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Патент USA US2123453

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July 12, 1938."
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‘_
'AV Q_ CATLAND ET AL _
CORE DRILL CONSTRUCTION
Filed Aug. >l1, 1957
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25,123,453
Patented July 12, 1938
2,123,453
UNITED STATES PATENT CFFICE
CORE DRILL oous'rnuo'rloriI
Alfred C. Catland, Alhambra, and Philip C.
Efromson, Whittier, Calif., assignors to Globe
Oil Tools Company, Los Nietos, Calif., a cor
poration of California
Application Aúgust 11, 1937, serial No.`15s,514
’ 15 claims.
This invention relates to well tools and relates
more particularly to a core drill for use in> the
rotary method of well drilling. A general object
of this invention is to provide 'a simplified, de
5 pendable and improved bit head construction for
Fig'. 6.
-
practical, effective, anti-friction bearing 'means
for mounting the roller cutters of a well core drill.
embodied in a core drill of the general character
Another object ofÍ this invention is to provide
a well core drill construction of the character
mentioned in which the roller cutters are sup
ported entirely by balls to rotate with a mini
mum of friction.
l i
Another object of this invention is to provide
a core drill construction of the character men
tioned in which the several parts of the cutter
mountings are securely and dependably fixed to
the head or body of the bit.
Anotherobject of this invention is to provide
20
a core drill construction vof the character men
tioned in which the assembly of a cutter, its sup
porting pin and its several bearing elements are
held against separation prior to being assembled
25 on the bit head whereby the cutter assembly may
be shipped, stored, handled and installed as a
unit.
Another object of this invention is to provide
a core drill construction of the character men
30 tioned embodying novel means for securing the
ends of the cutter bearing assemblies to the bitv
head.
A further object of this invention is to provide
a ball bearing mounting for the roller cutter of
35 a well tool in which the‘cutter is supported by
spaced rows of balls, both of which assume theend thrusts in both directions 4as well as -the
Y
side elevation of the sectional bushing of theA
4bearing means for one of the inner cutters, and
Fig. 7 is an end'vlew of the bushing shown in
The improved construction of the present in
vention may be embodied in core drills varying
considerably in character. In the following de
tailed description we will describe the invention
a core drill of the character mentioned.
. Another- object of this invention is to provide a
10
(ci. 25a-72)
radial thrusts.
` The various objects and features. of our inven
40 tion will be fully understood from the following
detailed description of a typical preferred form
and application of the invention, throughout
' which description reference is made to the ac
companying drawing, in which:
»
Fig. 1 isa central longitudinal detailed sectional
45
view` of the lower portion ofl a core drill embody
ing the present invention. Fig. 2 is a bottom
view of the drill showing the cutters in broken
lines. Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical
50 detailed sectional view illustrating one of the
outer cutters and its mounting. Fig. 4 is aview
similar to Fig. 3 showing one of the inner cut
ters and its mounting. Fig. 5v is a reduced side
l elevation of the C-washer of the bearing means»
55 for one of the inner cutters. Fig. 6 is a reduced
described and claimed in the copending applica l-10
tion Serial No. 95,513, filed by Alfred C. Catland
on August 12, 1936, for “Core drill”, which has
matured into Patent No. 2,093,633 granted Sept.
21, 1937. It is to be understood that the inven- tion is not to be construed as limited or restricted
to the speciilc'form or application about to be
described.
'
The core drill illustrated in the drawing in
cludes an outer barrel I0 to le connected with
the lower end -of a rotary well drilling string.
A bit head I I is threaded on the lower end of the
barrel IIJ. The bit head II ‘is tubular having a
central longitudinal opening I2 and the lower
portion of the head II embodies certain features
of the invention, as will be hereinafter described. 25
Spaced upwardly facing annular shoulders I3 and
lli are provided in the head opening I2. The
drill further includes an inner barrel I5 extend
ing longitudinally through the outer barrel I0
and adapted to receive the core.
