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Патент USA US2123473

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July 12, 1938.
A. F. MESTON
2,123,473
ELECTRODE RAP-PING
Filed Aug. 28, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Swag/144M:
Maw/MSW
Patented July 12, ‘1938
2,123,473
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,123,473
‘
Emerson]; RAPPING
_
'
,
Archibald F. Meston, Middlesex, N. rJ.,'assignor-to
Research Corporation, New York, N. Y., a cor
poration of New York
~
Application‘ August 28, 1936, Serial No. ‘98,418
12 Claims. (01. 183-?)
This invention relates to electrodes for appa
ratus commonly referred to as electrical precip
itators and utilized for removing suspended par
ticles from ?uids. It is particularly directed at
5 improvements in the suspending and jarring of
‘Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of an assembly
comprising discharge electrodes, a supporting
frame, and means for supporting and jarring
the electrodes in accordance with the invention;
Figs. 2 and 3 are fragmentary views in side 5
electrodes to bring about the dislodgement of the elevation and plan, respectively, of an alternate
material that is electrically deposited on the , suspension for the assembly shown in Fig. 1;
surfaces of the electrodes.
It is common practice at the present time,
10 where it is desirable to remove the deposits in
dry condition, to pass scraping means across the
Figs. 4 and 5 are diagrammatical views of the
assembly shown in Fig. 2 to illustrate the utiliza
tion of the forces that jar the assembly;
Figs. 6 and 7 are fragmentary views in side
surfaces upon which material has been deposited, ‘ elevation and plan respectively of a further sus
or to rap ‘the electrodes by striking them with
hammers or similar jarring means with manual
15 ly or mechanically operated mechanisms, or to
lift them a short distance and then let them
drop upon suitable anvils.
‘
Scrapers that operate satisfactorily are com
plicated and expensive and usually necessitate
pension for the assembly shown in Fig. 1; and
Fig. 8 is a side elevational' viewvof a further
modi?cation of the means for supporting and 16
jarring the electrodes in accordance with the in
vention.
'
'
The discharge electrode assembly identi?ed
20 shutting 011" the power before they can be op
by numeral 80 in Fig. 1 comprises a frame‘ 8| ,
erated. Where rappers have been used it has
been customary to have them directed at one orv
‘two points on the frame of the electrode where
it is structurally able to sustain repeated shocks.
25 But the vibrations imparted at these local posi
taining member 82 attached to member 8|’ and -
tions are seldom severe enough to produce move
ment over the entire surface of the stiffened elec
trode. Most ‘electrodes are made up of several
members ofdi?erent weight and shape ‘and nodes
30
with horizontal top member 8|’, a bearing re
carrying a [bearing with pin 93, and anvil pads
85 and 88. Assembly 80 depends from a struc
ture 84, electrically insulated from. grounded
parts by means not shown, by link 83, with ro- 25
tatable means, such as pins, at 93 and 94 allow¢
ing movement of link 83. In the operation of
electrical preoipitators, the discharge electrodes
are usually maintained at high potential above
‘
of little movement with ‘relation to- vibrations set ground. All members in contact with assembly 30
up at distant points commonly exist. At such 88 must, therefore, be insulated from the
nodes the ‘removal of the deposit is not satisfac- ‘ grounded shell and the collecting electrodes com- ‘
tory.
Y
prising theprecipitator of which assembly. 80
It is an object of the present invention to pro
is a part. ‘To ful?ll this requirement, the bear
35 vide means for imparting vibrations toan elec-_ ings supporting the cam shaft which revolves'35
trode or electrode assembly in such manner that
several trains of effective vibrations will pro
ceed over the surface of the electrode from sev
cam 87 are mounted on insulators 89 and re
straining member 88 is mounted on insulators 9|],
a fragmentary portion'of one of each of these
eral points thus eliminating the possibility of a insulators being shown in Fig. 6.
‘
40 node existing at any point on the electrode
Where it is desired to save head room, sup 40
‘throughout the rapping cycle.
