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Патент USA US2123536

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Patented July 12, 1938
2,123,536
UNITED STATES
‘PATENT orricl-zv
2,123,538 '
PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF
MULTICELLULAR GLASS
Bernard Long, Paris, ‘France, assignor to Societe ,
Anonyme des Manufactures des Glaces et
Produits Chimiqu'es de Saint Gobaln, Chauny
& Cirey, Paris, France.
-
No‘ Drawing. Application May
27, 1935, . Serial
No. 23,709. In France May 28, 1934
12 Claims. (Cl. 49-77)
This invention relates to a process 'for' the
manufacture of sponge-like or multicellular glass
and refers more particularly to a process of
treating a glass-containing mixture in such man
5 ner that a porous vitreous product is obtained,
-which contains a plurality of cells which are
separated one from the other.
An object of the present invention is the pro
’
vision of a simple and eilicient method of manu
10 facturing multicellular glass, the structure of
which will be more regular and uniform than
that of the glass manufactured by any other
methods.
-
phate and give up bubbles of sulphurous gas
which is often mixed with the carbonic gas. The
bubbles remain within the mixture after it has
become solid due -to the great viscosity of glass.
The glass containing sulphate may be prepared
by means of a vitrl?able mixture, the fusion of
which is stopped before the refining process is 10
commenced.
'
The glass may be composed of the following ,
‘
ly throughout the entire mass of the glass.
SiO: _____ _'_ __________________ __ 70.00 or ‘72.70
NazO ___________ _; ___________ __ 14.24
14.30
A further object of this invention is the provi
sion of porous glass which is extremely light and
MgO _____ _'__’ _________________ __
the density of which is often as low as 0.35.
A1203 ________________________ __
7.00
B203 ______________ _._‘_ ________ __
3.55
SO; __________________________ __
0.30
The above and other objects of the present in
vention, may be realized by mixing comminuted
glass, or a mixture of fritted and ground vitreous
substances, with one or more pulverized sub
stances capable of developing gases or vapors at
25 a certain temperature, and then by heating this
mixture to this temperature, which should be
one. at which the glass particles become soft and
are joined one to the other simply by contact.
The formation of. gases or vapors may be caused
30 either by a chemical‘ reaction taking-place be
tween at least one of these pulverized sub
stances, and the glass, or by a reaction taking
0:30 __________________ _; _____ __
4.90
7.60‘
,
3.00
2.00
I
0.40
Glass of the above type may be mixed with
trade name “Carborundum”) in a proportion of
70% of' the glass, to 30% of silicium carbide.
When the total mixture is heated in the above
described manner, a porous glass is produced, the
apparent density .of which is as low as 0.35.
Second example
30
A vitreous mixture is mixed with another mix
place between the pulverized substances, or mere- '
ture consisting of ?nely pulverized silica; gener
ally known under, the name of “silica white", soda
sulphate, and carbon, and is then heated.
The mass vitri?ed in this manner is
cooled after the gases or vapors developed there
in have increased the volume of the mass to the '
desired extent in order that it may have‘ a cer
tain predetermined apparent density.
Several methods of carrying out this invention
will ‘be described now by way of example:
-.
A mixture of
' First example
pulverized reducing substances,
At a temperature of about 850° C. silica reacts 35
with the sodium. sulphide which is produced by
the reaction of soda sulphate with the carbon.
Gases developed during the heating of the mix
ture make it possible to obtain a mu‘ticellular
glass, the density of which is equal to 0.45.‘
40
The vitreous mixture may contain the follow- ,
ing ingredients:
carbon or carbon-containing substances,
carbides, particularly silicium carbide, silicium
Comminuted glass ________ _.'_' ____________ __ 90'
Silica white ________________ _.._______; _____ __ 3
Soda sulphate ___________________________ -_ 6
and ferro sllicons, with a suitable amount of com
Coal ______________ -_' _______ _'____; ________ __
‘ '15 such as,
minuted glass, preferably, aluminous glass which
contains an alkaline sulphate or alkaline earth
20
silicium carbide (popularly known under the
1y by a decomposition of the gas developing sub
35 stances.
4-0
'
The reducing substances decompose _the sul
ingredients:
Another object is the provision of multicellular
15 glass the cells of which are distributed very even
20
soft, that is, to a temperature of about 800:’ C. or
900° C.
45
1
Third example
i" sulphate is placed into a mold. To this mixture
Glass particles are mixed’ with talcum or hy
may be‘ added, if necessary, a small quantity of drated magnesium silicate. 1 The mixture is 50
an adhesive substance such as gelatine, dextrine,‘ heated until it reaches a temperature ofabout
or soda silicate. '
Then the entire mixture is heated to a tem
55 perature at which the glass becomes plastic or
850° C. At this temperature the hydrated mag
nesiumsillcate loses its hydration water which
is transformed into steam. This steam swells the
2,128,636
glass which has become plastic under the in?u
ence of heat and forms cells in the glass.