A collar I6 is 30
ñxed on the lower end of the inner barrel I5 and
is received between the shoulder I4 and a down
wardly-facing shoulder I1 on the interior of the
outer 'barrel - I0~ ‘to rotatably support lthe inner
barrel I5' in the outer barrel. The inner barrel 35
I5 is spaced from the interior of the outer- barrel
I0 to leave an annular ñuid passage I8’ for con
ducting the circulation‘fluid downwardly. Ports
I9.are provided in the collar I6 to conduct the
circulation ñuid from the passage I8 to ports 20 40
in the head II.‘ The ports 20 discharge the circulation ñuld to the cutters of the drill, aswill
be subsequently described. A core catcher 2l
is arranged in the' head II to trap `and retain
' the
core.
The core catcher 2I is an annular 45
member or assembly and includes a plurality of
circumferentially spaced spring urged dogs 22
projecting inwardly to bite into the core.4 The
core catcher 2l is arranged between the shoulder
I3 and a downwardly facing shoulder 23 in the 50
collar I6.
In accordance with the invention the lower
-portion of the head II is formed to receive the
cutters and their mounting means. Spaced re
cesses 24 and 25 extend upwardly in the Wall of 55
2,123,453
the tubular head II from its lower end. The
inner and outer sides of the recesses 24 slope
downwardly and inwardly with respect to the
central longitudinal axis of the drill.l A tapered
boss 26 is provided on the inner wall of each re
cess 24 to increase the thickness of the inner
wall portion of the head `Il adjacent the recesses.
Notches 21 extend upwardly from the lower end
of the head Il in the inner wa‘ll portion of the
10 head to connector join the recesses 24 with the
head opening I2. The notches 21 have ñat sub
stantially vertical side walls. Similar flat walled
notches 28 are provided in the outer wall por
tions of the head Il and join or communicate
15 with the recesses 24. The upper walls of the
notches 21 and 28 are inclined downwardly and
vertical axis of the drill is flat and pitched with
respect to the axis of the pin. The pin 36 passes
through the opening 32 of the cutter A and is
considerably longer than the cutter.
The bushing 31 is assembled on the pin 36 and
extends through the cutter opening 32 'to project
`xieyond the opposite ends of the cutter. In ac
cordance with the invention the bushing 31 is ‘
sectionaland comprises an inner section 40, a
central section 4I and an outer section 42. The 10
bushing sections 40, 4I and 42 are tubular and
surround the pin 36. -The bushing sections 40,
4I and 42 are generally cylindrical and may be
of the same diameter. The several sections of
the bushing 31 are arranged in end to end rela 15
tion and the bushing is of the same length as
outwardly with respect to the central vertical the pin 36. The end of the section 40 at the
axis of the drill and the notches 21 and 28 are inner end of the pin 36 is fiat and has the same
radially aligned with respect `to said axis. The inclination as the end of the pin. The bushing
section 42 has its outer end in the same plane 20
20 recesses 25 are spaced between the spaced re
cesses 24 and their inner and outer walls are as the outer end of the pin 36. The inner bush
ing section 40 has two flat parallel side faces 43
flat and inclined downwardly and outwardly rel
ative to the vertical axis of the drill. A tapered extending inwardly from its inclined end. The
boss 29 is provided on the outer wall of each outer bushing section 42 has two similar ñat
25 recess 25 to increase the outer' wall portion of side faces 44 extending inwardly from its fiat 25
the head II at the recesses. Notches 38 extend outer end. The sections 40, 4| and 42 of the
_ upwardly from the bottom of the head I I in said- bushing 31 are arranged in abutting relation and
outer wall portions of the head and join the in the preferred construction tapered bosses 45
recesses 25. The side walls of the notches 3D are are provided on the ends of the central section
30 flat and substantially vertical. Notches 3I are 4I and are received in sockets in the inner ends 30
provided in the inner wall portions of the head of the sections 40 and 42.
v It is an important feature of the invention that.
II and connect the recesses 25 with the head>
the sectional bushing 31 is secured or retained
opening I2. The notches 3l have flat substan
tially vertical walls and the notches 30 and 3l on the pin 36 against displacement therefrom
whereby the cutter A and' its bearing means 35
35 are substantially\radially aligned. The upper
may be handled, shipped and installed as a unit.
walls of the notches 30 and 3| are inclined down
.wardly and inwardly with respect to the central The inner and outer ends of the pin 36 are peened
over or riveted over at 46 and 41 respectively to
vertical axis of the drill.
