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Патент USA US2123978

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July 19, 1938.' ’
w. c. WAGNER
Filed Dec. '7, 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 2 -
July 19, 193s.
w_ ¢_ WAGNER
Filed Dec. '7, 1935
5 Sheets-»Sheet 5
_July 19,1938.
Filed Dec. '7. 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented July 1e, 193s
2,123,978 ~
Walter C. Wagner, Ardmore, Pa.
Application December "l, 1935, Serial No. 53,323
9 claims.
This invention relates to meteringV the flow of
liquids, gases and vapors, and in particular to
the metering of the ñow of steam.
Heretofore steam or fluid meters have bee
(n rather complicated, and their performance, par
ticularly at light loads as related to rating, has
-been relatively unsatisfactory.
One object of my invention is to provide a
meter built along relatively simpler lines, and
which can be constructed at a lower cost than
the present types.
Another object of my invention is to provide
best understood from the following description
of specific embodiments, which will be given in
connection with the accompanying drawings, in
Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in section,
of a device embodying features of the invention.
Figure 2 is a detail of a modification of the cam ,
contacting device.
Figurev 3 is a top view of Figure 2.
Figures 4 and 5 are details of additional modifi
cations of the cam contacting device. '
Figure 6 is a modification of the cam contact
in a single meter a more accurate means of meas
ing device to insure greater accuracy at low
whereby in a single meter a plurality of cams
can be arranged to operate in different load
sator into one meter case.
uring down to extremely small loads.
Figure 'l is a modification of Figure 6.
A further object of my invention is to provide
Figures 8 and 9 are a side and an edge view
a meter which within itself will compensate for
of another modification of Figure 6. '
variations in the pressure of the supply.
Figure 10 is a modification of Figure 1, ar
Othervobjects of the invention will appear from
the following description at the end of which ranged so that electrical impulses may be trans 20
mitted to a pressure compensator in accordance
20 the invention will be claimed.
Myinvention consists essentially of a pressure with my co-pending application No. 30,209 ñled
tight housing, which incloses a float connected July 6, 1935.
Figure 11 is a. modification of Figure l in which
by suitable linkages to an integrating mecha
the differential meter herein described is me
nism. An extension of theprinciples makes pos
sible the application of mechanical arrangements chanically combined with my pressure compen 25
Figure 12 is a-modification of Figure 1, in which
the electric motor drive is replaced by a spring
driven mechanism.
tions on the same integrating mechanism.
Figures 13 and 14 are modifications of Fig 30
Generally, but more specifically stated, the in- n
ranges, and to integrate their respective deflec
vention consists in an integrating registering or
recording mechanism, a plunger for actuating
said mechanism, means for reciprocating the
plunger with a constant number of strokes per
unit of time, said means including a yieldable
connection, a step cam device aligned with the
plunger and adapted to limit its stroke in ac
cordance with the position of the cam device
since the position of the cam device varies with
the load on the meter, one or more float devices
each respectively responsive either to the dilfer
ential pressure across an orifice or to the up
stream or absolute pressure on the orifice, connec
tions between one of the float devices and the cam
device and connections between the' other float
device and the plunger and the integrating regis
tering or recording mechanism, the iirst men
tioned connection being available for operation
due to differential pressure even at low load and
both of said connections being `available for
operation with pressure compensation, as desired.
The invention also comprises the improvements
-to be presently described and finally claimed.
The invention broadly and both as to detailsv
55 of construction and combination of parts will be
ure 12.
Figure 15 is a perspective view of a modified
form of casing, and
Figure 16 is a modification of the device shown
in Figure 13.
Referring to Figure 1, the meter consists of a
pressure-tight housing l into which is screwed.
a spark plug 2, which provides a pressure-tight
means of making an electrical connection to the
constant-speed electric motor 3, said motor pro
viding impulses at uniform intervals for actu
ating the meter register. Worm 4 mounted on
the shaft of motor 3 engages Worm gear 5, im
parting uniform rotation to the latter. Pin 6
attached to worm gear 5 presses against loose 45
collar 'l on connecting rod 8, and due to the
compression of spring 9, pin 6 is normally con
strained toward the extreme end of slot in con-Í
necting rod 8. The reciprocating motion of
connecting rod 8 is imparted to the plunger rod
I0 moving in guides, the extreme or contacting
end of plunger l0 being fitted with an adjustable
cap H to permit of proper zero setting. The
limit of travel of plunger I0 is determined by
the edge of cam I2. When contact between 55
plunger le and cam l2 occurs before worm gear
' d has >completed a half revolution, further mo
tion of pin 6 is permitted by slot in rod 8 and
by additional compression of spring t (the worm
which is mountedin the pipe assembly 3d.
The .
above pressure diiîerential is then communicated _
vby tubes or pipes 3l and 32, and thence, respec-=
tively, into the meter space 3S and the annular
gear 5 being _shown here as rotating in a clock
chamber ed. The spaces 35 and Se in chambers,
During the ñnal half-revolution above the level of the mercury, are ñlled ywith
oi’> worm-wheel 5, »the return motion of plunger water, as is also space til, below the bottom line
l@ commences as soon as pin Segeln reaches the - ofthe oil inthe chamber sil-_it being understood
« end oí the îslot, and the cycle is completed when that the housing l is filled with oil. The cham'
pin e returns to'the starting position,> shown in 1 ber space 'de >will then be subject to the lower
dottedV lines at b-A. The resultant reciprocat pressure, and the chamber space be, which is open
ing motion of plunger l@ is transmitted, by means at the top, will be subject >to the higher pressure.