Fourth example
Pulverized glassis mixed with grains of kiesel
guhr or with infusory hours. These substances
have very small pores which retain very strongly
bubbles of air, or water vapor. The mixture is
heated until at a temperature of about 900° C..
10 the bubbles of air and .steam are liberated and~
expand forming pores within the glass which has
become plastic under the in?uence of heat.
Fifth example
Pulverized glass is mixed with pulverized coal.
16 This‘ mixture is projected into a mold heated
to a temperature from 800°-to 900° C. "The mix
ture swells and fills the mold. In practice, 0.5
multicellular glass of predetermined apparent
density is produced.
'
3. The process for the manufacture of multi
cellular glass, which comprises mixing com
minuted glass with a pulverized substance capa
ble of ch ically reacting with said glass with
in a certa n range of temperatures, a gas being
produced in the course of said reaction, heating
the-mixture to a temperature at which the par
ticles of the comminuted glass become soft and
are joined to each other by mere contact, the last
mentioned temperature being within the first
mentioned range of temperatures, interrupting
the heating when the gas developed within the
glassy mass increases the volume thereof to the 15
desired extent whereby cells are formed which
are separated one from the other, and then cool
ing said mass, whereby multicellular glass of
part of vegetable coal mixedwith 100‘ parts of
glass are suijlicient to produce multicellular glass
predetermined apparent density is produced.
of which apparent density is 0.40.
cellular glass, which comprises mixing com
minuted fritted vitrifiable substances with at
least one pulverized substance capable'of chemi
cally reacting with said vitrifirble substances
'
In order to avoid that the ,glass sticks to the
mold it has been found useful to use a mold made
of graphite.
. 4. The process for the manufacture of multi
In all of the above described examples the
within a certain range of temperatures, a gas be
comminuted glass may be replaced by vitri?able
ing produced in the course of said reaction, heat
substances which have not been vitri?ed as yet,
ing the mixture to a temperature at which‘ the
., but which have been simply fritted at a temper
ature of about 700° C. to 800° C.,and then granu
lated.
Through the use of the described methods a
multicellular glass may be obtained, the struc
ture of which is much more regular than that
of‘ the sponge-like glass produced by any other
methods.
This is caused by the very uniform
and even distribution of the gas and vapor
25
particles of the vitri?able substances become
soft and are joined to each other by mere con- '
tact, the last mentioned temperature being with 30
in the first-mentioned range of temperatures,
the heating being continued until the mixture is
vitri?ed, interrupting the heating when the gases
developed within the vitrified massincr'ease the
volume thereof to the desired extent whereby
‘cells are formed which‘ are separated one from‘
the other, and then cooling sa'id mass, wherebyv
bubbles throughout the- entire vitreous mass.
multicellular glass of predetermined apparent
Furthermore, due to the very uniform distribu
tion of the gas bubbles, the product obtained by density is produced.
5. The process for the manufacture of mul 40
the described methods is extremely light.‘ It'
40 does not contain any parts which are more or less _ticellul'ar glass, which comprises mixing a. com
devoid of cells.‘ Finally, due to the very small minuted vitreous substance with pulverized sub
apparent density of the article, its surfaces can ,stances capable of reacting with each other with
in a certain range of temperatures and of devel
be treated much more conveniently by any me
chanical utensils or machines generally used for oping a gas in the course of this reaction, heat 45
ing the mixture to a temperature at which the
' shaping glass.
What is claimed is:
v
_
1. The process for the manufacture of multi
oellular glass, which comprises mirdng solid com
minuted vitreous substances with a pulverized
substance capable of giving up gases, heating the
mixture to a temperature at which the particles
of the comminuted substance become soft and
are joined to each other by mere contact, the
second-mentioned substance being capable of
' producing gases at said temperature,’ interrupt
ing the heating when the gases developed with
in‘ the vitreous mass increase the volume there
of to the desired extent whereby cells are formed
which are separated one from the other, and then
60 cooling said mass, whereby multicellular glass
of predetermined apparent-density is produced.
2. The process for the manufacture of multi
cellular glass, which comprises mixing solid com
minuted glass with pulverized substances capable
of producing gases within a certain range of tem
peratures, heating the mixture to atemperature
at which the particles of the comminuted glass
become soft and are joined to each other by
particles of the comminuted vitreous substance
become soft and are joined to each other by
mere contact, the last-mentioned temperature be
ing within the ?rst mentioned range of tempera-' 50'
tures, interrupting the heating when the gas de
veloped within the vitreous massincreases the
volume thereof to the desired extent whereby
cells are formed which are separated one from
the other, and then cooling'said mass, whereby 55
multicellular glass of predetermined apparent
density is produced.