>
The improved core drill construction of the cooperatewith the contiguous ends of the bush
40 present invention includes, generally, inner roller ing sections 40 and 42, respectively.' If desired, 40
cutters A, bearing means for rotatably mounting the outer ends of the bushing sections 4|) and 42
the cutters A in the recesses 24, outer roller may be Aslightly counter-bored to receive the riv
cutters B and bearing means for rotatably eted over parts 46 _and 41. 'The peened over or
mounting the cutters B in the recesses 25. We riveted over end parts 46 and 41 of the pin 36
will first proceed with a detailed description of cooperate with the bushing sections 40 and 42 .45
to maintain the assembly of the several bushing
one of the cutters A and its bearing means.
sections in proper end to end relation on the
The cutters -A are provided to assist in mak
ing an annular cut in the earth formation at the pin 36.
'I'he bushing 31 is- provided with races to op
bottom‘of the well boreand serve to trim the
50 core for reception in the head opening I2. The pose the races 35 on the interior of the cutter A. 50
'I‘he outermost corner of the inner bushing sec
several cutters A may be identical and the follow
ing description is equally applicable to all of tion 40 and the abutting comer of the central
bushing section 4I have annular grooves which
the cutters A. The cutter A has a central longi
tudinal opening 32 and the ends _of the cutter A register to form a ball race 48. The ball race
55 are preferably fiat. Thecutter A is cylindrical 48 is partially cylindrical in cross section and 55
and is provided with suitable peripheral cutting directly opposes -one of the races 35. The cor
parts or teeth 33. A central tapered socket 34 is ners of the sections 4I and 42 at their abutting
provided in the inner end of the cutter A. In ends are provided with annular grooves which
accordance with the invention axially spaced ball
60 races are provided in the wall of the cutter
opening 32. In the preferred construction illus
trated there are two spaced ball races 35 in the
wall of the cutter opening 32.- The races 35 are
partially` circular in cross section and are- of
substantial depth.
v
register to form a ball race 49. The ball race
43 is partially cylindrical 'in cross section and , 60
directly opposes the other race 35 on the interior
of the cutter A.
The balls 38 rotatably mount or support the
cutter A on the sectional bushing 31. The balls
38 are arranged in the pairs or sets of opposing 65
.The bearing means for.`rotatably«supporting -races 35'and 48 „and 35 and 43. The races 35
the inner cutters A each includes, generally, a
pin 36, a sectional bushing 31 on the pin 36 and
series of balls 38 cooperating with the races 35
and the bushing 31 to rotatably support the cut
and 48 and 35 and 49 are shaped to accurately
conform to thevballs 38 whereby the load ca
pacity of the bearing is increased. Owing to the
depth of the races 35, 48 and 4l, the rows or 70
ter A.
series of balls 38 assume the end thrusts in both
directions, as well as the radial thrusts. Thus
'
The bearing pin 36 may be a lsimple cylindrical
member, as illustrated. The pin 36 is preferably
. uniform in diameter throughout its length. The
75 inner end of the pin 36 relative to the central
the cutter A is supported solely or entirely by the
balls 38. A notch 50 is provided in the central
bushing section .4I and communicates with the,
3
2, 128,458
race 48 to facilitate the insertion of the balls 38
ing 56. A tapered socket 51 is provided in the
in the opposing race 35.
outer end of each cutter B to receive a boss 29.
In accordance with the invention spaced ball
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-
In assembling the cutter A and its bearing a
series of balls 38 may be arranged in the outer
most race 35 and the bushing sections 4I and 42
inserted in the cutter opening 32 from its oppo
site ends whereby the balls are properly retained
in the races 49 vand 35. The balls 38 are then
races 58 are provided in the cutters B. In prac-tice there may be two spaced ball races 58 pro
vided in the wall of each cutter opening 56. The
races 58 are partially circular in cross section
and are of substantial depth.
successively inserted through4 the notch 58 into
_
The bearing means for rotatably supporting
10 the other race 35 and when the required number
the outer cutters B are very similar to the means
of balls has been arranged in place the bushing for supporting the inner cutters A. We will pro
section 40 is inserted ln the cutter opening 32 to' ceed with a description of the bearing means for
complete the race 48._ 'I'he end parts 46 and 41 >supporting one of thevouter cutters B. it being
of the pin 36 may then be peened over or riv
understood that such description is equally ap
15 eted over to secure the bushing sections 48, 4I t plicable to the bearing means of the other cut
and 42 against endwise movement- and separation. ters B.
