Патент USA US2123767код для вставки
July 12, 1938. ' ' B. CLAYTON 5f m. ‘ . 25123367 PROCESS OF FORMING PLANT PARQSITICIIDAL VAPORS ' Filed April 6) 1935 j/vvzlvrona dim/AMI” CZA YTON Wu. TER B. KERR/Ck HE/VR Y M d‘rAar A 7‘7'ORNE K ' 2,123,767 Patented July 12, 1938 ' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,123,767 PROCESS OF FORMING PL‘ANT PARASITI CIDAL VAPORS Benjamin Clayton, Sugarland, Tex., Walter B. Kerrick, Los 'Angeles, and Henry M. Stadt, Glendale, Calif., assignors to Re?ning, Inc., Reno, Nev., a corporation of Nevada. Application April 6, 1935, Serial No. 15,052 In the Netherlands November. 7, 1931 3 Claims. _ This invention relates to improvements in proc- ' ess of forming plant parasiticidal vapors, and more particularly to a. process for di?using ?lm forming germicides in water. (CI. 21-58) ment of plant life, but they are very susceptible to oil penetration, for which they have neither mechanical protection nor counter-acting- anti-1 bodies. The principal object of the invention is to apply germicidal and fungi destroying ?lms on insects, plants and vegetation without injury to ‘ , In this speci?cation and the accompanying 5 drawing the invention is disclosed in its present preferred form. It is to be understood, however, the plant life. that it is not limited to this form because it may Another object is to highly nebulize the oil or be embodied in other forms within the purview other colloid and apply it to the plant in the form , of the claims following the description. 10 of a light vapor that will form a cloud and con dense on the whole surface of the plant or tree. Another object is to convey'th'e oil ?lm to the surface to be treated without modifying or mini 15 mizing the essential effectiveness of the oil for killing insects, scale, fungi and the like, ‘and their eggs, larvae, spores and other forms of propagation. The accompanying single sheet of drawings illustrates means for producing sprays in accord ance with the principles of the invention. In said drawing: Figure 1 diagrammatically shows a spray pro- 15 ducing apparatus, certain parts thereof being shown in vertical cross-section; and. Figure 2 is a view illustrating a modi?cation Other objects and advantages will ‘appear as 20 the description‘ progresses. ' of the apparatus shown in Figure 1. For further particulars regarding this appara- 20 The germicidal effect of oil, especially certain ‘ tus attention is directed to the copending appli low viscosity mineral oils, is well established. It cation in the name of Walter B. Kerrick, entitled is also a fact that such oil in excess is deleterious Fluid heater, ?led November 6, 1930, Serial Num to plant life. It therefore becomes a matter of ber 495,636. great delicacy to maintain the critical point in In detail the construction illustrated in the 25_ the application of oil to accomplish the maximal drawing comprises the water tank l and the pump germicidal effect with the minimal effect on the 2 h'aving'its intake '3 extending into the tank I. ‘ plant life. . The pump is driven by a suitable gearing‘t actu It has been the general practice heretofore to ated by a prime mover such as an internal com 30 spray the oil directly onto the plants, which method is dangerous because any excess of oil “burns” the plant. To overcome this danger emulsi?cation has been resorted to, which lowers the germicidal effectiveness of the oil, although it minimizes the danger to the plant, except that the chemical reagents that effect emulsi?cation are also deleterious to plant life. The present invention combines a method and ‘apparatus capable of so ?nely dividing the mole cules of oil and water and intermingling them in such uniform di?usion'that. when liberated in the form of a moist vapor, the vapor will con dense on the plant surfaces with such a. highly nebulized mixture of oil and water that the plant 45 is protected against unatomized splashes of oil settling thereon. This condensation separates the oil and water. The oil penetrates the “scale” or other form of parasite life to which it is fatal. The water evap 50 crates, which lowers the temperature and other wise e?ectively minimizes thereaction or “burn bustion engine for portable out?ts, not shown. 