`of racl’` i3,” to gear lll turning freely on shaft l5. The mercury level in chamber 2d will then -fall,
To gear i@ isv fastened arm l@ and segment il. g and the level in chamber i3d will rise, the two
chambers being so proportioned that the greater 15.
15 The oscillating motion of segment ll is com
municated to ratchet wheel ld by means of pawls part of the motion will occur in chamber lili, duei
is, the mtter being soA spaced or staggered as to. -to the relatively greater horizontal area of cham
permit advancing 'ratchet wheel ld fractional ber 3d.
distances of one tooth. A stationary segment
lt is understood that the above pipe connec=
2li and set >of pawls, similar- in construction to tions may be reversed, depending upon the pre
segment il and pawls lb, prevent reverse motion ferred orientation of cam l2, so that chambers
of ratchet wheel i@ on the return stroke oi arm il@ and 35 become, respectively, the low pressure
it. mie intermittent unidirectional rotation of and high pressure chambers, so that an increase
ratchet wheel lll is communicated by usual means in the pressure diñ‘erential at the orifice 2Q will
25 to register dial pointers 2l which revolve in front v cause themercury in chamber «3d to fall.
of dials 22. 'Motor 3, worm d, worm gear 5, pin d,
By way oi further' explanation it may be said
collar l, spring d, rod 3, plunger lll, rack lii,‘gear that as shown in 4Flgiu‘e l. there is a partition
ifi, shaft l5, arm le, pawls l@ and ratchet-wheel separatingthe casing into upper and lower parts
' lll thus form a variable-stroke, synchronous, '-33 and ‘dfi and 2li is anopen ended tube extending
30 reciprocating, step-by-step compressible motor through the partition and dipping into the lower
, means.
part oí the chamber i3d.
The degree oi? motion Yoi plunger l@ is limited ’
Toe bottom of mercury chamber 3d is a close
by cam i2 whose contact edge is cut into a series ' i’ltting piston 3@ which may be moved up or down
of numerous small steps> whose edges are, _res
'to adjust themercury level for zero load. The
35 spectively, parallel and at right angles to the clearance between piston'and the inner wall ci
contacting end ll 'of plunger, so that there shall the mercury chamber 8d is a minimum, to pre-u
be, during the time of contact between plunger vent leakage of the mercury past the piston. ln
and cern,- no resultant force tending to bend or addition, a pipe
communicates between the
move either the plunger or cam in a vertical di»
general meter space 33 and the‘clearance space
underneath'piston dil, so that the diid’erence in
40 rection. ri‘he contour of cam isinl the general
i wise direction).
shape of a parabola whose axis lies on the line
»23 and verter at the point 26'.' Vertical motion
of the cam‘lä is caused by ñoat iioating on the
pressure~ on opposite sides of the piston shall be
no greater than the actual pressure diderential
being measured, plus the pressure head due to
the height .ci the mercury column. To provide a
being transmitted to cam l2 by means of the iioat f pressureßtight seal and at the same time permit
il is provided with a vertical strip l of an occasional adjustment of the mercury level,
which is i’ree to move vertically in dried guide 2l, piston 3b is provided with a threaded extension
the latter being placed so as to be horizontally „dll which is screwed through a bottom projection
opposite plunger ld, to eliminate
possible oiq chamber, and provided with a locking nut.
bending moment >on cam l2 due to the rorceof The adjustment is covered by means oi cap di, 50
contact. The lower guide is provided by the' float melting a presstu'e-tight seal.
itseli,I there being only a small clearance between .
A diíerent type of cam structure is shown in
neat, and the cylindrical chamber or tube 2li, Figures 2 and 3, in which the cam 02e, originally
surface of the mercury 2S, the motion ci' float 25
` so that any1 error introduced by lateral motion oi’
laid out in a shape similar to cam it’ ci Figure
l, is bent into a cylindrical shape and fastened 55
to the inner surface of the cylinder
the latter
' plunger l@ and camV lâ wld occur before a half being fastened to the stem of the ñoat 25 (Fig. l)
ì, revolutlon'of worm wheel E has been completed; ' and provided with a vertical strip moving in guide
and subsequent motion of pin il in the slot will, 2l? oi’ a stationary supporting bracket di), to pre
@il by the compression of spring il, press plunger l@ vent rotatlon of the cylinder. Gear dd, bevel gear
against cam l2 with sumcient iorce to prevent dii and collars ¿le are mounted on hollow spindle
¿il and rotate as one unit, the upper end or“ brack
free vertical motion of the latter after said con
et d3 acting as one bearing. Alignment of the
tact has been made. There will be no registra
tion error, since the construction insures a- com= spindle is insured by the ñoat stem, which is free
65 plete release of constraint due to said contact, `to move vertically thru spindle lll, the latteralso 85
after some instant during the return motion ci ,acting as a bearing or upper guide for the rioat
‘pin il, after which'ñoat 255 and cam l2 are free stem.K Rack de, fastened to the end ci’ plunger
`to assume a new position properly related to the
lb“, meshes with gear dd' so that linear motion oi’
level oi‘ mercury 2%, previous to the next forward plunger lila is >converted into angular motion of »
spindle ¿il which carries at itsl lower end project
70 registration strolre oi plunger le.
Thernotlon of iìoat 25 is determined by the level ing ¿finger di] which swings around and maires
of the liquid
(in this case mercury) winch in contact with cam lîß. Adjustment of the zero
turn is determined by the dlñîerence in pressure position of plunger lllß is by means of the turn
bucMe-coupling 5d. The oscillating motion of -.
between the steam at the upstream and' down
stream sides of the standard oriñce plate 2@ gear dd is transmitted thru bevel gears d5 and 75
heat shall be negligible.
