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Патент USA US2123474

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Patented July 12,1938
e
»
‘
2,123,474
UNITED STATES’ PATENT OFFICE
2,123,474
MULTI-PLY FABRIC
Frank R. Redman, Yardley, Pa.
No Drawing. Application‘ April 1, 1937, Serial
No. 134,458. In Great Britain April 15, 1936
13 Claims. ' (01. 154-46)
This invention relates to a multi~ply fabric,
and more particularly it‘ relates to a multi-ply
parel such as collars, and method of making
same”, in which at least one of. the fabric plies
fabric for use in articles subjected to repeated
thereof has its threads‘set' and bonded together
laundering.
by an adherent substance, such as starch or pref
‘ 'I
The principal object of the present invention
‘
erably a water-insoluble material, to render the 5
is to provide a multi-ply fabric for use in articles
fabric substantially non-shrinking and non
subjected to repeated 1aundering,‘such as collars,
‘ cuffs, bosoms, and the like,‘ which may be easily
stretching, the ‘plies of the multi-ply fabric be_
ing bonded together by a thermoplastic resinous
‘ laundered and ironed, and which will remain
material applied to said pre-set fabric, of such
.10 substantially una?ected in color after the laune
derings to which the apparel is normally subjected,
‘
characteristics that it will be substantially un- 10
affected by repeated laundering and will be ce
‘
mentitiously softened at pressing temperatures
A‘further object of the invention is to provide
.
‘ 1
while retaining its adhesion at and below the
a multi-ply fabric for use in articles subjected‘ boiling point of water. In my Patent No. 2,045,
to repeated laundering, the'plies of which are ‘ 963, which is a division of my aforesaid patent, 15
adherent due to the association therewith of a. *I have described and claimed a multi~ply fabric
‘ thermoplastic blend of synthetic resins, ‘which
blend while maintaining adherence at and below
the boiling point of water will soften at press20 ing temperatures so that no difficulties are en. countered in ironing and, if the plies have become
. separated at any points due to some unusual
treatment, re-adherence of the plies throughout
using a particular blend of resins possessing espe
cially desirable properties.
I
The present invention is directed‘to a multi
ply fabric for use in the manufacture of articles 20
of apparel subjected to repeated laundering which
is bonded together by the association with at least
one of the plies of the fabric of a thermoplastic
will be brought about by the heat and pressure
25 of the iron,
‘
blend of resins which is capable of softening at
'
pressing temperatures, retaining adhesion at and 25
Other objects will be apparent from a consid-
below the boiling point of water, and remaining
eration of the speci?cation and claims.
substantially unaffected in color when subjected ' -
1 While the invention is directed generally to a
‘
multi-ply fabric for use in apparel where the
to repeated laundering.
r
.
.
The practices described and claimedin my Pat
“ 5'0 article is repeatedly laundered, the invention will
be described specifically in conjunction with the
manufacture of collars since the problems pre;
sented in the manufacture thereof are illustrative
cut No. 2,009,139 may advantageously be em- 30
moved in the production of the multi-ply fabric
of the present invention, in which event, the blend
of resins described herein is employed as the
' of all the major problems encountered in the
, l ‘35 production of articles of this type,
i it
His general practice in the manufacture of
thermoplastic resinous material which is applied
to the fabric ply which has been treated to render 35
it substantially non-shrinking and non-stretch
l
*
‘
collars to assemble multiple plies of fabric which
have previously been cut in desired shape and size.
A collar so assembled can be divided into its two
4 major parts, namely, the neck-band and the fo1d~
over top. In general practice, both of these major
parts are constructed from three plies of fabrics;
9. face ply, an interlining, and a back ply, the
neck-band and fold-over top being made up sep45 arately and- subsequently stitched together.
While there are other processes ‘of manufacturing
collars, this method-is the one most universally
practiced, and the present invention is intended
ing. Since, however, the blend maybe applied
directly to an untreated Ply. if deemed desirable,
the invention will be thus described.
The blend used in the production of the multi- 40
‘ply fabric of ‘the invention is'a mixture of poly—
merized alkyl alkacrylate and at least one resin
selected from the group consisting of a polymer
ized alkyl acrylate and a polyvinyl resin. The
term “alkyl alkacryiate” designates such com- 45
pounds as methyl methacrylate, ethyl meth- '
‘acrylate, ‘ethyl ethacrylate and the like. The
term “alkyl acrylate” includes such compounds
‘ _
to conform particularly with equipment used to as the alkyl esters of acrylic acid, for ex
‘ 5° manufacture collars of such general construc- ample, methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl ac- to
‘
tion, although it is to be understood that other ‘ rylate and the term‘ “polyvinyl resin” includes
types, including a two-ply collar, may be constructed in accordance with the invention.