30 The outlet ‘5 from the pump leads through the valve 5' into the top of the heater. The outer shell 5 of the heater encloses a con tinuous coil 1 of any desired construction so long as the liquid ?ows downward toward the source 35 of heat without traps, dead spaces, and the like, for reasons which will hereinafter appear. ' The heating means in the present instance con sists of the gas burner 8 located beneath the coil 1. The gas supply pipe 9 has the valve I0, the 40 thermostatic valve l I, and manual valve l2 there in. The thermostatic element i3 is interposed between the coil 1 and the burner 8 and through a suitable mechanism It controls the fuel valve H to synchronize the volume of heat from the '45 burner 8, with the desired temperature in the coil.‘ This desired temperature can be predetermined by a proper adjustment of the mechanism M, in the usual ‘manner of thermostatic controls. In this connection see the patent in the name of 50 Walter B. Kerrick, entilted Thermostatic con ing” effect 'of the union of the oil and plant . trol, dated July 31, 1934, Number 1,968,525. chemistry. . Parasitical forms of life are inured to water and moisture because that is the natural environ The coil 1 discharges through the outer shell of the thermostat i3, which receives the direct heat of the burner 8, so that the temperature of 55 2,128,767 2 at 100 pounds per sq. in. gage (which is approx the ?uid heats the expansive element (not shown) con?ned within the tube l3 which is completely surrounded by the liquid and thus is insulated imately 338° F.), they correspond to approxi mately the boiling range of certain mixtures of water and oil that have been found suitable for from the direct action of the burner heat. From spraying. the thermostat the liquid flows through the valve Moreover, said range is such that a portion of the water in the heating coil may be ill, the ?exible hose i5, and is atomized through the nozzle i6 which has a calibrated ori?ce, pro vaporized, but the quantity vaporized is so small that no substantial pockets of steam are formed in the heating coil. Thus, there is eliminated the formation of voids, surging, irregular dis portioned to the capacity of the pump 2, so that a ?xed back pressure is maintained on the liquid This back pressure may be 10 within the coil 1. charge, and lack of homogeneity and continuity varied by manipulating the valves 5'-i4. of the mixture above referredto. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the velocity of the mixture The mineral oil of low viscosity is contained ‘ in the receptacle l1 and fed through the .tube i8 to the metering pump is. The plunger 01’ this pump is connected by the bracket 20 with 15 the piston rod of the pump 2. This bracket connection at 20 is suchthat a desired 10st mo in the coil is such as to maintain any steam bub bles which may have been formed in said coil 15 in substantially dispersed or segregated condi ~tion and in this way prevent the formation of tion may be introduced to regulate the length objectionable‘ and undesirable voids or steam i of the stroke of the metering pump i9. In this pockets. _ The pump 2 is preferably of small displace 20 manner the capacity of the metering pump may ment and kept up to capacity by speed, to avoid undue pulsations in the fluid column. The pumping unit is equipped with check valves in be predetermined. The metering pump .dis charges through the outlet 2! into the intake pipe-3 of the pump 2. The inlet 3 is preferred the intake and discharge pipes in the usual man ner. -An air.chamber may be introduced into because the suction of the pump 2 will pull the 25 quantity of metered voil out of the tube 2!, and thus avoid any back pressure that would result if the oil were fed into the discharge 5. as the pipe 5, if a pump of larger displacement and slower speed is used. There is the further advantage that the oil is subjected to the mixing action of the pump which draws 30 its charge of water from the tank I, through the intake 3, but it is just as effective to introduce the oil into the discharge pipe 5 by a tube 2|” as shown in Figure 2. Particular attention is directed to the speci?c combination of elements in the apparatus and the mode of operation, lest it, be confused with ordinary wamr heaters and steam generators, the operation of which will not accomplish the de sired nebulizing result. The pump 2 delivers a predetermined volume of liquid at ?xed intervals, against a calibrated ori?ce at the nozzle l8. The heater has a ?xed heating area which is .subjectedto a degree of heat from the burner 45 8 controlled by the thermostat IS.