¿it all loads less than full load, contact between
5I to gear 52, which transmits its motion to the
register mechanism in the same manner as is
done by gear I4 in Figure 1.
A second modification of the cam mechanism
is shown in Figure 4. Here the cam I 2b is laid out
on polar coordinates, the edges of the steps being
radii and circular arcs, but maintaining the orig
inal parabolic (or square root) relationship be
tween the horizontal movement permitted the
plunger IIBb and the degree of angular motion of
the cam, the latter being directly proportional to
the vertical motion of float stem. Gear 53 and
cam I2b are mounted on shaft 54, gear 53 mesh
ing with rack 55 which is fastened to the float
stem. Zero adjustment of the plunger I0b is made
by means of screw tip I Ib.
A third modification of the cam structure I2c
is shown in Figure 5. The layout of the contact
surface of cam I2c is basically the same as for
20 the cam of Figure 4 except that due to the limita
tions of the structure of Figure 5, cam I2ß is de
signed to be rotated thru a maximum angle not
exceeding, say, 90°. Cam I2c is fastened to arm
56 which is pivoted on shaft 51, cam and arm
25 being balanced by a. counter-weight. Float stem
moves arm 56 by means of pin 58 which engages
slot 59. Guide 60 maintains the float stem in a
fixed vertical line.
A fourth modification of the cam structure is
30 shown in Figure 6, which permits of greater ac
curacy at low ßload readings. Due to the charac
teristics of the parabolic lcontour of cam I2 in
Figure 1, since a minimum vertical distance is
required on each of the steps to insure a positive
35 stop for plunger I0, the horizontal distance be
tween successive steps increases at the lower end
of the cam, corresponding to low load values, with
the result that there are fewer steps on the cam
between the zero and 50% load positions of the
plunger than between 50% load _and full load,
and this condition is aggravated as lower loads
are reached. The same limitation applies equally
to the cylindrical cam of Figure 2 and the radial
plate cams of Figures 4 and 5. Assuming the ne
; cessity of such steps or notches,- accuracy can
only be increased by increasing their number.
This is accomplished in Figure 6 by employing
two simultaneously operating cams I2d and I2°
the full> load cam- I 2d, whereas the smooth por
tion 66 of rack 55e will slide along the smooth
convex surface 65 and the edge of the last tooth
of sector 63, without causing any further rotation '
of sector and consequently without further rota
tion of cam I2°. On the return travel o_f the float
stem, spiral spring 66 provides for positive reen
gagement of sector 63 and rack 55". It will be
evident from the figure thatcam IZ'-l must make
less than one revolution, to prevent contact 4be 10
tween plunger Ille and cam I2e at higher loads
with consequent falsification of the registration.
Also in Figure 6, gear B1 and arm 68 are mount
ed on a common shaft. Plunger I0d is recipro
cated by motor 3 (Fig. l) and plunger I0° is re
ciprocated by the connection comprised by arm
68. Forward motion of plunger II)d to the right
causes arm 68 to swing to the right by means of
pin and slot connection 68. The motion of arm r
68 is communicated to plunger I0° by means of 20
slot or notch 10 engaging pin 1 I. Since the angu
lar speed of cam I2e is greater than that of cam
I2d, the steps in the contour of cam I2e will recede
inward at a faster rate than will those of cam
I2d, consequently the forward speed of plunger
IEIe must be greater than the forward speed ~of
plunger Il),d in a ratio which is equal to the angu
lar speed ratios of cams I2e and I2“, This ratio
is obtained by suitably proportioning the effec
tive lever arm length between the pivot of the arm 30
68 and pin 1I, and between that pivot and pin
at 69. To prevent further motion of plunger I0’
beyond the limit set by cam I2e, slot or notch 10
is cut open at the extreme end of arm 68 so that
when said limit is reached, the rear or pushing 35
end 12 is of such a length that it will disengage
pin 1 I , thereby permitting further motion of arm
68 to the full load position. On the return motion
of arm 68, the extra length of the forward end 13
of slot will cause positive reengagement of the 40
slot and pin 1I. During the low load position,'in
which it is desired to govern the travel of plunger
I0d entirely by means of cam I2e, cam I2d is cut
away so that plunger tip I Id will contact cam I2d
only when cam I2‘_3 has turned thru its complete 45
range. During this interval, contact between
plunger mechanism and cams is entirely thru
plunger tip IIe.
cam I2<1l corresponding to the cam of the preced
ing figures and being operated over the entire load
A modification of the mechanism connecting
the two plunger rods in Figure 6 is shown in Fig
range from zero to full load, while cam I2e is
ure '1.
operative only from zero to, say 20% load. Both
common shaft.
cams are preferably of the same size, their me
rod Illf meshes with gear 14.
chanical interconnection being such that cam i2e
are mounted on common shaft.
moves from zero thru its entire range while cam ‘
fractional load plunger I0“, meshes with _sector 55
11. Motion of plunger IIlt is then communicated
to plunger I0! thru gear 14, sectors 15, 16 and 11.
When plunger Ißf has completed a predetermined
I2d moves from zero to a predetermined frac
tional part of full _load range, this being, prefer
ably up to 20% Aor one-fifth of full load. The
cam of Figure 4 is shown asbelng so used in Fig
60 ure 6, although it is understood that any of the
cam types shown so far may be combined for this
purpose by means of suitable linkage or gearing.
»Referring to Figure 6, full load cam I2d and
gear 53d are mounted on a common shaft. Rack
55d, carried on the float stem, meshes with gear
53d. Fractional load cam I2e and gear 6I are
mounted on a common-shaft. Sectors 62 and 53
are mounted on another common shaft.
