Патент USA US2123515код для вставки
July 12, 1938. 1..‘ H. MESSINGER, JR " 2,123,515 ATTACHMENT FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed April 8, 1936 55/ 7* ' 27 . O / _ ‘ Q , v , x .v 35 .. ~ - 3 25 26 Q , —-— 1 67 1 , a2 43 o ‘ 6l/v 26 l ' n 6'6 2 Sheétsi-Sheet 1 "7: . 6 _ TIG/V/TIGIN‘ ‘ COIL - } ‘ INVENTOR_ I HMessmger Jr v. July 12, 1938. 1.. H. MESSINGER, JR 2,123,515 ATTACHMENT FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed April 8, 1936 - _2 Sheets-Sheet 2 \.f.. . na7 m. 4 a 1 W w w55F a “ w 9 lNVENTOR' lasz‘er f1? Mess/09a J7: BY Patented July 1a, 1938 I I‘ 2,123,515 UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE 2.123.515 ' . ATTACHMENT FOR INTERNAL ‘COMBUS ' TION ENGINES Lester H. Messlnger, Jr., Trumbull, Conn., as signor to Messinger Devices, Incorporated, Bridgeport, Conn., a corporation or Connecti out ' ' Application April 8, 1936, Serial No. 73,232 12 Claims. (Cl. 123-124) This invention relates to new and useful im- provements in internal combustion engine driven motor- vehicles. ' rod and accelerator pedal to their full line posi tions when moved therefrom. The mechanism thus far described may be ' The objects and advantages of the invention either in the‘form shown-or may be of any other 5 will become apparent from a consideration of the desired or conventional construction. It is sim- 5 following detailed description taken in connection ply illustrated as a conventional arrangement in with the accompanying drawings wherein a sat- order that the’construction and operation of the ~ islactory embodiment oi’ the invention is shown. -means of the invention may be fully described However, it is to be understood that the invention 10 is not limited to the details disclosed but includes all such variations and modi?cations as fall with- in the spirit 0! the invention and the scope of the appended claims. In the drawings;._ 15 Fig‘. 1 is a side elevational view illustrating an embodiment of the invention as applied to an automobile; Fig. 2 is aview showing certain parts uncovered and in their normal relative positions and the 20 view also shows the wiring diagram; Fig. 3 is a view of the main control switch of Fig. 2 in another position; Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 but showing the parts of the maincontrol switch in yet another 25 position; Bolted or otherwise secured in any desired posi tion on the automobile as, for example, ,on_th'e 10 dash i0 is a housing 24 containing a'main switch- a ing mechanism generally designated 25and a de tailed description of the construction and opera-. V‘ tion 01’ which will later be given. This switching mechanism amongst its other l5 . functions controlsa circuit to coils 26 0! a sole noid magnet mounted within ahousing 21 and the cores of said coils are shown at 28 as being Secured (See Flg- 6) t0 the Walls Of the housing 21 by means of screws 29. The coils 26 may be 20 held in place about thecores 28 by any suitable means as. for example. by being driven thereon. It is to'be understood that while the coils 26 are shown as connected in series they may be 6011 nected in parallel. 25 Fig, 5 is a sectional view taken substantially Housing 21 is connected with the intake mani along the line 5-5 of Fig. 2; _ fold it of the engine and in its lower portion the Fig. 6 is a sectional view through the valve housing includes apcrt 3| through which air may 30 35 ’ 40 . ) operating means of the invention; " F1; 7 1s a plan View of a, pressure operated, be admitted directly to the manifold instead of through the fuel supply, means or carburetor i3. 30 switch means employed; and Fig, 8 is a. sectional view-through said switch means. Referring in detail to the drawings, in Fig. 1 Arranged in the Port 01‘ Opening 31 is a valve 32 the stem 33 Of which extends through the lower end of the housing as clearly shown in Fig. 6 and the upper end Portion Ofwhleh extends into is shown a portion of an automobile including a ' the Space between the ‘magnet cells 26. 35 dash in and the usual ?oor boards ii. In front ' To this upper portion of the stem there is of the dash there is shown a portion of a, motor secured an armature“ adapted to be attracted i2 to which fuel is fed as from a carburetor i3 by the electrc-masnets and when so attracted through an intake manifold is, The supply Of adapted to turn the valve stem 33 and conse fuel is controlled in the usual manner by a throt- quently the Valve 32 shifting the valve to Open 40 me valve |5 the Stem of which is shown at |5a position whereupon air will be admitted through connected with an operating arm l5 extending to port 3' to the manifold M between the engine each side of the stem and at one end connected and the carburetor‘. A spring 35 above the arm‘ with a spring n the tendency of which is to re_ ture 34 has one of its ends anchored to the hous ing as at 36 and has its other end portion ‘4:. turn the