‘ The func tioning of these various elements establishes an‘ automatic equilibrium in the heater. The by ' - It is important that the introduction of the oil into the measured quantities of water by the metering pump be accurately coordinated as to time and quantities to maintain uniformity in the product. The system of introducing the oil into the water is adhered to in preference to at tempting to form a mixture or an emulsion in the tank I. A solution of agar and a germicide may be substituted for the oil in the receptacle H. In fact, there are many germicidal mixtures that may be so introduced into the water, that are very effective afterhaving been heated in the 40 coil 1 and nebulized at the nozzle it. The ap plied ?lms are so intangible after the water evaporates that they are soon dissipated and leave the plant surface, except that absorbed by the parasitical germ life. . This invention is directed to the destruction of_ the pest in its prenatal stage. This may be pass valve at 5' permits bleeding a portion of accomplished by a smothering ?lm of su?icient the pump discharge back into the tank I, to duration to su?ocate the germ, or by germicides, vary the feed of the heater. This valve may be or both. The object is to accomplish the ex of the pressure governor type, to act as a safety ‘ termination of the pest in any stage '0! devel valve to protect the heater coil ‘I against excess opment by means that will disintegrate and re pressure. lieve the plant or any deleterious deposit tend ' ing to choke the pores of the plant. I ‘The proper operation oi’ this apparatus de pends largely upon maintaining a constant vol Even soluble, dry powders introduced into the ume or solid body or liquid from the pump 2 to the ori?ce It. This liquid column is subjected to is gradually increasing temperature reaching its maximum in the tube l3 as the liquid ?ows toward the source of heat. .As the tempera ture rises there is a proportional rise in pres sure and increased velocity with incidental tur bulence within the column of liquid. No voids such as would be caused by foaming. or excessive liberation of steam or vapor can be tolerated 65 within this column, which would defeat the uni-> form di?fusion and mixture of the oil and water tank I or into the line 8 by suitable metering means similar to ‘the pump II will become so ‘ highly comminuted and di?used within the coil that it will be moreuniformly distributed on the plant than by any other method known to applicants. j when the mixture, of whatever nature, passes through the heater, it is nebulized at the nozzle l6, by the sudden expansion into the atmosphere with an attendant drop in temperature result 65 ing in a warm vapor. The hand can be held . in the vapor within'a foot'oi' the nozzle I‘, while the hose II adjacent the nozzle is too hot to han particles. Such voids would tend to .aid the for mation otvscale in the coil, cause surging,.and dle without the wooden insulator 22. irregular ‘discharge at l8, and disrupt the’ ho-. c The vapor is directed at the plant or tree close '10 70 mogeneity and continuity oiL the mixture. A enough to insure ‘the deposit of ‘the oil-water good working condition is about 100 pounds pres . ?lm. This'application, however, should not be confused with sprayingv liquids with high pres sure per square inch gage, with temperature be sure jets as in the conventional orchard prac tween 350° to 375° Fahrenheit. While these tem .78 peratures are above the boiling point of water I i . tice, in which'a tree is literally encrusted with 8,128,767 oil or wash. In the present instance oil de - ciently. high to overcome the frictional resistance posits will be found which are caused by the \ to ?ow of said stream and produce said velocity, drifting vapor at considerable distances from. the heating said stream during turbulent flow through point of application. said heating zone to a desired temperature of It is desired to make a distinction between the such a degree that a substantial portion of said present nebulized mechanical ‘mixture and emul stream will be converted into vapor upon dis sions containing a reagent as a'third element in charge into the atmosphere, and discharging said ' the mixture. ' The oil passed by itself- only through the heater ‘ . will form a nebulized oil vapor. Such a vapor alone is fatal to parasites but dangerous to the plant life because of the excess of 011; Water alone passed through the heater will form moisture in a nebulous cloud or fog, without germicidal qualities. A proper mixture of these vapors as comprehended in this