' In my Patent No. 2,009,139, issued July 23, 1935,
5,5‘ I have disclosed and‘ claimed an “Article of ap-
the resins ‘so designated by the trade, such
as the polymerized vinyl esters of the lower
aliphatic acids, for example, vinyl acetate (known
_
as' "Vinylite A”) vinyl propionate, vinyl butyrate, ‘55‘
9,198,474
' etc.: the copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl
esters of the lower aliphatic acids, such as vinyl
acetate (this copolymer being known as “Vinylite
H"); and vinyl benzene or polymerized phenyl
ethylene which may be considered to belong to
the same family as the “Vinylites" except that
phenol is substituted for chloride or acetate.
Preferably, the invention contemplates the blend
ing of methyl methacrylate with one or more of
10 the resins selected from the group consisting of
methyl acrylate, polymerized vinyl acetate, a
copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, and
vinyl benzene.
Each of the individual resins of the classes or
15 groups mentioned lacks at least one of the desired
properties, and the multi-ply fabric of the proper
ties described can, therefore, be obtained only
through the use of a blend of two or more of the
resins.
In any particular instance, the com
20 ponents of the blend and the proportions of the
resin constituents therein will be selected and
determined by the particular properties of the
resins blended in order that the blend shall be
thermoplastic and capable of cementitiously
25 softening at the pressing temperature, retaining
its adhesion at and below the boiling point of
water, and remaining substantially unaffected
in color after repeated laundering.
In the following table, certain of the resins
30 of the classes or groups mentioned are listed.
together with their softening ranges and launder
ing quali?cations since the range at which the
resin will become cementitiously softened and the
extent to which they are detrimentally affected
35 with respect to color when exposed to heat, acid,
and alkali in laundering are of primary im
portance:
Rw'n
'
Softening temperature
Laundering quali?
cations
“Vinylite A” _________ ._ 145° F.-l55° F... Acid or alkali destroy
adhesive”, ro
rties.
“Yinylite H" ________ __ 246° F.—255° F-.. Disoolored By eat.
Vinyl-benzene ........ .. 300° 1-310“ F... Satisfactory/that does
. not have good ad
hesive qualities.
Methyl acrylate.....-'.._ 116° F.-l25° F... Does not discolorlbut
and the blended product. Thus, while the
softening temperature of “Vinylite H" is approxi
mately 250° F. and that of methyl methacrylate '
is 260° F., a blend of the two resins in equal pro
portions has a softening point slightly over 280°
F. or considerably higher than the softening
temperature of either of the component parts.
Conversely, if 50% vinyl benzene with a soften
ing point of about 300° F. is blended with 50%
methyl methacrylate with a softening point of 10
about 260° F., a blended resin with a softening
point of about 300° F. is obtained, rather than
the mathematically ?gured softening point of
280° F.
The following blends are given as illustrative 15
examples, but it is to be understood that the
percentages given may be varied rather widely
from the specific ?gures set forth, the limita
tions being determined, as before pointed out,
by the properties resulting in the blended mix 20
ture:--.
Blend 1
_
Percent
Methyl methacrylate ____________________ -_
embodied in any one of the. resins, and while it,
might appear possible‘iii'to reduce the softening
range of the listed resins with the higher soften
ing ranges by the use of a. plasticizer, this is not
56 desirable since the plasticizer tends to be washed
out during laundering. It should be borne in
mind that it is highly desirable to impart to the
article a permanent ?rmness, whereas stiffness,
25
The softening range is-approximately 225° F.
and the blend is not discolored by heat, acid or
alkali and does not lose its adhesiveness, but
there is a tendency for it to become somewhat 30
harsh and brittle and is, therefore, not as de
sirable as the other examples.
Blend 2
Percent
55 35
“Vinylite H”__
Methyl methacrylate ____________________ -- _45
The softening range is about 280° F., and the
product is satisfactory in every respect.
Blend 3
Percent 40
“Vinylite A”
15
Methyl methacrylate ____________________ __
85/
The softening range is about 230° F. to 240° F.,
and the blend is satisfactory in every respect. 46
Blend 4
becomes too soft.