throttle valve to closed position when‘ wrapped repeatedly around the upper end por moved therefrom TodConnected '8 the connection with the other beingend formed of theasarm by I69' is pma 50 '9 on the arm and an elongated ‘510i? 2" m the > end of the rod. At its forward end this red It! is pivotally connected with an accelerator or throttle pedal 2|, and a coil spring 22 is anchored 38313233‘; stant pressure 2112;381:1122}! and the spring83kg: tends tipgigitii to retain the valve in closed position and to return it to such 50 position when moved therefrgm. Mounted ‘on the housing 24 or otherwise suit ably located are binding posts 31, 38, 39 and 40 at one end to the rod and at its other end to a ' respectively. These posts are insulated from the 55 stationary bracket 23 and serves to return the housing and from one another. Within the hous- 65 2 8,188,818 ing is a shaft 4|. rotatably mounting a bushing 38 on which is pivotally mounted a plate-like member 42 having up-tumed ears 48 pivotally connecting it with the bushing. Also within the housing and pivotally mounted on the bushing 88 is a second plate-like member or-an armature 44 bent or off-set intermediate its ends, as at 48 (see Figs. 3 and 4) and this off-set intermediate portion embraces the bushing. . A member 48 has an end portion 41 extending between and guided by the upper portions of the ears 43 and extending over the off-set portion of the member 44 and beyond one end of said mem ber. Passing through the member 48 and an end portion of the member 44 is a bolt 48 sur-f rounded by a spring 48 constantly tending to keep the member 48 against the‘member 44 but permitting said members to be pressed apart as shown in Fig. 3. The member 48 carries a contact element.“ connected with the binding post 38 as by a wire 8' and the plate-like member 42 carries a con tact element 82 connected with the binding post 48 as by a wire 53. Further member 42 carries a contact member 84 connected with the binding . post 88 as by a wire 85 and the armature mem her 44 carries a contact member 88 connected with the binding post 38 by a wire 81. Within one end portion of the housing’ 24 there is ar 30 ranged an electro-magnet 88, the coil of which is connected with the binding posts 31 and 38 by wires 88 and 88. A lead 8| connects the binding post -88 with the positive side of a battery 82, which may be the usual automobile battery, while a lead 88 connects binding post 48 with a binding post 84 on the housing 21. Binding post 84 is connected with one of the coils 28 by a wire 88, the coils being connected by a wire 86 while the lead from the coils is shown at8'i connected with a bind ing post 88 from which a lead 88 extends to a ground. ‘From the binding post 38 a lead 18 extends to the ignition coil 1| of the automobile. Binding post 81 is connected with a pressure operated switch 12 by a wire 18 and a ground connection for said switch is shown at 14. Switch 12 is shown in detail in Figs. '7 and 8 and the relation of the switch to the engine is shown more particularly in Fig. 1. This switch comprises an outer casing in the ‘form of a cast metal cov ering including a cup-like body portion 18 and a closure portion 18. Closure 18 carries a tubular extension "pro Jecting into the body 18 and at, preferably four, equally spaced points about its inner end such extension is provided with recesses 18 each re ceiving a small coil spring 18 and partially re ceiving a plug 88 resting on or engaging said springs and having sliding fit in the respective re 60 cesses.’ The wall 8| of the body has a tapped opening 82 therein the purpose of which will later be fully described. On its inner side such wall is provided with spaced lugs 83. A bellows 84 is disposed in the body '18 and its inner end wall 85 is normally against the lugs 88 while its outer end portion is folded about and soldered or otherwise secured to an annulus 88 clamped between the open end‘ of the body and the clo sure '18. It is noted that the extension 11 of ‘the closure together with the parts carried thereby are lo cated within the bellows and therefor when the closure is in place the interior of the bellows is sealed with respect to the exterior thereof. The springs 19 may keep the plugs 88 against the inner wall of the bellows or Just short of such wall in which later case the resiliency of the bel lows will be depended on to keep its inner wall against or in close relation to the lugs 88. Threaded into the closure 18 and its tubular 6 extension TI is a plug 88 locked in place as by a Jamb nut 88 and extending through such plug 88 is a long binding post 88 having a laminated contact head 8| at its inner end. A nut 82 on the outer end portion of the binding post 88 is 10 adapted to draw the head 8| toward the tubular extension 11 whereby to clamp insulation 88 against the outer and inner ends of said extension to insulate the post 98 therefrom. From Fig. 8 it will be clear that the contact head 8| is ar- 15 ranged in opposing relation to a contact 84 car ried on the inner side of the end wall 88 of the bellows, but thatthe bellows andthe springs 18 with their plugs 88 tend to keep such contacts spaced apart. Lug 88 or other suitable means 20 may be provided for mounting the switch 12 in the desired position. The lead wire ‘I3 is con nected with the binding post 88 as by a clamp nut 98 on the binding post at-the outer side of the nut 82. 