,
The balls 38 cooperating with the opposing races
The means for rotatably supporting an outer
35 and 48, and 35l and 49, hold the cutter A cutter B includesa pin 66, a sectional bushing 6|
against longitudinal movement and the end parts on the pin and balls 62 cooperating withthe races
46 and 4-1 of _the pin‘36 hold the bushing 31 58 and the bushing 6 I. The pin 68 is preferably a 420
Aagainst displacement from the pin. Thus the simple; cylindrical member of uniform diameter.
several parts of the assembly are secured against The ends of the pin 68 are flat and the outer end
separation whereby the assembly may be readily >of the pin is pitched to be substantially vertical
handled as a unit.
when the cutter assembly is in place on the head
25
vThe invention provides simple yet very de
II. The inner end of the pin 68 is pitched to be
penda-ble means for securing the bearing of the inclined downwardly and outwardly when the
cutter A to the head II. The assembly of the cutter assembly is secured in place on the head I I.
The bushing 6I is sectional and comprises an
cutter A and its bearing assembled in the form
of a unit, as described' above, is moved upwardly . outer section 63, a central section 64 and an in
30 relative to the head II to enter the cutter A in ner section 65. The sections 63, 64 and 65 are i30
one of the recesses 24. When the cutter is thus tubular and surround the pin 68. The sections
entered in the recess v24 the projecting portion 63, 64 andY 65 are generally cylindrical and of
of the bushing section 42 is received in the notch uniform diameter. The outer end of thesection
28 and the projecting portion of `the bushing sec
63 is pitched to lie in the same plane as the outer
35 tion 48 is received\in the notch 121. The ñat sur
end of the pin 6I). The section 64 has its exposed
faces 34 and 44 may shiftably or slidably engage end pitched to lie in the same plane as the inner
the fiat side walls of the notches 21 and 28. The end of the pin 60. The sections of the bushing
cutter assembly or unit is moved upwardly to. 6I are arranged in abutting end to end relation.
bring the bushing sections 48 and 42 against the In accordance .with the invention the sectional
inclined upper walls of the notches 21 and 28. bushing 6I is locked or retained on the pin 68 i
The cutter assembly is then moved inwardly so . whereby the cutter and bushing assembly may be
that the socket 34 receives the boss 26. A wash
handled-A as a unit. The pin 6I) has end parts 6I]a
er 5I is provided to occupy-the space between and Bub'peened over or riveted over to engage the
the outer end of the cutter A and the adjacent exposed ends of the bushing sections 63 and 65,
45 wall of the recess 24. The washer 5I is in the na ï respectively. The riveted over parts 60ß and 68h
ture of a C-washer so that it may be readily of the pin 60 prevent endwise displacement of the
passed upwardly over the bushing section 42. lbushing 6I from the pin. The sectional bushing
6I is longer than the cutter B and the projecting
s When the cutter assembly and the washer 5I are
in place the unoccupied portions of the. notches portions of the sections 63 and 65 are received in
the notches 38 and 3I.~ The bushing sections 63
50 21 and 28 are ñlled with welds 52 and 53, respec
tively. The weld 52 securely connects the pin 36 and 65 preferably have flat side surfaces for
and the section 40 to the inner wall portion of cooperating with the side walls of the notches 38
.
~ the head II while the weld 53 rigidly secures the and 3l.