.
6. The process‘ for the manufacture of multi
cellular glass, which comprises 'mixing a solid '
comminuted vitreous substance with a pulverized’
substance capable of giving up a gaseous ?uid
within a certain range of temperatures, heating
the mixture to a temperature at which the par
ticles of the comminuted vitreous substance be
come soft and are joined to each other by mere
contact. the last-mentioned temperature being
within the first-mentioned range of tempera
tures, interrupting the heating when the gaseous
?uid developed within the vitreous mass increases
mere contact, 'the last-mentioned~ temperature the volume thereof to the desired extent whereby 70
being within the ?rst-mentioned.range of tem
cells are formed whichare separated one from
peratures, interrupting the heating when the the
other, andthen cooling said mass, where
gases developed within the glassy mass increase
by
multicellular
glass of predetermined apparent
the volume thereof to the’ desired extent whereby >
cells are formed which "are separated one from
75 the other, and then cooling said mass. whereby
density is produced. _
.
I
' 'l. The process of manufacturing multicellular 15
amazes
glass, which comprises mixing comminuted glass
containing alkaline sulphates with a. reducing
substance capable of reacting with said glass
within a certain range of temperatures at least
one gas being produced in the-course of this re
3
)0. The process of manufacturing multiceliu
lar glass, which comprises mixing a comminuted
vitreous substance with a carbonaceous reducing
substance capable of reacting with said vitreous
substance within a ‘certain range of tempera 5
action, heating the mixture to the softening tem _ tures, at least one gas being produced in the
perature of said glass, said softening tempera
course of this reaction, heating the mixture to
ture being within said range of temperatures, in
the softening temperature of said vitreous sub
terrupting the heating when the bubbles of said
10 gas within the glassy mass increase the volume stance, said softening temperature being within
said range of temperatures, interrupting the
thereof to the desired extent whereby cells are ' heating when the bubbles of said gas within the
formed which are separated one fromv the other,
and then cooling said mass, whereby multicel
lular glass of predetermined apparent density
16 is produced.
vitreous mass increase the volume thereof to the
desired extent whereby cells-are formed" which
are separated one fromthe other, and then
cooling said mass, whereby multicellular glass
8. The process of manufacturing multicellul‘arl of predetermined apparent density is produced. 15.
glass, whichcomprises mixing comminuted glass
11. The process of manufacturing multicellu- »
ccntaining alkaline earth sulphates with a reduc
ing substance capable of reacting with said glass‘
within a certain range of temperatures, at least
one gas being produced in the course of this re
action, heating the mixture to the softening tem
' perature of said glass,‘said softening tempera.
iar glass, which comprises mixing a comminuted
vitreous substance with a mixture containing
finely pulverized silica, soda sulphate and coal, 20
heating the mixture to the softening tempera
ture of vsaid vitreous substance, said softening -
temperature being within the range of tempera
.ture being within said range of temperatures,‘ tures at which the mixture develops gas, inter
interrupting the heating when the bubbles of rupting the heating when the bubbles of said gas"
25
said gas within the glassy mass increase the vol
ume thereof to the desired extent whereby cells
are formed which are separatedone from the
other, and then cooling said mass, whereby mul
ticellular glass of predetermined apparent den
sity‘ is produced.
9., The process of manufacturing multicellular
.glass, which comprises mixing a comminuted vit
reous substance containing a sulphate with a
carbonaceous reducing substance ‘capable of re
acting with said vitreous substance within a cer
tain range of temperatures, at least one gas being
produced'in the course of this reaction, heating
- the mixture to the softening temperature of said
40
vitreous substance, said softening temperature
being‘ within said range of temperatures, inter
rupting the heating when the bubbles‘ of said
gas within the vitreous mass increase the volume
thereof to the desired extent wherebycells are
45 formed which are separated one from the other,
and thencooling said mass, whereby multicellu
iar glass of predetermined apparent density is
produced.
within the vitreous mass increase the volume
thereof to the desired extent whereby cells are
formed which are separated one from the other,
and then cooling said mass, whereby multicellu
lar glass of predetermined apparent density is
produced.
‘
12. The'process ‘of manufacturing multicellu- ‘
lar glass, which comprises mixing a solid com
minuted vitreous substance with pulverized coal,
projecting this mixture into a mold heated to 35'
the range of temperatures at which the particles.
of the comminuted glass are joined to each other
by mere contact, and at which gas’is developed
by coal, interrupting the heating when the bub
bles of said'gas within the vitreous mass increase
the volume thereof to the desired extent whereby
cells are‘ formed which are separated one from
the other, and then cooling said mass, whereby
multicellular glass of predeterminedv apparent .
density is produced.
'
,
BERNARD LONG.
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