts
of tanning matter. The product of the instant
invention contains approximately only 20—25
parts of non-tanning matter for each 100 parts 25
of tanning matter. Higher or lower yields may
be obtained in accordance with the length of
time during which the extraction is continued.
The speci?c example hereinbefore set forth yield
I claim:
(16)
40
It
permits the operations to be carried on in a sin
pressure above: 1.0 atm.;
pressure below: 1.3 atm.;
dn____
1.1
0.5
Only Fraction 1 is conveyed to the clearing
and evaporating station, Fractions 2, 3 and 4
being used for the additional enriching of the
liquor. Consequently, only a concentration of
75 2.8% of tanning matter is worked up.
diately after the percolation of the vegetable ma
terial, leaving the vegetabiematerial after each
batch of extraction medium has ?owed there 65
throughin a moist state surrounded by gases and
vapors, and increasing the pressure within the
extractor.
3. A process for the extraction of vegetable
material comprising intermittently and rapidly "-. O
?owing individual batches of an extraction me
dium through vegetable material in an extractor,
the pressure at the top of the extractor being less
than the pressure at the lower part of the ex
tractor and the temperature of the extraction 75
2,198,212
medium being lower. than that of the vegetable
material, causing the extraction ‘medium to ?ow
through said vegetable material, withdrawing the
medium containing the extractives, leaving the
vegetable material after each batch of extraction
medium has ?owed therethroughin a moist state
surrounded by gases and vapors, and successively
increasing both of said pressures proportionately
within the extractor prior to the introduction of
10 the next batch into the extractor.
4. A process for the extraction of vegetable
material comprising modifying the temperature
Within the extractor so that the vegetable mate
rial in the lower portion ‘of the extractor is at a
7
medium through vegetable material in an ex- "
tractor, the temperature of the extraction medium
being lower than the temperature of the vegetable
material, inhibiting the flow of the extraction
medium through the vegetable material until the
entire batch thereof has been introduced and
collected on top of the vegetable material, intro
ducing steam at a pressure higher than that with
in the extractor to facilitate the ?ow of the ex
traction medium through the vegetable material, 10
withdrawing the medium containing the extrac~
tives, and leaving the vegetable material after
at the upper part of the extractor, intermittently
each batch of extraction medium has flowed
therethrough in a moist state surrounded by gases
and vapors.
15
9. A process for the extraction of‘ vegetable»
and rapidly ?owing individual batches of an ex
material comprising modifying the temperature
traction medium through vegetable material in
within the extractor so that the vegetable mate
rial in the lower portion of the extractor is at a
15 higher temperature than the vegetable material
an extractor, each successive batch of extraction
20 medium being smaller than that corresponding
to the volume of the vegetable material being
treated and the temperature thereof being lower
than that‘ of the vegetable material, withdrawing
the extraction medium containing the extractives,
25 and leaving the vegetable material after each
batch of extraction medium has flowed there
through in a moist state surrounded by gases and
vapors.
'
5. A process for the extraction of vegetable
30 material comprising modifying the temperature
higher temperature than the vegetable material 20
at the upper part of the‘extractor, intermittently
and rapidly ?owing individual batches of an ex
traction medium through vegetable material in
an extractor, the temperature of theextraction
medium being lower than that of the vegetable 25
material, inhibiting the ?ow of the extraction
medium through the vegetable material until the
entire batch thereof has been introduced and
collected on top of the vegetable material, intro
ducing steam at a pressure higher than that 30
within the extractor to facilitate the ?ow of the
within the extractor so that the vegetable ma
terial in the lower portion of the extractor is at . extraction medium through the vegetable mate
a higher temperature than the vegetable mate— rial, withdrawing' the medium containing the ex
tractives, and leaving the vegetable material after
rial at the upper part of the extractor, inter
35 mittently and rapidly ?owing individual batches each batch of extraction medium has ?owed
of an extraction medium through vegetable therethrough in a moist state surrounded by
material in an extractor, the temperature of the gases and vapors.
10. A process for the extraction of vegetable
extraction medium being lower than that of the
vegetable material, withdrawing the extraction
material comprising intermittently and rapidly
the vegetable material‘after each batch of ex
?owing individual batches of an extraction me 40
dium through vegetable material in an extractor,
40 medium containing the extractives, and leaving
traction medium has ?owed therethrough in a
moist state surrounded by gases and vapors.
6. A process for the extraction of vegetable
45 material comprising intermittently-and rapidly
?owing individual batches of an extraction me
, dium through vegetable material in an extractor,
inhibiting the ?ow of each batch of extraction
medium through the vegetable material until the
50/ entire batch thereof has been introduced in the
extractor and collected on top'of the vegetable
the temperature of the extraction medium being
lower than that of the vegetable material, in—
creasing the pressures on and temperatures of
the extraction medium and the vegetable mate 45
rial in the same proportions, withdrawing the
medium containing the extractives, and leaving
the vegetable material after each batch of ex
traction medium has ?owed therethrough in a'
moist state surrounded by gases and vapors.
so
11. A process for the extraction of vegetable
material, withdrawing the medium containing
material comprising intermittently and rapidly
the extractives, and leaving the vegetable mate
?owing individual batches of an extraction me
rial after each batch of extraction medium has
dium through vegetable material in an extractor,
each succesive batch of extraction medium being 55
smaller than that corresponding to the volume
of the vegetable material being treated and the
temperature thereof being lower than that of the
vegetable material, introducing steam at a pres
sure higher than that within the extractor to 60
facilitate the flow of the extraction medium
through the vegetable material, increasing the
pressures on and temperatures of the extraction
55 ?owed therethrough in a moist state surrounded
by gases and vapors.
'
‘
'I. A process for the extraction of vegetable
material comprising intermittently and rapidly
?owing individual batches of an extraction
60 'medium through vegetable material in an ex
the temperature of the extraction
medium being lower than that of the vegetable
~ tractor,
material, inhibiting the ?ow of each batch of
65 extraction medium through the vegetable mate
medium and the vegetable material in the same
rial until the entire batch thereof has been intro
duced in the extractor and collected on top of
proportions, withdrawing the medium containing 65
the extractives, and leaving the vegetable mate
the vegetable material, withdrawing the medium’
containing the extractives,’ and leaving the vege
70 tablematerial after each batch of extraction
rial after each batch of extraction medium has
?owed therethrough in a moist state surrounded
by gases and vapors.
70
12. A process for‘ the extraction of vegetable
medium has ?owed therethrough in a moist state
surrounded by gases and vapors.
_
8. A process for the extraction of vegetable
material comprising intermittently and rapidly
75 ?owing individual batches of an extraction
material comprising intermittently and rapidly
?owing‘ individual batches of an extraction
medium through vegetable material in an ex
tractor, the temperature of the extraction me 15
8
anaemia
dium being lower than that of the vegetable
material, introducing steam at a pressure higher
than that within the extractor to facilitate the
?ow of the extraction medium through the vege
table material, increasing the pressures and tem
peratures o! the extraction medium and the
vegetable material in the same proportion, with
drawing the medium containing the extractives',
and leaving the vegetable material after each
batch of extraction medium has ?owed there
through in a moist state surrounded by gases and
vapors.
6
HEINRICH SCHOLLER.
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