25 Switch 12 (see Fig. 1) is connected to be respon sive to the pressure of the water being circulated in the cooling system of the engine |2. A water pump 81 is driven from the engine as through gears (not shown) and through a connection 88 30 draws water from the lower end of a radiator 89a. Through a pipe line I88 the pump discharges into the water jacket of the engine. A nipple. |82 connects an elbow |8| with the tapped opening 82 in the switch body. Therefore the pressure of 35 the coolant being circulated by pump 91 is act ing on the bellows and owing to the particular hook-up shown the velocity pressure of the cool ant is acting directly on the bellows. It will be understood that the plate-like mem- 40. bers 42 and 44 are mounted for pivotal move ment together and separately about the shaft 4|, such members moving with the bushing 88 about the shaft. To one side of said shaft between the plate-like members there is arranged a spring 45 I88 having one of its arms connected with each of the members. The normal tendency of this spring is to move said members apart and to keep the contacts 88 and 82 separated. A spring I84 is arranged between the other end portion of 50 member 42 and the bottom wall of the. housing. 24 and serves to prevent the members 42 and 44 pivoting freely around the shaft 4| in a direc- ' tion to bring the contact 88 into engagement with the upper wall of the housing and to prevent the 55 contact 84 or an end portion of member 44 com ing into engagement with the lower wall of the housing. ' Thespring I88 causes the off-set portion 48 of member 44 to press against the bushing 88 and 60 forcing downwardly on the member 42 causes the upper ends of openings 43a of the ears.43 of member 42 to bear downwardly, on the bushing. Thus the spring causes the members 42 and 44 to lock themselves about the bushing 88. How- 65 ever, the bushing is free to turn about the shaft 4| so that at the proper times, as will later be described, the members 42 and 44 may rock to ' gether or relatively about the shaft without un due friction. If desired the openings 43a in the 70 cars 43 may be elongated as and for the purpose set forth in my application Serial No. 13,019, filed March 26th, 1935. ' Extending through a wall of the housing 24 in allgnmentwith one end portion of the member 78 3 2,128,515 42 is a push rod or member I05 shown as in the ing circulated then the bellows 64 will expand form of a bolt. This push rod is slidable through the wall of the housing and normally is disposed carrying contact 94 away from contact 9| open- - with its inner end in spaced relation'to the .mem ber 42. A bell-crank I06 is arranged at the outer side of the housing being pivoted at I01 and con nected at one end of this bell-crank is a rod I08, the said rod at its other end being connected to the rod l8 at I09. In operation the throttle lever 2| is depressed 10 in the usual manner against the action of the ‘spring 22 to open the throttle valve and the valve 32 in the air port 3| remains closed so that there is no change in the normal operation of the cue gine while it is under load or with open throttle. As long as the engine is being operated at ‘a speed su?lcient to cause the pump 91 to maintain, on the ?uid being circulated, that degree of pressure necessary to keep the bellows 84 compressed with the contact 94 in engagement with the contact» head 9| the electro-magnet 58 is energized from the battery and is attracting the end portion of the plate-like member 44 so that the switch parts 25 armature 44 will be released and will rock about the pivot 4| in a direction to bring contact 56 into engagement with contact 54, thereby clos ing the engine ignition. circuit, and carrying the contact 50 out of engagement with contact 52 opening the circuit to the coils 26. that is, with the ignition circuit open, the throttle mechanism retarded and the valve 32 open, should the throttle mechanism be advanced the bell crank I06 will be carried away from the push rod I05 and the latter will move out of the housing 24 permitting the parts to return to the positions in which they are shown in Fig. 2. This return movement of the parts will be accomplished by the spring I04. It will be understood that when the throttle is advanced the engine will be speeded are held inthe positions in which .they are shown the magnet is from ‘the battery 62 through line again closing