Methyl methacrylate.-. 255° F.—265° F... Too hard and brittle.
It is apparent from the list of resins and their
50 properties that the desirable qualities are not all
85
Methyl acrylate _________________________ -- - 15
Percent
“Vinyllte H” __________________________ _..
331/3
Vinyl benzene __________________ _. .... __
33%
Methyl methacrylate _______________ -.‘__.. ~ 331/3
The softening range is about 300° F., and the
blend is excellent in every respect.
Blend 5
,
Percent
Vinyl benzene __________________ -.' ______ __
50
Methyl methacrylate _________ _;.-_. ______ __
50
50
55
The softening temperature is about 300° F. and
it being understood, however, that plasticizer,
the blend is excellent in every respect.
60
If desired, the blends may contain other sub
stances, for example, a plasticizer, pigment, and
the like, but as before pointed out, the blend of
resins is relied upon primarily to impart the
desired properties to the multi-ply fabric, since 65
pigment, solvent, etc., may be used in conjunction‘
with them as desired. Furthermore, if placti
cizer is relied upon for the initial bond, the de
sirable. re-bonding cannot take place after the
vided by the blends.
or. rather brittleness, is detrimental to Wearing
quality. Hence, it is one object of this invention
to produce an article which is permanently firm
and flexible. Hence, the formulae to be listed
hereinafter comprise only the resin content alone,
permanency of the desirable properties, including
permanent firmness and flexibility, as distin
guished from hardness and brittleness, is pro
'
The fabric is coated on one or both sides by 70
70 plastici'zer is removed by washing. In accord
ance with the present invention, the desirable
properties are obtainedby suitably blending the
any suitable means to obtain a continuous ?lm
of the resin on the fabric and the use of a stand
resins. However, in blending the resins, there
is not a direct mathematical relationship be
TI tween the qualities' of the component materials
ard type backing machine is recommended. In
order to convert the resin into paste form for
application to the fabric, the resins are dissolved 15
3
8,128,474
or dispersed in a suitable vehicle. such as an the group consisting of :--polymerized alkyl esters
equivalent weight of acetone. If it is desired to of acrylic acid, polymerized vinyl esters of the
reduce the volatility of the solvent, a portion of ' lower aliphatic acids, a copolymer of vinyl chlo
the acetone may be replaced by toluol. The ride and a vinyl ester of the lower aliphatic acids,
resinous coating applied serves to stiffen or make and vinyl benzene, each of which resins in the
more firm the fabric treated,‘ and it is‘ practical blend lacks at least one of the aforesaid properties,
to control the degree of stiffness or ?rmness im
but which are blended in the mixture in the proper
parted to the fabric by increasing ‘or decreasing
proportions to acquire all of the said properties.
‘the amount of resin employed. : ,To'obtain the '
3. A multi-ply fabric for use in articles sub
jected to repeated laundering of which at least
one of its plies has associated therewith, causing
adherence of said plies a thermoplastic blend of
10 most desirable properties for most articles, the
amount of resinous material applied is kept ‘within
10
rather close limits, for example, two and one-third‘
ounces of resin (dry basis). ipergsqua’re yard .of "synthetic resins capable‘ of softening at press
ing temperatures,;retaining adhesion at and be
15 w'I-‘he, treated fabricafter drying may ice-placed low
the boiling point, of water and remaining sub 15
~ betweencover cloths, or adjacent to a‘ cover cloth, stantially unaffectedin color when subjected to
vand,‘‘subjected; to heat and pressure comparable "repeated laundering, said blend of synthetic resins
'- vto that encountered iniron'ing, for‘: example; in "comprising a ‘mixture of polymerized ‘methyl
fabric:
“
"
‘
‘
;.the;neighbor_hood of 300“,v [The temperature methacrylate and at least one resin selected from
used in- assembling vthe multi-ply‘. fabric and in. ijhe group 1 ‘consisting . of :—-polymerized methyl
ironing is; necessarily limited tola temperature be‘- , ~ 'acrylate, polymerized vinyl esters of the lower ali
20
‘low that at'which the fabric, tends tov scorchr phatic acids,‘ aacopolymer of vinyl chloride and
‘ In view, of the fact that any temperature that can
vinyl esters‘of the lower aliphatic ‘acids, and, vinyl
be safely used on cotton fabrics is not su?lciently
25 high to destroy the thermoplasticity of the resins
‘used; the resinous coating remains in this condi
tion which is most desirable when the lining is to
benzene, each of which resins in the blend lacks
at least one of the aforesaid properties, but which 25
be used in soft or semi-soft collars, and, if through
some unusual action the lining cloth becomes sep
30 arated from the cover cloth at certain points,
4. A multi-ply fabric foruse in articles sub
jected to repeated laundering of which at least
one of its plies has associated therewith, causing so
adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of
are blended in the mixture in proper proportions .
to acquire all of the said properties.