,
porting structure 84 can be lowered by using the _
Another object of the invention is to provide construction shown in Figs. 2 and 3. 'In this
a movably pivoted support for an electrode so
that the electrode can be readily moved, rapped
45 and vibrated in a manner conducive to the re
.moval of material clinging thereto.
Still another object of the invention is to pro
vide an improved mechanism‘ for imparting
movement to an electrode so that especially ef
50 fective jarring is furnished for removal of de
posits from the surface of the electrode.
The‘ manner of realizing the above mentioned
and further objects of the invention is set forth,
in the description that follows. relerence‘being
55 had to the appended drawings in which:
construction, member 8|’ of fr'ame 8| is made up
of two pieces 8|a and 8 lb joined by a structurally
strong sleeve 92 with a hole in the bottom to 45
let dust fall through. Bearings held in the sides
of‘ pocket 92 near the bottom thereof support pin
93 to which link 83 is fastened and about which
it may rotate.
'
In the’ form of suspension shown in.-Figs. 6 and 50 .
7, as in those shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the elec
trode member is supported for pivotal movement _
about a movable pivot‘point symmetrically posi
tioned with respect to the electrode. '
' In this construction the topmember 8|’ of the 55 -
2,128,478
2
electrode frame has fastened thereto a member
05, bent at right angles at its upper end to form
a bearing for roller 06 which runs in curved track
31 supported directly upon the roof 30 of the
member I03 receives oil for- the bearing of pin
I02.
An anvil I20 is provided to receive blows from
hammer head I24 mounted on collecting plate
IOI. Anvil I20 is shown of wedge shape and is
arranged to slide over tapered plate I2I fastened
to structural members I22. By raising anvil I20,
The manner in which the invention as em
bodied in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 functions will now be the distance between the anvil and hammer I24
explained with reference to Figs. 4 and 5. As is increased. This change is brought about by 10
cam 81 is rotated to bring the “high" surface of rotation of cam member I26, mounted on ‘shaft
I21, in slot I28 in anvil head I29.
the cam in contact with pad 85 on frame 8|, the
Hammer head I25 fastened to the bottom cor
electrode assembly 80 moves to one side. The.
ner of plate I M is positioned to strike against
force now acting in link 83, represented in di
agram A by 0 may be considered the resultant _ anvil I3I mounted against tapered member I32
on structural member I33. Anvil I3I is fastened 15
15 of the force of gravity pulling directly down
precipitator. The electrode is displaced from its
normal position by means of double cam 38.
wards as represented by a and a horizontal com
ponent, due to the action of the cam, as repre
sented by b. The electrode frame proper hangs
vertically and the force- acting upon it belowv
20 pin 93 is that of gravity represented by arrow B.
Now when the high point of cam 81 slips off
pad 85, the forces are no longer in equilibrium
and the unbalanced horizontal pull on pin 93
represented by 12 causes the top end of the frame
25 to move quickly towards cam 81 and hit strongly
the bottom surface of the cam. The bottom end
of the frame, because of inertia, does not move
over simultaneously with the top end with the
result that the center of gravity of the mass mak
30 ing up the electrode assembly is now off center
with regard to a perpendicular line passing
through point of suspension 93 and integrated
forces with a horizontal component represented
by e in diagram C pull the bottom of the frame
as
over and cause it to strike stop 88., In fact, a
set of jerky, oscillatory, movements are set up
which cause the frame to strike ?rst at 81 and
then at 88.
in position with one or more tap bolts I34 pro
jecting through a slot in members I32 and I33.
After loosening bolt I34, tapered anvil I3I can
be raised or lowered to change the distance be
tween members I25 and I3I. When a suitable 20
position for the anvil is found, bolt I34 can be
tightened and locked by well known methods.
The operation of the mechanism is as follows.
Shaft I01 is revolved causing cam I06 to push
end I03’ of displacement bar I03 to one side,
and moving plate IOI in the opposite direction
a distance, ordinarily, of less than two inches,
depending upon length of plate and intensity of
rapping desired, until end I03’ slips off the high
point of cam I06 and permits the plate to return .30
towards and.overswing its free hanging position.
