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Патент USA US2123815

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July 12, 1938.
o` G. TWEDDELL
2,123,815
FUEL INJECTION PUMP
Filed nec. 2o, 1935
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Patented july l2, 1938
-rgATENT oFFicE
2,123,815
FUEL INJECTION PUMP
Gsear G. Tweddell, Detroit, Mich.
Àpplicatìon December 20, 1935, Serial No. 55,322
3 Claims. (Cl. 1103-41)
This invention relates to injectors for pump
ing iluids and particularly to an injector com
prising several associated pumping mechanisms
for producing a plurality of intermittent streams
5 of iluid in definite phase relationship with one
another.
One of the objects of this invention is to pro
vide an injector in which a plurality of pump
ing mechanisms are associated together and
10 driven by a common source of rotary power.
1t is a further object of this invention to drive
all of the associated pumping mechanisms with
a single cylindrical cam, the form of which may
easily be altered and adapted according to the
l5 purpose for which the injector is to be used so
that there may be produced any desired phase
relationship between the several pumping mech
anisms and consequently any desired phase re
lationship in the intermittent streams of fluid
20 produced by the several pumps.
Inasmuch as the injector herein disclosed is
adaptable for use in internal combustion en
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional
view taken along the lines 5-5 of Fig. 2.
As shown in Fig. 2, the pumping mechanism is
found within a cylindrical body II) provided in
wardly from the cylindrical surface thereof with d
six radially spaced pump chambers II of cylin
drical cross section, which extend upwardly from
the bottom of the body I0 and terminate in out
let holes i2 of reduced diameter. Ingress of
fluid into each of the pump chambers Il is had l@
through inlet holes I3, which at circumferential
ly spaced intervals extend from the surface of
the body I0 inwardly and communicate each with
a corresponding pump chamber II at a point
near the top thereof. The bottom of the cylin- l@
drical body I0 is provided with an axially cen
tered cylindrical' cam chamber It which is of
such diameter as to intersect the pump cham
ber II at approximately the centers thereof and
the depth of which is approximately half the 20
height of the body I0. From the bottom of the
cam chamber I4 an axially located bearing hole
gines, it is a further object of this invention to
provide each of the several pumps with a sepa
I5 extends upwardly to the top of the body I0,
the lower part of said bearing hole I5 being
rate by-passing valve and to provide means for
somewhat counter-bored to form a step I1 suit- 25
able for the insertion of a journal I8.
simultaneously and uniformly regulating each of
said valves so that each of Said pumping mech
anisms may be used to supply a uniformly regu
lated charge to one of the cylinders of such
30 engine.
~
A drive shaft IS extends downwardly through
the bearing hole I5 and journal I8 and termi
nates in a cylindrical cam 20 Àof dimensions
adapted to fit Within the cam chamber I4. yA 30
second drive shaft 2l of increased diameter ex
It is a further object of the invention to con
struct such an injector in a simple and com
tends downwardly from the bottom of the cylin
pact form to the end that manufacturing costs
drical cam 2li.
may be minimized and in a sturdy and rugged
35 form so that the serviceability of the injector
may thereby be enhanced.
The above and other objects will appear more
fully from the following detailed description ac
companied by references to the drawing forming
-10 a part hereof wherein is shown by way of illus
tration a satisfactory constructional example em
bodying the principles of the invention.
Within each of the pump chambers II is posi
tioned a piston 22 somewhat shorter in length 35
than the pump chamber II and of such diam
eter as to fit nicely therein, the lower part of
each of s'aid pistons being of half moon section
as at 24 so as to conform to the surface of the
cylindrical cam 2| which extends into the pump 40
chamber II. For imparting to each piston 22 a
reciprocating motion there is provided on its half
As shown in the drawing, Fig. 1 is a top view „ moon face 2d a horizontally projecting roller 25
of the injector with a portion of the top broken which engages a circumferential groove 2S in
the surface of the cylindrical cam 20, said groove 45
45 away so as to illustrate the actuation of the
2B being of rectangular section and in non
throttle mechanism;
conformity with the radial plane of the cam 2E.
Fig. 2 is a vertical, sectional view on an en
larged scale, taken along the lines 2-2 of Fig. l Means are provided for mounting the rollers 25
on the piston faces 25 and comprise, as shown
looking in the direction of the arrow;
50
Figs. 3 and 3d are fragmentary horizontal in Fig. 5, short pins 25a at one end press ñtted F (l
sectional viewstaken along the lines 3-3 of Fig. into the pistons 2li and carrying the rollers 25
on their projecting ends.
2, showing the operation of the throttle mech
As shown in Fig. 2 the cylindrical body I0 with
anism in_ diñerent positions;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional its associated mechanisms is surrounded by, and
5.5 view taken along the lines ¿i-ë of Fig. 2; and ñts closely within, a casing 2l of generally an- 55
2
2,123,815
nul'ar form. At the top of the casing 21 and
bolted to it by suitable bolts 28 is a valve plate 29
of disk-like form, which, extending across the top
of the body III, is provided with «a suitably dis
posed central aperture 3l through which projects
the aforementioned shaft I9. A ilanged support
ing piece 32 is likewise bolted to the -bottom of
the casing 21, the shaft 2| extending downwardly
through a journal 33 frictionally mounted in the
10 flanged supporting piece 32. In order to accom
modate the thrust resulting from the action of
the cylindrical cam 20 the upper part of the
journal 33 is provided with a flanged portion 34
which bears against the lower part of the cam 20.