'
‘
‘the piles of, the multi-ply .fabric‘are‘ united
throughout duringthe subsequent pressing of the syntheticresins capable of softening at press~
collar. ' If a collar-is desired; which ismore‘stiff " ‘ing temperatures, retaining adhesion at and be?
9 than that obtained by. the simple pressing step low the boiling point of water and remaining.
35 of ‘the dried treated ‘lining cloth, the assembled ‘ substantially unaffected in color when subjected 35
lining cloth, and cover cloth or cloths may be to repeated laundering, said blend of synthetic
moistened with a solvent for the resin, for ex
resins comprising a mixture of polymerized methyl
ample, acetone, ‘and thereafter pressed as de
methacrylate and polymerized methyl acrylate,
scribed.
‘
l
.
Considerable modi?cation is possible in the
resins and proportions thereof used in the blend,
as well as in the method of manufacturing the
each of which resins in the blend lacks at least
one of the aforesaid properties, but which are 40
blended in the mixture in proper proportions to
acquire all of the said properties.
'
'
multi-ply, fabric, without departing from the es
sential features of the invention.
5. A multi-ply fabric for use in_ articles sub
jected to repeated laundering of which at least
I claim:
‘
one of its plies hasassociated therewith, causing
1.‘ A multi-ply fabric for , use in a; articlessub-i‘ adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of 45
jected to repeated'launderingr-of which atv least synthetic resins capable of softening at pressing
‘one ‘of its plies has‘ associatedtherewlth, causing temperatures, retaining adhesion at and below
adherence of‘ said plies, a thermoplastic‘blend, of’ the boiling point of water and remaining substan-‘
'‘, synthetic
temperatures,
resinsretaining
capabIeJof
‘ adhesionfat
'softeningaa-pressing
and below tially unaffected in color when subjected to re 50
peated laundering, said blend of synthetic resins
' the boiling point ofwater’and remaining substan-" comprising a mixture of polymerized methyl
tlally-una?’ected in color whensubjected to vre» methacrylate and a copolymer of vinyl ‘chloride
,peatedlaundering, saidblendlof synthetic resins v' and vinyl esters of ‘the lower aliphatic acids, each
‘comprising a mixture of polymerized alkyl alka- ,7
of which resins in the-blend lacks at least one of ‘ ,
crylate and atleast one resin “selected‘from ‘the v the aforesaid properties, but which are blended ‘
1 ‘(group consisting ,ofz-épolymerized' alkyl esters » in the mixture in proper proportions to acquire all
of acrylic acid, polymerized vinyl1 esters“ of the
lower ‘aliphatic acids, a copolymer of vinyl chlo-
}
ride and vinyl esters of the lower aliphatic acids,
‘and vinyl benzene, each of which resins in the
1 blend ‘lacks at least one of the aforesaid properties,
but which are blended in the mixture in proper
proportions to acquire all of the said properties.
2. A- multi-ply fabric for use in articles sub
jected to repeated laundering of which at least '
of;th_e said properties. '
.
6.,A multi-ply fabric for use in articles sub
Jected to repeated laundering of which at least 60
‘
one of its plies has associated therewith, causing
adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of '
synthetic'resins capable of- softening at pressing
temperatures, retaining-adhesion at and below
the boiling point of water and remaining sub
stantially unaffected in color when subjected to
one of its plies has associated therewith, causing repeated laundering, said blend of‘. synthetic res
adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of ‘ ins'comprising'm mixture of, polymerized methyl
I
i y synthetic resins'cap'ableof softening at pressing ;
I70 temperatures, retaining adhesion at and below
[the boiling point of water and remaining substan:
' = :tially unaffected in- color when subjected to re-1
I peated laundering, said blend of synthetic resins
m 3"
comprising a mixture of polymerized methyl,
methacrylate'and at least one resin selected from
methacrylate and polymerized vinyl acetate, each
of which resins in the-blend lacks at leastone of 70
the aforesaid properties,‘ butwhic‘h are blended
in the mixture in properfproportions to acquire :
allof the saidiproperties. ;
7. A multi-ply fabric for"use;infarticles. sub; .‘
lected to repeate'dilaundering of’ which at least 78..