55e, carried on the iioat stem, meshes with sector
63 and sector 62 meshes with gear 6I. After the
float stem has risen to a point where cam I2d has
turned thru 20% of its range, cam I2° has turned
thru its complete range, due to the multiplying
action of gear 6I and sector 62. Further upward
75 motion of the float stem will continue rotation of
Sector 15 and gear 14 are mounted on a
Rack carried on full load plunger
Sectors 16 and 11
Rack, carried on
fractional part of its stroke, the smooth convex
surface 18 of sector 16 will slide along the edge 80
of the last tooth and the convex surface 19 of
sector 15 without causing any further rotation of
sector 15 and consequently without causing fur
ther motion of plunger |02, which will have
reached the limit of its travel. The spiral spring 85
80 will then cause positive reengagement of sectors
16 and 15 on the return travel of plunger Inf.
A modification of the mechanism connecting
the two cams in Figure 6 is shown ‘in Figures 8
and 9. Gears SI and 82 are mounted on a com
mon shaft. Cam I2“ and pinion 83 rotate as one
unit, being threaded internally and turning on the
ñxed screw 8l. Gear BI meshes with pinion 83,
which is suii‘iciently long to remain always in
mesh therewith, and rack 55h, carried on float
Figure 11 shows a modification whereby the de
stem,l meshes with ge ¿82. Only the fractional
load cam i211 is
in Figures 8 and 9 and - vice of Figure 1 is combined with my pressure v
the connection‘to the >full load cam at the upper
` end of the ñoat stem being the same as in Figure
5 k6. The construction of Figures 8 and 9 permits
the full load and fractional load cams to be inter
connected at all times, without temporary dis
engagement'oí their connecting drive. Inthis
mochtication, slot ‘le is made the same as slot
in Fig. 6. Cam i211 is bent into a helical vform
compensator in a single meter ' housing.
pressure compensator ñoat mechanism consists
of a cylindrical mercury container 9b separated
from walls Si of the meter housing. The ¿ligure
shows the pressure compensator ñoat mecha
nisrn to the left of the differential pressure ñoat
chamber Sit. The pressure compensator mercury
container consists of annular chamber s@ whose
having the same pitch as the ñxed screw td, so lower part is ñiled with mercury and whose upper
that during its entire range the‘steps'on cam lâh _ part 92 contains an entrapped gas, such as air,
will be able to contact the plunger tip lih for >the ~ which is noncon'densible at ordinary tempera
full axial. width of said steps. As the iloat stem
l5. continues to rise, further rotation of cam i211 will
cause it, together with pinion t3, to progress
axially along screw tél so that at the end of one
complete revolution the cam is completely to one
' side of plunger tip Mh, said process continuing as
y'long as the float stemcontinues to rise. On the
downward motion of the ñoat stem as the load
drops, cam §21i will again progress along screw di!
and will be brought into position opposite plungerl
tip> i B15-remaining in said operating position only
25 throughout the low load' operating range.
The device shown in Figure 6, with its modiíica
tures; a large cylindrical chamber
and a
smallercylindrical chamber Sil. Float Q5 rides on
the mercury column in the latter chamber, which
is open at its lower end and communicates with
chamber 9d.. The upper end of chamber @il opens .
directly into chamber @3, which in turn is open at
the top. Space 96 and chambers b3, tél, 35 and 36,
below the oil in vthe housing, y and above the
mercury levels in said chambers, are filled with
water. It will be understood that the meter body y
above is iilled with oil. The mercurycontainer
@t is arranged to be vertically adjustable while in y25
service by means of a threaded projecting stem, '
tions ,shown- in lFigures '7, 8 and 9, is `primarily ` lock-nut and pressure-tight cap, similar in every
designed to increase the number of teeth or steps '
respect to the- vertical adjustment provided for
in the cam at low loads. It will be evident to
those skilled in the art that in actual construction
the steps in all of the cams shown in Figures l
to il inclusive may be made much smaller and
the piston Stof the diñerentiall. pressure meter
more closely spaced than shown in the figures,
their smailness being limited only by the necessity
ci making a positive _contact with the edge oi the
plunger rod tip.
» 1
Figure l0 shows a'ineans whereby the device
may have its function combined with that of my
pressure compensating meter. The device shown
in Egure l0 is mainly identical with that of Fig
ure l, except that the register gear train is
iloat chamberjtlfly
y '
Float t5 is prevented from rising out of cham
ber tli‘upon release of pressure by stops till. The
vertical motion of neat stem te, moving in guide
"titi, is translatedl into angular motion of cam
leverV it@ and pivotal cam liti, by means of slot 35
and pin connection i532. Cam follower itil, con
tacting the surface ci* cam' âlili, is rigidly Vat
tached to bar tilt which forms a connecting
yolre between the-two bearings ißt. The latter
are pivotally connected :to arms ißt which swing iov
about fixed bearings. The rising and falling of
omitted, registration being accomplished on the 'cam follower it@ with variations in pressure, due
f pressure compensating meter. As in Figure i, ' to the movement of ?loat S35, will then cause
connecting bar itil and bearings ille to change
the magnitude of the periodic reciprocating mo
tion of the plunger rod is limited by the contour of position, always keeping parallel to their original
com iii. The motion of rack.
is transmitted horizontal alignment, and carrying with them
to sector it, arm it, and segment il', which are
auxiliary shaft ibi, which is free to move length
rigidly connected as one unit and rotate freely
on shaft lb pawls i9 being pivotally mounted on
wise thru bearings i635.