the circuit to the magnet 59. in Fig. '2 provided the engine'is operating under .will be partly collapsed to bring the contact 94 load or with advanced throttle. The circuit of into engagement with the contact head 9|, thus magnet through wire 59, binding post 31, wire ‘I3 to binding post 90 of the switch ‘I2 and the ground wire ‘I4 of the switch. ' It will be noted in Fig. 2 that the contacts 54 and 56 are in engagement and that the circuit between the ignition means ‘II and the battery is 35 closed. Further, contacts 50 and 52 are sepa-' rated so that the circuit to the coils 26 controlling the air valve 32 is open and such valve is there fore closed. If the throttle mechanism is now 10 ‘ While the parts are in the positions of Fig. 3, up so that the pump will be operating at in creased speed and the pressure of the ?uid being circulated will be raised whereby the bellows 94 ‘ 6|, binding post 39, wire 60, from the coil of the 40 ing the circuit to the magnet 58. Such magnet being deenergized the plate-like member or 25 When the throttle is retarded the speed of the , engine drops and should the engine drop to a predetermined low speed (either while idling or 30 while operating slowly under load) the ?uid being circulated by pump 91 will not be under su?icient pressure to keep contacts 9| and 94 in engage; ment so that the circuit to magnet 58 will be open - and the magnet will not be energized. Under 35 such conditions retarding of the throttle lever will shift the push rod I05 inwardly and the entire switch mechanism 25 will rock about the released or retarded while thevengine maintains ‘ shaft 4| into the position shown in Fig. 4. There the predetermined speed as, for example, if the it will be noted that contacts 54 and 56 are in 40 automobile is coasting in gear and the engine is engagement so that the engine ignition circuit operating above a predetermined speed as when the vehicle wheels are driving the engine, the bell-crank I06 engages and pushes the rod I05 inwardly and it engages an end portion of the plate-like member 42 and rocks said member about its pivot shaft 4| in opposition to the spring I03. ' is. closed but that-the contacts 50 and 52 are spaced apart so that the circuit to the coils 26 of. the magnet controlling the valve 32 is open. Therefore, the valve 32 will be closed and the 45 engine may idle in the usual manner. Owing to the mounting of the contact carry ing member 46 the push rod I05 may operate to Since the plate-like member 44 is being held - rock the member 42 and bring the contact 52 into against movement by the charged magnet 53 engagement with the contact 50 without applying rocking of the member 42 will serve to separate the contacts 54 and 56 to open the ignition cir cuit and to bring contacts 50 and 52 into engage ment closing the circuit to the coils 26 with the result that the armature 34 is attracted and against the action of spring 35 the valve 32 is swung to open position. This admits air to the manifold between the engine and the carburetor and relieves any vacuum in the manifold. The 60 air port 3| is large so as to admit su?icient air to supply the engine requirements and therefore fuel will not be drawn into the engine and ‘there will be a free intake and exhaust of air by the engine. sufficient pressure to the armature or member 44 to force said member away from the magnet 58. That is, when the contact 52 engages contact 50 it may push the same upward slightly tensioning the‘ spring 49 which will yield as indicated in Fig. 3. From the foregoing it will be understood that 50 Li with the disclosed means the valve 32 will open whenever‘ the throttle lever 2| is retardedand the engine is being driven at a speed su?icient 60 to have the pump 91 force the pressure of the ?uid it is' circulating up to the point necessary to have the bellows collapsed to cause contact 94 to engage contact 9|. Thus the valve may open No appreciable amount of vacuum is needed to while the automobile is coasting in gear or when 65 take air into the engine through the port 3| and the throttle lever is advanced and suddenly re the opening of the valve 32 gives a “free wheel ' leased as when shifting gears. Obviously by loosening the jamb nut 89 and ing” effect since the pistons of the engine do adjusting the plug 88 the position of the con not have to work against vacuum. As air, .sub stantially free of fuel is drawn into the engine tact head 9| may be adjusted relative to the 70 when the valve 32 is open it will be clear that a contact 94 so that greater or less movement of considerablesavings in fuel results. , ' Should the speed of the engine drop below that necessary to operate the pump in a manner to maintain the necessary pressure on the ?uid be the bellows will be necessary to bring the con tact 94 into engagement with the contact head 9|. It is preferred that the mentioned adjust ment be such that the