15
Within the casing 21 is located an annular fluid
chamber 36 which may be suitably connected to
the fluid reservoir (not shown). Appropriate
channeling for conveying fluid from the fluid
chamber 36 to each of the pump chambers II is
supplied by circumferentially spaced apertures
therethrough of the shaft I8 and surrounding
Journal 51. The throttle plate 58 is encased
within a cover plate 58 provided .with a circular
flange 59 extending downwardly around the edge
of the throttle plate 55 to rest upon the top of
valve plate 29. A central aperture," in the coverV `
plate 58 allows the passage therethrough ot shaft
I9 and Journal 51.
As shown in Fig. 2, the top of the cover plate
58 is provided with a plurality oi' delivery orifices 10
6I, each located in alignment with one o! the
outlet passages 46. Communication between each
of the delivery oriiices. 6I andA its corresponding
outlet passage 46 takes place through a slot 88
extending through the throttle plate 55. the slots
15
66 being arced so as to remain at all times in
proper registration. The throttling action of
the throttle plate 55 is obtained by the action of
grooves 61 in the bottom of the throttle plate 55.
As shown in Figs. 3 and 3a, each of said grooves 20
31 extending upwardly from the fluid chamber 36,
is associated with one of the slots 68 and extends
from one end thereof tangentially outwardly to
deep groove 38 in the top surface of the casing 21, , wards the edge of the throttle plate 55. By rotat
each of which apertures communicates with a
each groove 38 extending radially inwardly'to
communicate with the respective outlet hole I2
associated with the corresponding pump cham
ber II. Each of the apertures 31 is provided with
ing the throttle plate 55 the outer end of each
of the grooves 61 may be brought into or out of 25
registration with the corresponding aforemen
tioned throttle return conduit 54.
a ball check valve 39 which seats on the top of
said aperture at its intersection with the asso
ciated groove 38, the seating force being derived
plate 55 and controlling the angular position
from the pressure of a spiral spring 4I located
within a suitably disposed spring chamber 42
extending upwardly within the valve plate 29.
For controlling the escape of fluid from the
pump chambers II each of the outlet holes I2
is provided with a ball check valve 43 and spiral
spring 45, both operating within a suitably aligned
upwardly extending cylindrical valve chamber
44 located within the valve plate 29. Near the
40
top and at the outside edge of each of the valve
chambers 44 an outlet passage 46 of reduced
diameter extends upwardly* to thetop surface of
the valve plate 29 for conveying to the throttle
mechanism to be described, the liquid passed by
the ball check valve 43.
In order to regulate and limit the pressure
which may be developed by the individual pumps,
each of the same is furnished with a by-passing
mechanism which comprises, as shown most
Means are provided for actuating the throttle
thereof and comprise a rack 69 operating in a
horizontally directed hole 1I in one side of the
cover plate 58 and engaging a toothed section 18
in the edge of the throttle plate 55. A stop rod
12 extending forwardly from the end of the rack
69 is provided at its end with a locked pair of nuts 35
13 which by their engagement with the surface
of the cover plate 58 limit the movement of the
rack 69.
Depending upon the use to which the injector
may be devoted, the delivery oriñces 8I may be
joined together to a common delivery tube (not
shown) or each delivery orifice 6I may be con
nected to a distinct delivery tube as will be the
case where the purpose is to furnish iluid to a
cylinder of an internal combustion engine. Like
wise, the shaft of cam 28 issubject to change
both in the number of throws per turn and the
„character of the throws so as to suit the par
ticular application at hand.
clearly in Fig. 1, a plurality of angularly spaced
by-passing conduits 41 each associated with one
of the cylindrical holes 44 and extending hori
zontally outwardly therefrom to the edge of valve
plate 29, each of said holes being counterbored
to form valve chambers 48, ball check valves 58
seating on the shoulders 49 formed by the coun
terboring. Hollowed plugs 5I, each threaded
The operation of the device is as follows:
Rotation of the drive shaft 2| and the cam 28
mounted thereon causes the pistons 22 to recipro
cate by reason of the engagement o! rollers 25
with the slot 26 in the surface of cam 28. The
into the outer end of a valve chamber 48 and
ball check valves 39 and 43 functioning in a man
locked in position by a lock nut 52, contain spiral
springs 53 which urge the ball check valves 58
into seated position. Return flow conduits 64 ex
tend downwardly from the valve chambers 48
through the bottom of the valve plate 29 and the
upper portion of the casing 21 to communicate
with the liquid reservoir, thus providing a drain
age for liquid passed by the ball check valve 58.
To provide a return flow for the throttling mech
anism, subsequently to be described, each of the
valve chambers 48 is provided at its inner end
70 with throttle return conduit 54 extending up
wardly to the top surface of valve plate 29.