Tëilunger shaft i@ receivesa periodic axial re
segment ill. Ratchet wheel it and cam 85 ro- y ciprocating motion from a driving motor, similar
tate together and are fastened to shaft iEi, their to the arrangement of Figure l, said motion be
ing transmitted by means oi rack it, sector lil
periodicl angular advance being in a counter
clccliwlse direction, as shown in the figure. and arm it to a ratchet wheel mechanism and
Mercury switch et is supported in holder free to .thence to a set oi’ register dials as anuncom
swing about aids ill. ¿in arm, fastened to the pensated steam ñow reading, the arrangement
holder, terminates in cam iollower lit. As cam ' `being similar to the device shown in Figure l.
@il rotates, its contour will periodically raise >cam The motion of plunger l@ is transmitted to lever
‘follower tid, thereby tilting mercury switch t@ it@ by means of pin and slot connection tile.
so that the mercury will ñow to the left-hand end Lever itil is free to swing about fixed bearing,
and its motion is transmitted to auxiliary shaft
oi switch-making an electrical connection be
tween electrical contacts
Figure l0 shows the it?! by means of slot and pin connection lit.
device in the closed contact position. Upon The degree oi motion of plunger it and shaft
closing said contact, an impulse is transmitted to itl will then always be in a definite ratio de
pending upon the relative length of the effective
the pressure compensating meter and is reg
istered thereon. .After the high point ~of- one ofv lever arm to the pin and slot connections tilt and
the teeth on cam tit has passed camiollower tit, il@ a vertical displacement oi shaft or rod it?
the latter will fall radially inward toward shaft either up or' down will vary the above ratio.
Rach iii, mounted on shaft or rod itl, engages
lâ, thereby tilting mercury switch @t in the op
gear M2 which is on shaft lit, journaled in
posite direction, and opening the electrical con
tact. ït will be seen that the number of electrical bearings. Inl order to keep rack lil and gear
impulses transmitted in a given time interval by il@ constantly in mesh at all positions of rack
mercury switch @t is proportional to the number il i, the axial length of gear lit’ is greater than
the width of the face- of rack iii. The oscil
of revolutions of cam t5 during the said time in
terval, winch in turn is proportional to the rate lating motion oi gear H2 is then transmitted by
a ratchet wheel mechanism similar to that shown
of steam ñow.
_in Figure 1, to a second setcf register dials as motor 0 is connected to a source of electric cur
Although for clarity of illustration my inven
a compensated steam flow reading.
The device of Figure 11 is shown at the zero
or return position of plunger I0. In this position
tion has been shown as consisting 0f a. rectanguá
lar case or shell containing the greater part of the 5
mechanism, with a set of cylindrical casings con
lever |08 and. shaft IIS are parallel, so that a
shift in position offauxiliary shaft |01, dueto a
variation in steam pressure at this time. will not
cause motion of gear II2 and consequent regis
taining the float chambers, neverthelesss it will
be understood by those skilled in the art -that the
general shape of the meter housing may be con
‘ tration independently of the motion of plunger I0.
If a compensated reading only is desired, rack
siderably altered without departing from the
I3, sector I4 and all the associated ratchet wheel
and register gear mechanism may be omitted.
Counter-weights attached to arms |06. almost
wholly compensate for the combined weight of
15 arms, bearings |05, yoke |04, and shaft |01 so that
the necessary work done by cam IOI in raising
l case of my pressure compensators.
Mercury is preferably used as the float 15
actuating liquid in the differential pressure float
chamber, since for the pressure differentials en~
cam follower |03 shall be a minimum.
countered in practise the use of any other com
mon liquid of lesser density would cause an ex
To facilitate >adjustment of the mechanism,
markings I2A’may be attached to the differential
cessively long vertical travel of the differential 20
20 pressure cam I2 and markings IOIA to the pres
sure compensating cam I|0I (Figure 11).
spirit of my invention. For example, the
entire mechanism may be enclosed in a cylin
drical body as shown in Fig. 15 at IA, as in the
ñoat and cam between zero and the end of the
operating range. In the case of the pressure
markings co-operate with fixed guide 21 and
cam follower |03, respectively. Said scales are
preferably mounted adjacent to the register-dials
compensator, any other liquid which will not be
diluted or added to by extraneous fluids may be `
used, the exact density of said liquid being im
material, since with the comparatively large op
erating pressure encountered in service, the level
of the liquid in the compensator float chamber is
determined mainly by the compressibility of the
25 of the meter and being visible thru the cover
glass. The scale pertaining to the differential
pressure cam is marked to indicate the proper
zero load position of said cam, while the scale
pertaining to the pressure compensating cam is
gas in the space S2.
30 directly calibrated to read in pounds pressure.
Figure 12 shows a modification of the driving
mechanism of Figure 1, which eliminates. the
In the modincation shown in Fig. 11, pipe 3|
communicates with the space between piston 38
and the bottom of the chamber.