pressure of the ?uid being 75. groans ' 4 circulated will act on the bellows _to cause contact 94 to engage contact 8| whenever the engine is operating above idling speed and will be insu?i cient for the stated purpose when the engine idling. ' speed contacts II and 94 separate and the valve 32 closes. Also such valve closes immediately the 10 throttle is advanced as this permits the push rod I" to move outward or drop downward away from the member 42. It will now be clear that the device is automatic in its operation and re quires no special attention on the part of the 15 operator and that the device will not cause stall ing of the engine when the latter is operating at ‘ While the present device provides for the sav ing of fuel as above noted attention is directed 20 to the fact that with the throttle closed and the engine being driven by the vehicle at a speed or speeds above idling speed, should the valve 32 be closed or not provided fuel would be drawn into the engine and cracked on coming into con 25 tact with hot parts thereof and then discharged in the form of obnoxious gases. With the pres ent arrangement this is largely prevented. It is also noted that the coils 26 as well as the coils 58 operate oil the battery and by a constant 30 voltage so that said coils do not have to be built to withstand the ?uctuating voltages delivered from the automobile generator. ‘ 1. The combination in an internal combustion engine, means?" including an electrically operated The engine may idle :in the usual manner since on the engine dropping below a predetermined low speed. Having thus set forth the nature of .my in vention, what I claim is:— * . The energizing of coils 26 and 58 by a con stant current is very desirable‘so as to have a 35 constant magnetic pull and to obtain the con valve for stopping the ?ow of fuel to the engine, a constant voltage circuit to operate said valve, means controlling said circuit, a second constant voltage circuit included in said last means, and‘ other means controlled by the engine speed and controlling the second mentioned circuit. 10 2. The combination with an internal combus tion engine including a fuel supply means, an air port to admit air to the engine independent of the fuel supply means, an electrically operated valve normally closing said airport and adapted 15 on being energized to open the port, a constant voltage circuit to operate said valve, means con trolling said circuit, a second constant voltage circuit included in said last means, and other means controlled by the engine speed and con 20 trolling the second mentioned circuit. 3. The combination with an internal combus tion engine including a throttle lever, means including an electrically operated valve for stopping the ?ow of fuel to the engine, a con 25 stant voltage circuit to operate said valve, a second constant voltage circuit, magnetic means in the second constant voltage circuit and con trolling the ,flrst constant voltage circuit, other means controlled by engine speed and control 30 ling the second mentioned constant voltage cir cuit, and means controlled by the position of said throttle lever which also controls'said ?rst con stant voltage circuit. 4. The combination with an internal combus 35 stant current it is necessary to have constant’ tion engine including a fuel supply means and a voltage. Therefore in the present case the said throttle lever controlling said means, means in coils are energized from the battery 62. While cluding an air port to admit air to the engine ' the pressure switch ‘I2 is described as responsive independent of the fuel supply means, an elec to the pressure of the ?uid being circulated in trically operated valve normally closing said air the engine cooling system it will be clear that port and adapted on being energized to open the 40 the pump might be the oil pump of the engine port, a constant voltage circuit to operate said or might be a pump entirely distinct from .either valve,va second constant voltage circuit, mag the water or oil pump of the automobile. netic means in the second constant voltage cir In connection with the operation of the device cuit and controlling the ?rst constant voltage 45 it will be noted in Fig. 3 that the magnet 58 is circuit, other means controlled by‘ the engine 45 energized and that the contacts 54 and it are speed and controlling the second mentioned con spaced so that the ignition circuit is open and stant voltage circuit, and means controlled by that the contacts 50 and 52 are in engagement so ' the position of said throttle lever which also con‘ 50 that the circuit to the valve actuating coils 26 is trols said ?rst constant voltage circuit. 50 closed. Now if the pressure of the ?uid being 5. 