The top of the plate moves over ?rst due to the
horizontal component of the forces acting upon
pin I02. Hammer I24 strikes anvil I20 a strong
blow, then rebounds, and hammer I25 comes
over and hits anvil I3I. The plate soon comes
to rest usually leaning against one or both of
The support shown in Figs. 6 and 7 operates
the anvils, depending upon their position, but
will be moved horizontally again and prepared
' in the same manner as that ‘described for Figs.
for another series of blows as cam I06 turns
‘ 1, 2 and 3, except that the pivot point of the
.electrode suspension moves along curved track
31 when the electrode is moved to one side by
the cam 99 or other means. The resulting forces
may be represented by diagram similar to Figs.
7 and 8 and a. similar series of jerky, oscillatory
motions will be set up.
By the use of the un
symmetrical double cam as shown, the electrode
is alternately given a relatively strong rap at
the top and a weak rap at the bottom, and then
a relatively weak rap at the top and a strong
rap at the bottom.
Fig. 8 shows a modi?cation of the invention as '
applied to an electrical precipitator unit of the
type disclosed in U. S. Patent No. 2,040,378, of
Hedberg et al.
In the ?gure each collecting electrode plate
IOI is depended from a structural element I04 by
a rigid member I03 fastened to the plate by a
rotatable pin member I02 and to member I04 by
against bar end I03’. The frequency of rapping
may be from 2 to 60 or more times per minute
but 6 to 10 times per minute may be expected to
give good results, in most dust collecting prob:
ems.
It has been found that when the top of the
plate raps strongly the bottom does not swing
over and receive an equally strong rap but if the
top anvil, member I20 in Fig. 12, is positioned
well away from‘ hammer I24 and these members
come together gently or not at all there is a
vigorous return of the top of the plate and a
vigorous swing of the bottom plate towards anvil
I3 I. To realize to the utmost this discovery shaft
I26 is revolved at one half the speed of shaft I01 55
which causes the withdrawal of anvil I 20 every
other swing of the plate and causes a vigorous
rap to be imparted alternately to the top and to
the bottom of the plate.
In the ?gure‘attenuated members I39 are dis 60
charge
electrodes supported by cantilever mem
another rotatable pin I05. Displacing member
I03 extends upwards beyond pin I05 and the bers I40 which in turn are supported by frame
end of this extension I03’ contacts a cam I06
rotated by a cam shaft I01.
This operating
mechanism is supported above the precipitator
roof H0 in a small compartment I08 here shown
as a lean-to on the end of the high voltage in
sulator compartment II3. ’A small slot
(which can be closed by a ?exible boot, say, of
70 leather or asbestos cloth) provides the only open
I , ing between compartments I08 and H2 thus per
' mitting the operating mechanism to be kept in
a clean atmosphere where it is readily accessible
through- cover plate III for inspection, lubri
75, cation and repairs. An oil cup II4 mounted on
“I.
Frame I“ which may serve as a support
for other discharge electrodes, not shown, de
pends by vertical tube I42 from a high tension 65
frame I44.
Insulating bushing I43 serves as a
closure for the opening between chamber H2
and insulating compartment I I3.
It will be seen that a common characteristic
of the electrode supporting and rapping devices 70
of the present invention is that the electrode is
supported from a movable pivot point positioned
substantially symmetrically on or in the center
line of gravity of the electrode so that the elec
trode is normally supported in a de?nite and pre 75
.
3,123,473
‘tioned to be struck by said electrode in succasion' I
displaced from the normal position and then re
leased because of the movement of the pivot
‘7. In an electrical precipitator, an electrode,
means supporting‘ said electrode comprising a
single movable-pivot, anvil means positioned ad
jacent said electrode and means for periodically
point, the‘ return movement of the electrode is
not simple but of a gyratory nature and makes
possible the delivering of a succession of blows
at different points on the electrode.
10
3 .
determined position without the use of other po
sitioning or supporting means,-but upon being
I_claim:
-
single movable pivot and anvil means positioned
adjacent said electrode and means for displac
, ing said electrode from its normal position and
v15 for suddenly releasing it from its displaced po
sition.