necessity for a source of electric current to actuate
the registration mechanism. A spring-wound `
In operation, the mercury chambers are filled
35 with mercury to a predetermined height or level,
motor 3‘ imparts its motion to a drivinggear 35
I il (shown in the figure behind the main body of
and the rest ofthe space within the meter hous
the spring motor), said gear meshing with pinion
ling is filled with electric insulating oil, which also
acts as a lubricant for the various moving parts of
Pinion IIS, gear IIS and bevel gear H1
are mounted on common shaft. Gear I I6 meshes
the meter mechanism. Before installation, and
with gear I I8, the latter gear being mounted with
40 with both upstream and downstream connecting
arm IIS on common shaft |20. The rotation of
pipe taps 2| and 32 open to the atmosphere
(giving an _equalized pressure condition corre
sponding to zero load) , the position of the pointer
on the scale is noted, and if there is a deñection
45 from the zero indication, the vpiston forming the
bottom of the chamber is raised'or lowered until
zero load position is correctly indicated. The
~ same procedure is followed for adjusting the po
sition of the float and cam of Figure 1, which
does not contain the pressure compensating
To adjust the pressure compensating mecha
.nism of Figure 11, oil pressure with a test pres
sure gauge is applied to the upstream pipe tap
55 (the downstream or low pressure pipe-being tem
porarily capped) and the reading of the pointer
attached to the pressure compensating cam is
gear II8 imparts a reciprocating motion to con
necting rod 8 and plunger I0 in a manner similar
to the device of Figure 1. The speed o'f the
mechanism is controlled by a speed governor (not 45
shown) preferably of the escapement wheel type.
Due to the fact that the speed of a spring-driven
mechanism gradually becomes less as unwinding
of the spring proceeds, the revolutions of gear
III will not always occur at uniformly spaced 50
time intervals. To avoid the more expensive ar
rangements which are necessary to compensate
for diminishing spring power in an accurate
time-keeping. device, Figure 12 shows a definite
and reliable manner in which such variations
may be compensated for. Bevel gear II1 meshes
with bevel pinion I2I, the latter being mounted
on the shaft of revolution counter |22. The gear
noted; if said pressure reading is not the same as ‘ ratio between bevel gears I I1 and I2I is preferably
that indicated on the test gauge, the entire mer~
cury chamber of the pressure compensating mech
anism is adjusted up or down by means of the
the same as the gear ratio between gears IIS andY
III, so that for each complete revolution of gear
II'8, the revolution counter |22 shall register one
threaded. adjusting stem underneath until the ‘ additional digit. lThe difference between the read
pointer indicates the correct pressure.
After both load and pressure adjustments have
been made, the sealing caps underneath the mer
cury chambers are screwed into place and the
device is ready for installation. The steam pres
sure acting on the space within the meter com
ings of counter |22 at two separate times will
then indicate the number , of oscillations of 65
plunger I0 during this interval. Knowing from
preceding tests on the meter before being installed
'in service what the normal number of such oscil
lations should be during a given unit of time, and
by making note of the actual elapsed time he
70 presses >the gas at 92, forcing the mercury level _tween two successive readings of the steam cen
from chamber 94 dow'n to'chamber 90, within sumption, then by dividing said number of oseil
the operating range of float. The condensed
water accompanying the steam will eventually
displace vall oil below the level H4. Operation
75 of the meter will then commence as soon as
lations as recorded on counter |22 by the ex
pected normal number during said time, a ratio
or percentage will be obtained which, when di 75
_ graders
vided» into the Asteam consumption indicated on
maintained at or near the maximum- wound up ` l
dials d2@ during the same time, will give the . condition at all times, its unwindlng or driving
true steam consumption. The above procedure,
will make it possible also to allow for possible
stoppage of the springmechanism during a meter
reading period.
speed .will be very'nearly uniform; while said
spring motor will continue to provide impulses to
the registering 'mechanism during protracted
periods 'of interruption to the electric current, if
In the device shown in Figure 12, the spring any such occur. It will be understood that the
motor is wound up at intervals manually. application of an auxiliary electric motor to the
Ratchet wheel §23 and bevel gear l2êl are mounted _spring motor may be accomplished in several
as a unit on the shaft of the spring motor 3B, the ' ways, one of which is shown in Fig. 16.' This is
clockwise rotation of said gear causing the spring an arrangement whereby the tension of the
to be wound up. Pawl §25, catches in the teeth spring within the spring motor actuates a switch
of ratchet wheel H23 and prevents unwinding. or contact in such a manner that the electric
Bevel gear 02d-, meshing with bevel gear iîd, is
15 mounted on shaft H21 which is journaled at its up
per end in a bearing, the lower end of said shaft
passing thru a stuñing box §28, said stuiiing box
permitting rotation oi shaft iîl with a minimum
loss oi’ ñuid due to leakage. The lower'end of
shaft i'âli is squared to permit attaching a portable
handle (not shown) whereby the device may be
wound up.
In Figure l2, the body ia of the meter is shown
as being suñìciently deep so that the lower part
motor _will wind up the spring whenever the ten
sion of said spring falls below a predetermined 15
value. As shown in greater detail in Fig. i6, »
this modification consists of a casing i“ con
taining a spring motor 38 of which the spring
exerts a torque in a counter-clockwise direction
on the gear E35. Worm 113i, v¿onnected to the
shaft of the rotor of motor 532, meshes with
worm-wheel 633 on shaft §35. Worm i3d meshes
with gear i3@ and is keyed on shaft H35 by means
of key 262. Spring du@ stresses worm i3d toward 25 contains water, the water level being at the same , >'collar 2H by the reaction of spring 2t@ against
height as the water level of Figure 1, in orderv collar 263. Contact 2% is mounted on spring 29d
-that any leakage thru the stuñlng box _will be for engagement or contact with 2cd' which is`
water, which is automatically replaced by further vmounted on a yoke pivoted at 282, the upper end
condensation in the pipes connecting to the steam of the yoke engaging in a notched collar onfworm
30 line, rather than the insulating oil with which the i3d. The yoke carries au electro-magnet . 266
upper part of the meter body is filled. Such leak
co-operating with armature 2b? carriedby spring
age wili, however, occur only at such times as ` 2cd. The operation of this modiñcation is as
the device is wound up; the lower part of the
meter housing having an extension with an ex
en the spring of motor 38 becomes too weak
35 ternally threaded portion to which the packing to resist the clockwise thrust of spring "itil, spring 35
gland of the stuiîing box is screwed, and another 2t@ pushes worm i3d over against collar 2H and
externally threaded portion of larger diameter to thus closes contacts 263 and 2135. Current is con
which is screwed a cover or cap H29, with ring ducted through'lead 28d, motor 632, lead N9,
gasket '936, placed between cap and shoulder, contacts
263 and Ebb, electro-magnet 29%, and
making a pressure tight seal.