Registering grooves are provided in the cor
C-washer 5I, the bushing section 42 and the pin
36 to the outer wall portion of the head II. The ners of the abutting ends of the sections 63 and ¿
welds 52 and 53 may be ground or machined oil’ ' 64 to form an annular ball race 66. 'I'he ball race
smooth with the adjacent surfaces of the'head I I. 66 directly opposes one of the races 58 in the cut
ter B. The corners of the abutting ends of the
'I'he bushing sections 40 and 42 engage upward
ly against inclined upper walls of the notches sections 64 and 65 have registering grooves which
60 21 and 28 so .that the cutter»A secured to the
form -an annular ball race 61 directly opposing
head II, as just described, is rotatable about an the other ball race 58. 'I'he races 66 and 61 are
‘ axis inclined downwardly and outwardly relative partially circular in cross section and are of sub-f
to the vertical axis of the drill. The cutter A is stantial. depth. The balls 62 are provided in the. ‘
sets or pairs of opposing races 58 and 66 and
mounted to project downwardly beyond the low
65 er end‘of the headV II and to project inwardly
58 and 61 and serve to rotatably support the cut Á65
somewhat at the lower end of the opening I2 to «ter B on the sectional bushing 6I. The opposing
assist in making the annular cut in the earth
races are of such depth that the balls 62 transmit `
the end thrusts in both directions as well as the
formation and to trim the core for reception in
the- drill.
70
'
'
radial thrusts. A notch 18 is preferablyv provided
in the section 64 to facilitate the assembly of the 70
,
The outer cutters B are provided to cut the well
bore to gauge. The cutters B'are frusta-conical
having tapered or pitched peripheries. Suitable
cutting teeth 55 are provided on the frusta-coni
cal cutters B. The cutters B. have ñat ends and
7,5 each is_ provided with a central longitudinal open
balls 62 in the adjacent race »58.
v
y
,
.
When the cutter B is to be assembled on the
head II the cutter-unit or the assembly of the
cutter and its bearing is moved upwardly relative
to the head II to enter the cutter B in a recess
4
2,123,453
2l and to enter the protruding flat sided portions
parts on the pin holding the bushing against dis
oi' the bushing sections 63 and 65 in the notches
placement from the pin.
4. In a well drilling tool, an assembly adapted
3l and 3l, respectively. The cutter assembly is
then moved outwardly to a position where the
boss 2l is properly received in the recess 54. It
is to be understood that the cutter B has proper
clearance with the boss 29 and the walls of the
recess 25 when in the iinal position. 'I'he pro
truding portions of the bushing sections 63 and
Il are engaged against the inclined upper walls of
the notches 30 and Il. A c-washer B9 is provided
to occupy the spacebetween the inner end of
the cutter B and the inner wall of the recess 25.
The 4ß-washer 89 is readily passed upwardly
to be handled as a unit comprising a cutter hav
ing an opening, a pin passing through the open
ing, a sectional bushing on the pin, there being
opposing ball races in the bushing and the inte
rior of the cutter, balls cooperating with races
to rotatably support- the4 cutter, the races being
of such depth that the balls transmit end thrusts 10
between the bushing and cutter, and riveted over
parts on the pin holding the bushing against
displacement from the pin.
5. In a well drilling tool, an assembly adapted
around the bushing section 65 to engage against
to be handled as a unit comprising a cutter hav-‘-
the wall of the recess 25 and to have proper clear- -
ing an opening, a pin passing through the open
ance with the cutter B. When the cutter assem
ing, a sectional bushing on the pin, there being
bly is in its proper position the unoccupied por
tions of the notches 30 and 3i are iilled with welds
'Il and 1|, respectively. The weld 10 rigidly se
cures or bonds the bushing section 63 and the
pin l0 with the outer wall portion of the head I l
while the weld 1I ilxes the washer 69, the bushing
section I8 and the pin I0 to the inner wall por
opposing ball races in the bushing and the in
terior of the cutter, balls cooperating with the
races to rotatably support the cutter, and end 20
parts on the pin riveted over against the‘ends
of the bushing.
tion o! the head Il. `The welds ‘I0 and 1I may be
finished to be iiush with the adjacent surfaces of
6. A well drilling tool comprising a body, a
cutter having an opening, a ball bearing in the
opening rotatably supporting the cutter and as 25
suming end thrusts from the cutter in both di
the head Il.
rections, and welding securing the bearing to
»
It is believed that the' utility and practica
bility of the drill construction provided by this
invention will be readily apparent from the
foregoing detailed description. The cutters A
and B are supported entirely by the sets or series
of balls 38 and 62 to rotate with a minimum of
friction. The bearing vassemblies are securely
welded in the notches of the head Il to posi
tively prevent loss or displacement of the bear
_ ing parts and cutters. The cutter and bearing
assemblies may be assembled at the place of
manufacture and constitute units that may be
shipped, handled and installed with ease. These
cutter and bearing assemblies may be properly.