'The combination in an internal combustion circulated by the pump 91 drops below a prede termined point the parts of switch 25 will move into the relative positions of Fig. 4 and the 55 circuits will be reversed. That is, the ignition circuit will be closed and the circuit to the coils ' 2i will be opened‘ so that the valve 32 will be engine, a ?uid circulating pump actuated by said engine, means including an electrically operated valve for admitting air to the engine substan tially to the exclusion of fuel, and means re sponsive to the pressure of the ?uid being circu lated which means controls a circuit to operate closed and the engine will be idling._ said valve. When the parts are positioned as in Fig. 4 should the pressure of the ?uid being circulated be increased the circuits will again be reversed as the parts will be drawn into the relative po sitions in which they are shown in Fig. 3. While 6. The combination in an internal combustion engine, a throttle lever, a fluid circulating pump 60 actuated by the engine, means including an elec the parts are as shown in Fig.4 should the en gine be speeded up without depressing the throt tle lever as when the automobile starts down a grade the ignition circuit would be opened and the circuit to the coils 26 closed so that the valve 70 12 would be opened. However, should the throt tle be advanced when the parts are positioned as shown ‘in Fig. 4 the parts would shift into the positions in which they are shown in Fig. 2 vand the valve 32 would be closed to have the 75 engine operate in the usual manner. . trically operated valve for stopping the ?ow of fuel to the engine, a constant voltage circuit to operate said valve, ~switching means controlled by the position of said throttle lever and con 65 trolling said circuit, and means responsive to the pressure of the fluid being circulated which means also is adapted to render said switching means operative and inoperative. 7. The combination in an internal combustion 70 engine including a. throttle lever, a ?uid circu lating pump actuated by the engine, means in cluding an electrically operated valve for ad mitting air to the engine substantially to the exclusion of fuel, a constant voltage circuit to 76 5 2,123,015 circuit, an electrically operated valve adapt operate said valve, switching means controlled tion ed to open on being'energized and admit air to by the position of said throttle lever and con engine substantially to the exclusion of fuel, trolling said circuit, and means responsive to the the pressure of the fluid being circulated which a ?uid circulating pump‘ actuated by the engine, means also is adapted to render said switching means adapted to cause energizing of said valve and disruption of said ignition circuit, and means operative and inoperative. means controlling said ?rst ‘mentioned means 8. The combination with an internal combus tion engine including a fuel supply means and and responsive to the pressure of the ?uid be an ignition circuit, an air port to admit air to ing circulated by said pump. 11. The combination with an internal combus 10 the engine independent of the fuel supply means, tion 10 engine including a fuel supply and an igni an electrically operated valve normally closing said air port and adapted on being energized to tion circuit, an air port to admit air to the en gine independent of the fuel supply, a valve nor open the portfa ?uid circulating pump actuated mally closing said airport, a ?uid circulating by the engine, means adapted to cause energiz pump actuated by the engine, means to cause ing of said valve and disruption of said ignition 15 opening of said valve and disruption of said circuit, and means responsive to the pressure of ignition circuit, and means controlling the ?rst the ?uid being circulated which means controls . mentioned means and responsive to the pressure the second mentioned means when the engine is of the ?uid being circulated by said pump. being driven. . 12. The combination with an internal combus 20 9. The combination with an internal combus 20 tion engine including a fuel'supply and an igni tion engine including a fuel supply means and circuit, means to cause stopping of the flow an ignition circuit, an electrically operated valve tion of fuel to the engine, a fluid circulating pump adapted when energized to cause stopping of the ' flow of fuel to the engine, a ?uid circulating actuated by the engine, means to cause actua tion of said ?rst means to stop the ?ow of fuel 25 pump actuated by the engine, means adapted to the engine and to cause disruption of said to cause energizing of said valve and disruption ignition circuit, and means responsive to the of said ignition circuit, and means responsive to pressure of the fluid being circulated by said the pressure of the ?uid being circulated which pump and controlling the second mentioned means controls the second mentioned means 30 when the engine is being driven. , ' 10. In combination with an internal combus tion engine including a fuel, supply and an igni 30 means. , LESTER H. MESSINGER, JR.