`
Means for throttling the output from each of
the associated pumps comprise a throttle plate 55
mounted on the top of the valve plate 29 and
centrally apertured at 56 to allow the passage
reciprocating motion of the pistons 22 draws
liquid from the liquid chamber 36 and pumps the
same into the respective valve chambers 44. the
ner well understood.
Depending upon the adjustment of the plugs
5I and the stiffness of the springs 53, a portion
of the liquid thus pumped may be shunted past
valves 50 and downwardly through conduit 84 into
the fluid reservoir 36.
That part of the liquid not passed by the valves
58 is forced upwardly through the conduits 48
and into slots 66 in the throttle plate 55. If the
throttle plate is positioned as shown in Fig. 3,
with the grooves 61 in full registration with the
throttle return conduits 54, substantially all of 70
the liquid will escape through the grooves 61 and
conduits 54 and return downwardly to the liquid
reservoir 36.
On the other hand, if, as shown in Fig. 3a, the
grooves 81 are but in partial registration with the 75
y2,123,815
conduits 5,4, onlya portion of the liquid pumped
turn ñow conduits communicating with said fluid
Will-so escape and the remainder will be delivered
lsource and intersecting the surface of said valve I ' ` l
through therespective outlets 6|. Likewise, the
plate at points uniformly distant from the center 5
of said valve plate, a throttle plate positioned on'
the surface of said valve plate and rotatable about
throttle plate 55 may be adjusted so that there
is no registration, in _which case al1 the liquid
will be delivered to the outlets 6l.
As _appears from the foregoing description, the
- amount of liquid delivered is subject to accurate
control, rack 69 serving to regulate the position
10 `of throttle plate 55.
Inasmuch as the grooves 61
extend not radially Vbut tangentially, the ratio of
>change of angular position of the throttle> plate
to change of registration of the ygrooves 61 with
f the conduits 5v4'is relatively great, and lends pre
cision to the action of the throttle plate 55. The
provision of stop bolts 13 prevents the rotationof
the throttle plate 55 beyond the position of full
registration.
l
an axis coincident with the center of said valve '
plate, said Vthrottle plate- being provided with v
throttling passages each communicating continu'- ,
ouslylwith one of said outlet passages, said throt-l
tling passages in one position of said throttle plate 10I
each being in registration with one of said return
flow conduits, and means for rotating said throt
tle plate so as partially or Wholly to destroythe
registration between said vthrottling passages and'
said'return flow conduits, said means comprising
a plurality of gear teeth on the periphery of said
valve plate and a manually operable member for
engaging said teeth to adjust said throttle plate.'
3. In a device of the character described, a
Although there has been described but one
20 specific embodiment of the invention, it will be ' main substantially cylindrical housing, a plurality 20
understood by those familiar in the art, that '.of cylinders formed therein and concentrically
spaced about the axis of said housing, a plurality
numerous changes and alterations may be made
in the invention disclosed without departing from of pistons, each slidably mounted in one of said
the spirit `and scope thereof commensurate with cylinders, a valve plate abutting said housing'at
25 the appended claims.
the delivery end thereof, a valve cover plate abut
l. An injector comprising a plurality of pumps
ting said valve plate and having a cylindrical_
recess in its under surface and having for each
e actuated by a common source of power, each of
of said cylinders a discharge conduit communicat- .
I claim:
'
said pumps being operatively connected to a fluid
30 source and provided with a separate outlet pas
sage, a valve plate provided with a plurality of
return ñow conduits communicating with said
fluid source and intersecting the surface of said
valve plate at points uniformly distant from the ’
center of said. valve plate, a throttle plate posi
tioned on the surface of said valve plate and
rotatable about an axis coincident with the center
of said valve plate, said throttle plate being pro
vided with throttling passages each communi
40 eating continuously with one of said outlet pas
sages, said throttling passages in one position of
said throttle plate each being in registration with
one of said return ñow conduits, and means for
rotating said throttle plate so as partially or
45 wholly to destroy the registration between said
throttling passages and said return ñow conduits.
2. An injector comprising a plurality of pumps
actuated by a common source of power, each of
said pumps being operatively connected to a fluid
50 source and provided with a separate outlet pas
sage, a valve plate provided with a plurality of re
ing with said recess, said valve plate having for
each of said cylinders an outlet conduitl furnish yso
ing communication from said cylinders to said
recess, exhaust valves, one in each of said outlet
conduits, said valve plate having for each of said
cylinders a relief conduit communicating with
Said outlet conduit on the exhaust side of the 35
exhaust valve therein contained, relief valves,'one`
in each of said relief conduits, a throttle plate
mounted for rotation in said cylindrical recess,
and having for each of said cylinders a slot
formed to remain in registry with one of said 40
outlet conduits and one of said discharge conduits
upon rotation of said throttle plate, said valve
plate having foreach of said cylinders a by-pass
conduit communicating with said recess and each
of said slots having a by-pass extension register 45
able with one of said by-pass conduits upon rota
tion of said throttle plate, and means for securing
said valve plate and said cover plate to- said
housing.
~
.
-
`
OSCAR.' G. TWEDDELL.
50
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