p assembled ~at the place of manufacture to accu
rately tit the drill head Il.Having described only a typical preferred form
and application of our invention, we do not wish
to be limited or restricted to the speciñc details
herein set forth, but wishA to reserve to our
selves any variations or modifications that may
appear to those skilled in the art or fall within
the scope of the following claims:
Having described our invention. we claim:
1. A cutter unit in a well drilling tool com
` prising„a cutter having an opening, a pin pass
ing through the opening, a bushing on the pin,
balls rotatably supporting the cutter on the
bushing, and riveted over parts on the pin hold
ing the bushing on thepin whereby the assembly
the body.
_
7. A well drilling tool comprising a body, a
cutter having an opening, a pin extending into 30
the opening, a bushing on the pin, balls rotat
ably supporting the cutter on the bushing, and a
Weld securing the pin to the body.
8. A well drilling tool comprising a body, a
cutter having an opening, a pin extending into 35
the opening, a bushing on the pin, balls rotatably
supporting ‘the cutter on the bushing, and a Weld
securing the bushing to the body.
9. A well drilling tool comprising a body, a
cutter having an opening, a pin extending into 40
the opening, a bushing on the pin, balls rotatably
supporting the cutter on the bushing, and a weld
securing the pin and bushing to the body.
10. A well drilling tool comprising a body hav
ing spaced supports, a cutter between the sup 45
ports having an opening, a pin extending
through the opening, a ball bearing on the pin
rotatably supporting the cutter, and welds secur
ing the bearing to the supports.
11. A well drilling tool comprising a body hav 50
ing spaced supports, a cutter between the sup
ports
having ’ an
opening,
a pin
extending
through the opening, a sectional bushing on the
pin, balls cooperating with the bushing and the
cutter rotatably supporting the cutter and trans 55
mitting the end thrusts between the cutter and
bushing, and welds securing ¿the pins to the
may be handled as a unit.
12. In a. well drill, spaced supports having
2. A cutter unit for a well drilling tool coxn- ’ openings, a cutter between the supports having
60
prising, a cutter having an opening, a pin pass
an opening, a bearing extending through the
ing through the opening, a bushing on the pin,
balls rotatably supporting the cutter on the
bushing and transmitting both the end thrusts
and the radial thrusts between the bushing and
cutter, and parts on the pin at the ends of the
bushing peened over to hold the bushing on the
opening in the cutter and having its end portions
received in the first mentioned openings, balls
rotatably supporting the cutter on the bearing,
and welds securing the said bearing portions in 65
the said first mentioned openings.
'
13. In a well drill, spaced supports having
notches, a cutter between the supports having
Din.
3. In a well arming tool', an assembly adapœd--- an opening, a pin extending through the open
-to‘be handled as a unit comprising a cutter ha ing, a bushing on the pin h'aving its end portions 70
ing an opening, a pin passing through the open
received in the notches, the bushing and cutter
` ing, a sectional bushing on the pin, there being opening having opposed races, balls in the races
opposing ball races in the bushing and the' inf
rotatably supporting the cutter, and welding se
terior of the cutter, balls cooperating with races- curing the said end portions of the bushing in
75
'
to rotatably support the cutter, and riveted over the notches. _
1i. in e, wel! drill, spaced >supports having
notches, o cutter between the _supports having an
opening, a. pin extending through the opening, a
bushing on the pin having its end portions re»
ceived in the notches, the bushing and cutter
opening having opposed races, balls in the races
ceivedl in the notches, the bushing ond cutter
opening having opposed races, balls in the races»
rotatably supporting the cutter, a washer on the
bushing between one of saidsupportsand the
cutter, e weld in the notch of said support secur
ing the washer and the adjacent end portions of
rototably supporting the cutter, and Weids in the ’ the bushing and pin to said support, and n weld
notches securing the end por-tions oi’ the pin and
said end portions of the bushing to the supports.
10
l5. In o. well drill, spaced supports having
notches, a.. cutter between the supports having
an opening, a pin extending through the opening,
a bushing on the pin having its end portions re
in the notch of the other support >ëseclii‘ing the
adjacent enel portions of the bushing ond pin to
said other support.
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