invention is ideal for the stream into the atmosphere so as to produce said nebulous spray. , .2. The method of. forming av nebulous para 10 siticidal spray which comprises,‘ producing a mixture of water as a primary ?uid and oil as a secondary ?uid by adding a metered quantity of one to a metered stream of the other, pumping ' ‘said mixture through an elongated heating zone 15 under superatmospheric pressure lnthe form of a purpose intended. stream at a substantially uniform predetermined While the invention above‘ described is espe ~rate, heating said stream during ?ow to a de cially adapted to produce an intimate mixture of sired temperature of such a degree that when water and a substance which is lethal to insect the stream is discharged into the atmosphere a life, such, for example, as an oil or germicide. substantial portion of said water will be converted it also has other uses in the arts. The above into vapor, varying said heating in accordance specification clearly discloses a process of mixing. with variations in the temperature of said stream two ?uids which can be conveniently termed a from said desired temperature to thus continu primary ?uid and a secondary ?uid. The pri ously attain said desired temperature, and dis mary. ?uid in the embodiment of the invention charging said heated stream into the atmosphere above discussed is, of course water, and the‘ at a rate so con'elated to said substantially uni secondary ?uid is oil or a germicide, but the form predetermined rate of pumpingand to said terms “primary ?uid” and “secondary ?ui " as desired temperature as to produce said nebulous used in the subjoined claims should not be so limited since the process can be used to produce an intimate heated mixture of other ?uids. The 1 two ?uids in passing through the elongated tortu ous passage of ‘the heater provided by the pipe w. 'coil ‘I are very intimately and due to turbulence therein. - uniformly mixed Spray. - 3. The method of producing a parasiticidal spray, which comprises, producing a mixture of water and a material immiscible therewith hav ing parasiticidal properties by adding a metered quantity of said material to ‘a proportionate quantity of said water, pumping said mixture The process has a high degree of’utility when. through an elongated heating zone under super-. ' either of the ?uids is of such a nature that it is atmospheric pressure in the form of a stream at readily vaporized byheat, since it is possible to a substantially uniform predetermined rate, said: control the vaporization by maintaining a sub pressure being su?iciently high to overcome any > stantial pressurein the coil, such pressure being frictional resistance to the ?ow of said stream and ' maintainedlargely by the impedance to the ?ow to impart thereto a velocity su?icient to maintain of ?uids o?ered by the calibrated orl?ce, oi’ the a substantially uniform dispersion of said ma‘ nozzle IS. The term "friction ahead" is used‘ to terial in said water during ?ow through said designate the pressure drop in the ncexle it due elongated heating zone, heating ‘said stream to the friction of the liquid passing therethrough. - din-'ing ?ow to‘ a desired temperature of such a ' This application is acontinuation in part of“ degree that'when we stream'is discharged into' ' ' ’ , our’ copending' application Berlin-558.358, filed an atmosphere at a pressure lower than said July 27,1931, entitled "Process'of forming plant superatmospheric pressure a substantial portion parasiticidal vapors". » We claim as our invention: ‘ ' . ' 1. The method of producing a nebulom para siticidal. spray.- which comprises, producing a mixtureoiwaterandoilbraddingapredeter , mined metered volume of said all‘ to a proper of said water vwill be convertedintn vapor. vary ins said heating in accordance with variations in 'the‘temperature oi’. said stream from said desired temperature to thus continuously attain sudde- . sired temperature, and discharging said heated stream into at a rate so cor tion’ate quantity of eaidwater at substantially ' related to eaidasubetantiaily uniiormvpredeter regular intervalaiorcing said mixtm'e of, water mined rate’of pumping and to said desired tem- and oil through'an elongated heating none under. perature as‘to produce said spray. superatmoepherlcpressure-intheform ofa?cw inlstreemoi'restrictederoeesecticneiareawith eu?icientveiocitytocameturbl?eneeofaeid" streem'in seid'lone. su?i ' " BENJAMIN cmx'ron. lwsnmamarcx. 1'0 BURY)‘. B'I‘AUI'.