back to the source through lead 2id. Motor E32
Efigure i3 is almodihcation of Figure 12, in is thus actuated by spring motor 3B to wind up
which the spring motor is continuously wound the spring. The increasing tension of the spring
up by an auxiliary electric motor. Worm iti, of motor 3° becomes strong enough to overcome
mounted onf the shaft oi’ electric motor ist?, the tension of spring 2b@ and worm i3d is slid
45 meshes with worm gear B38. Gear H33 and worm to the‘right, which tends to break contacts 293
i3d are mountedon shaft §35 which is journaled and 2cd. However, due- to the attraction of
in bearings. Worm 68d meshes with worm gear electro-magnet 2t@ for armature 2d?, spring
i3d, the latter beingfastened to the shaft of
¿ spring motor 3a. The rotation of motor §32 will support 23d is bent to the right until its tension.
becomes suñicient to overcome the slight attrac
50 then cause rotation of gear i3d and consequent tion of magnet '2th, at which time spring 2M!
winding up of the spring motor. It will be evi . breaks contacts 2li@ and itâ-with a snap, which
'i dent to those smiled inthe art that the driving prevents arcing.
torque of electric motor §32 can be so adjusted
Figure 14 is a modification of Figure 13 in
that no damage will result to the gear train be
which the spring motor is continuously wound up
55 ' tween said motor and spring motor Se when the by a water wheel which is actuated by the water
latter is completely wound up, and that, more
condensed within the body of the meter. A dis
over, the normal speed of gear H35 can be de
charge nozzle isi, having a relatively ñne bore,
signed so as to be only slightly in excess of the is screwed into the bottom ói’ meter casing is.
normal _unwinding speed of the spring contained Water from nozzle impinges against the buckets .
60 within spring motor 3“, so as to maintain the 'of water wheel or turbine E3B, Worm its and
speed of electric motor G32 near its normal value. water vwheel E38 are mounted on common shaft.' 60
The reduction gearing 4shown in the figure should Worm i3@ meshes with worm gearfidß, the latter
preferably contain one or more worm gear drives.
since such a drive is in general irreversible, if
being mounted. together with bevel gear Mi, on
a common shaft Eddi’. said shaft being journaled
at its ends. The bottom of meter casing i“ ter 65
case of interruption to the electric current sup
minates in a projection having an externally
- ply. there will be no `tendency -for the spring to threaded portion to receive a stuiiing box cover
unwind by driving the electric motor backwards. it?, said stuiling box serving as-a seal to permit
f With the construction shown- in the ligure, there
the rotatable shaft to- extend thru the meterv
70. fore,_.the ratchet and pawl of Figure 12 may be. housing with a. minimuml amount of- leakage of 70
' omitted. ' 'I'he '__co'nnecting mechanismV between ' water past the'bearing surface within saidpro
' the spring motor and pusher 'rod is understood _iectionV Bevel gear MI> meshes with bevel gear
to be the same as in Figure‘12. vThe modiñca'tion. M3, the latter being mounted on the shaft ot
` “1_ have shown in` Figure 13 is one of greatest ac
springmotor 3B so thatjrotation of bevel gear
curacy and reliability, since with the spring motor ' M3 will wind up the spring motor. The lower
65 the worm is made with a proper pitch, so that in
bearing of the vertical shaft is a part of water
wheel chamber or housing |44 which is fastened
to the meter housing. Opening |45 in the bot
tom of chamber |44 permits the escape of water
discharged from the water wheel buckets, said
water falling into tank |46 which is fastened to
meter housing. Tank |46 is open to the atmos
phere thru openings |41, to provide for escape of
steam in case of accidental leakage from the
10 bottom of the meter. Pipe |48 communicates be
tween tank |46 and a nearby drain for disposing
of the water discharged from the Water wheel.
In Figure 14, the meter body is filled with
insulating oil above the level of the water, while
15 water occupies the space `below this line. To
provide a supply of water for steam meters,
present practise in the art is to install reservoirs
or chambers in the pipes transmitting pressure
from the steam line to the meter, said reservoirs
20 being of comparatively large area and provided
fin-ther with a set of radiating fins mounted on
said tubes to dissipate- the heat of the steam and
provide for condensation. It will be evident to
vthose skilledin the art that said reservoirs and
fins may be made of any size necessary in order
lto assure a constant supply of water to replace
the housing and each containing a supply of mer
cury, each of said chambers being equipped with
a partition and a tube .extending through the
partition and dipping into the mercury, a sup
ply of water in the _housing and under the oil
and above the mercury in each tube, a supply of
air trapped under the partition in one chamber
above the mercury, a supply of water in the other
chamber above the mercury and under the par
tition, a pressure tap to the water in the housing
and a pressure tap to the water above the mer
-cury in one of the chambers, an integrating regis
ter, a motor, variable stroke reciprocating means
driven by said motor and driving the register,
step-by-’step, a ñoat arranged in the other cham
ber and responsive to differential pressure and
provided with a step cam cooperating with said
reciprocating means to limit its stroke, and a '
second float in the one chamber responsive to
inlet pressure and provided with connections for 20
adjusting the stroke of said means whereby the
register does respond to variation of inlet pres
sure at an oriiice.