2. In an electrical precipitator, an electrode,
means supporting said electrode comprising a
_ single movable pivot symmetrically positioned
20 with respect to the eleptrcde and a member con
necting the electrode with the pivot, anvil means
positioned adjacent said electrode and means for
displacing said electrode from its normal posi
tion and for suddenly releasing'it from its dis
'
.
I
. 5
displacing said electrode from its normal posi
tion and for suddenly releasing it from its dis- _
placed position.
‘
1. In- an electrical precipitator, an electrode,
means supporting said electrode ‘comprising -a
placed position.
at a plurality of points thereon.
-
8. In an electrical precipitator, anelectrode, 10'
means supporting said electrode comprising a
movable pivot and a member connecting the V
electrode with the pivot, anvil means positioned
adjacent said'electrode, means forperlodically
altering the position of one of said anvil__means 15
with respect to the electrode‘and means for pc
riodically displacing said electrode from its nor
mal position and vifor suddenly releasing it from
its displaced position,
-
’
~
9. In an'electrical precipitator, an- electrode, 20
means i, supporting said electrode for gyratory
movement, comprising a single supporting mem
ber, a movable pivot connecting said supporting
‘member'to the electrode,‘ said pivot being posi
tioned away from and vertically above the center 25
3. In an electrical precipitator, an electrode, ‘of mass of the ‘electrode.
means supporting said electrode comprising a
10. In an electrical precipitator, an electrode,
single movable pivot, a plurality of anvil means Hanvil means positioned adjacent said electrode,
positioned adjacent saidaele'ctrode at least one of V means for displacing said electrode from its nor
30 said anvil. means being adjustable in. position
mal position and suddenly releasing it from its so "
' with respect to the electrode and means for dis
displaced position, and means supporting said.
placing said‘electrode from its normal position electrode, comprising a single supporting mem
and {or suddenly releasing it from itsrdisplaced ‘ her, a movable pivot connecting said supporting
member to the electrode, said pivot being posi- s5, 4. In an electrical-precipitator,‘ an electrode, tioned away from and vertically above the cen
'
position.
.
means supporting said electrode comprising a ter of mass of the electrode.
single movable pivot and a member connecting
11. 'In an electrical precipitator,- an electrode, the electrode with the pivot, a plurality of anvil " means supporting said electrode comprising a
means positioned adjacent said electrode, means single movable pivot positioned ‘away from the
for periodically altering the position of one oi center'of mass 01' the electrode, anvil means po—"
said anvil ‘means with respect to the electrode and sitioned adjacent said electrode, and means for
_ means for displacing said electrode‘ from its nor
mal position andior suddenly releasing it Irorn
its displaced position.
45
1
.
displacing said electrode from its- normal posi-.
tion and for suddenly releasing it from‘ its dls-_
placed position.
v
r
-
.5. In an electrical precipitator, an electrode,‘ ’ 12.‘ A method oi’ cleaning an electrode or an
means, supporting said‘ electrode for movement ‘electrical precipitator which comprises suspend- '
about a single pivot, means supporting said pivot ing the electrode from a single movable point. .
for movement, anvil means positioned adjacent ‘ moving the electrode laterally by a force acting
" said electrode, and means for displacing said
adjacent the top 01' the. electrode, the stress in ‘
50. electrode and for suddenly releasing it from its said force balancing the horizontal component
displaced position.v .
_
set up in the suspending means due to displace 50
6.1a an electrical precipitator, an electrode,
' ‘a supporting member'pivctally connected to said ~
electrode, meansiplvotally carrying said support
55 ing member, ‘means for e?ecting pivotal motion
of said supporting member whereby said elec
trode is displaced from its normal position and
vfor releasing said electrode from its displaced po
sition, and a plurality or anvil members posi-l'
ment of the electrode,‘ releasing said electrode
from its displaced position thus "causing said
horizontal‘component inpthe suspension means to
act upon the top of the electrode quickly pulling
it‘ laterally back towards its original position and
causing the bottgm' or the electrode to follow with .
a whip-like motion.
r. uns'ron.
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