4
2,198,474
one ofits plies has associated therewith, causing
adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of
proximately 45%, and a copolymer of vinyl chlo
ride and vinyl acetate approximately 55%, each
' synthetic resins capable of softening at pressing
of which resins in the blend lacks at least one of
the aforesaid properties, but which are blended
temperatures, retaining adhesion at and below
the boiling point of water and remaining sub~
stantially unaffected in color when subjected to
repeated laundering, said blend of synthetic res
ins comprising a mixture of polymerized methylv
methacrylate and vinyl benzene, each of which
10. resins in the blend lacks at least one of the afore
said properties, but which are blended in the
mixture in proper'proportions to acquire all of
'the said properties.
8. A multi-ply fabric for use in articles sub
16 jected to repeated laundering of which at least
one of its plies has associated therewith, causing
adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend
of synthetic resins capable of softening at press
ing temperatures, retaining adhesion at and below
20 the boiling point of water and remaining substan
tially unaffected in color when subjected to re
peated laundering, said blend of synthetic resins
comprising a mixture of polymerized methyl
methacrylate, a copolymer of vinyl chloride and
vinyl esters of the lower aliphatic acids, and vinyl
benzene, each of which resins in the blend lacks
at least one of the aforesaid properties, but which
are blended in the mixture in proper proportions
to acquire all of the said properties.
9; ‘A multi-ply fabric for use in articles subject
ed to repeated laundering of which at least one
in the mixture in said approximate proportions to
acquire all of the said properties.
11. A multi-ply fabric for use in articles sub
Jected to repeated laundering of which at least
one of its plies has associated therewith, causing
adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of 10
resins capable of softening at pressing tempera
tures, retaining adhesion at and below the boiling
point of water and remaining substantially unaf
fected in color when subjected to repeated laun
dering, said blend of resins comprising a mix 15
ture of polymerized methyl methacrylate ap
proximately 85% and polymerized vinyl acetate
approximately 15%, each of which resins in the
blend lacks at least one of the aforesaid proper
ties, but which are blended in the mixture in said 20
approximate proportions to acquire all of the
said properties.
12. Av multi-ply fabric for use in articles sub
jected to repeated laundering of which at least
one of its plies has associated therewith, causing 25
adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of
resins capable of softening at pressing tempera
tures, retaining adhesion at and below the boil
ing point of water and remaining substantially
unaffected in color when subjected to repeated 30
laundering, said blend of resins comprising a
of its plies has associated therewith, causing ad
mixture of polymerized methyl methacrylate ap
herence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of
proximately 33%, vinyl benzine approximately
resinsgcapable of softening at pressing tempera
tures, retaining adhesion at and below the boil
ing point of water and remaining substantially
33%, and a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl
acetate approximately 33%, each of which resins 35
unaffected in color when subjected'to' repeated
laundering, said blend of resins comprising a
mixture of polymerized methyl acrylate approxi
in the blend lacks at least one of the aforesaid
properties, but which are blended in the mixture
in said approximate proportions to acquire all
of the said properties.
13. A multi-ply fabric for use in articles sub 40
mately 15% and polymerized methyl methacry
late approximately 85%,~each of which resins in' jected to repeated laundering of which at least
one of its plies has associated therewith, causing
the blend lacks at least one of the aforesaid prop
erties, but which are blended in the mixture in adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of
said approximate proportions to acquire all of resins capable of softening at pressing tempera
tures, retaining adhesion at and below the boiling 45
45 the said properties.
point of water and remaining substantially unaf
10. A multi-ply fabric for use in articles sub
Jected to repeated laundering of which atleast fected in color when subjected to repeated laun
_ one of its plies has associated therewith, causing dering, said blend of resins comprising a mix
‘adherence of said plies, a thermoplastic blend of ture of polymerized methyl methacrylate ap
resins capable of softening at pressing tempera
tures, retaining adhesion at and below the boil
ing point of water and remaining substantially
unaffected in color when subjected to repeated
laundering, said blend of resins comprising a
65 mixture of polymerized methyl methacrylate ap
proximately 50% and vinyl benzene approximate 50
ly'50%, each of which resins in the blend lacks at
least one of the aforesaid properties, but which
are blended in the mixture in said approximate
proportions to acquire all of said properties.
FRANK R. REDMAN.
55
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