4. A fluid meter comprising, in combination,
an integrating register, a motor arranged to ac
tuate said register, adjustable means forming a
the water withdrawn from the _meter casing by
connection between said motor and said register
the operation of the water wheel or turbine.
Any of the methods of furnishing the motive
power above illustrated in Figures 1, 12, 13 and>
14 may obviously be combined with any of the
cam types shown in Figures 1, 3, 5, 6, 'l and 9
to produce a steam meter operating on the vprin
whereby said motor actuates said register, a cam
controlling said adjustable means, first means
controlling said cam, an orifice device controlling 30
said ñrst means in response tb differential pres
sure at said orifice, second means controlling said
_adjustable means separately from said cam, and
ciple herein described. It will likewise be evident
that the plunger stroke counter |22 of Figure 12
may be adapted to any of the ’l various types of
my device in order to increase the accuracy and
reliability of the meter.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art
that the invention is not limited in respect to
details of construction and arrangement or to
matters of mere form or otherwise than the prior
art may require.
1. A fluid meter comprising in combination, an
integrating register, a motor, reciprocating com
4means controlling the position of said second
means in response to inlet pressure at said orifice. 35
5. A fluid meter comprising,l in combination, an
integrating register, a motor arranged to actuate
said register, adjustable means forming aÁ con
nection >between said -rnotor and said register
whereby said motor actuates said register, a cam
controlling said adjustable means, first means
controlling said cam, anoriflce device controlling
' said first means in response to differential pres
sure at said orifice, second means controlling said
adjustable means separately from said cam.
means controlling the position of said second
pressible means including a pawl-and-ratchet means in response to inlet pressure at said ori
driven by said motor and driving the register and ~' fice, and an adjustable connection between said
also including a stroke adjustment, a step cam second means and said adjustable means, said
device for limiting the stroke of said means by adjustable connection being operatively located
compression thereof, and two float mechanisms between said cam and said register.
6. A fluid meter comprising, in combination, an
whereof one is connected with and adapted to
integrating register, a motor arranged to actuate
position said cam device in response to differen
tial pressure’at an oriñce and whereof the other said register, adjustable means forming a con
is connected with said stroke adjustment and nection between said motor and said register
is responsive to inlet side pressure at the orifice. whereby said motor actuates said register, a
2. A fluid meter comprising in combination, a cam controlling said adjustable means, iirst
pressure tight housing containing oil, a chamber means controlling said cam, an orifice device
depending from the housing and containing a controlling said first means in response to diil'er
supply of mercury, a partition separating Athe ential pressure at said orifice, second means con
trolling said adjustable means separately from
chamber into upperand lower parts, a tube ex
tending through the partition and dipping into said cam, means controlling the position of said
the lower part of the chamber, a supply of water second means in response to inlet pressure at said
above the partition and under the oil and on oriñce, and a second register arranged so as to
top of the mercury and in the tube, a supply of be actuated by said motor under the control of
said cam but independent of the control of said
water below the partition and on top of the mer
cury, diiferential pressure taps to the respective second means.
7. A fluid meter comprising in combination, a
supplies of water, a float in the >tube and on the
pressure tight housing containing oil, a chamber
mercury; an integrating register, a motor, vari
able stroke mechanism operated by said motoi depending from the housing and containing a
and actuating the register step-by-step, and a supply of mercury, a partition separating the
chamber into upper and lower parts, a tube ex
step cam device actuated by the float and opera
tending through the> partition and dipping into
tive to limit the stroke of said mechanism.
the lower part of the chamber, a supply of water
3. A pressure tight housing containing a sup
75 ply of oil, two mercury chambers depending from above the partition and under the oil and on top
of the mercury and in the tube, a supply oi water
below the partition and on top of the mercury,
differential pressure taps to the respective sup
plies of water,- a iioat in the tube and on the
mercury, an integrating register, a motor, vari
able-stroke mechanism operated by'said motor
and actuating the register step-by-step, a step
cam device actuated by the iioat and operative
to limit the stroke of said mechanism, an ad
'10 justable piston head forming the lower wall of
the lower part of said chamber, and a connection
from beneath said piston head to the exterior of
the housing and serving for> adjustment of said
piston head.
means controlling the position of said second `
means in response to inlet pressure at said device. l
‘9. A ñuid meter comprising in combination, a
pressure-tight housing containing oil, a chamber
depending from the housing and containing a 5
supply of mercury, a partition separating the
chamber into upper and lower parts, a tube ex- .
tending through the partition and dipping into
the lower part of the chamber, a supply of Water
above the partition and under the` oil and on 10
top of the mercury and in the tube, a supply of
water below the partition and on top of the
mercury, differential. pressure taps to the re
spective supplies of water, a ñoat in the tubeand
t. A ñuid meter comprising, in combination, an . on the mercury, an integrating register, a motor, 15
integrating register, a motor arranged to actuate
said register, adjustable means forming a cona
nection between said motor and said register
whereby said motor actuates said register, a cam
20 controlling said adjustable means, vfirst means
controlling said cam, a device controlling said
iìrst means in response to diñerentlal pressure
variable-stroke mechanism operated by said
motor and actuating the register step-by-step, a
step cam device actuated by the ñoat and opera
tive to limit the stroke or" said’mechanism, an
adjustable piston head forming the lower waii 20
of the lower part of said chamber, and a conduit
from beneath said piston head to the interior
at said device, second means controlling said ' of the housing.
.adjustable means separately from said cam,r and
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