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Патент USA US2123981

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July 19, 1938.
Filed Sept, 28’ 1935
‘Patented July 19, 1938
~ ;_ _.__-omrao ‘STATES. PATENTOFFICE
Ernest G. Whipple, Stratford, Conn, assignor
‘ ' ‘Remington Arms Company,_lnc., a corporation
of Delaware
Application ‘September-"28,1935, Serial No. 42,519
4 Claims.
-This invention relates to ammunition, particu
larly projectiles, ‘and will be described with par
ticular reference to projectiles for small arms,
although it is to be understood that its desirable
5 features may be utilized in ordnance projectiles
as well.
ity thanwany previously known bullets, and that
‘such bullets have an extraordinary penetrating
power. The raw material is preferably zinc in
a cartridge and a projectile of advanced and dis
tinctive ballistic properties. While of‘ light weight
the form of rolled rods, which rods can be se- 10
19 and susceptible to comparatively easy manufac
ture from very inexpensive materials, the projec
tile is adapted to be propelled with great ac
curacy at a high velocity andpossesses great
power of penetration.
cured on the market. , Slugs of suitable size are
made by cutting from such rods‘ and these slugs
are swaged into bullets in an ordinary bullet
swaging press. It has been found that, not
withstanding the hardness of zinc, the swaging 15
In the use of ?rearms by law enforcement of
?cers di?iculties have been introduced by the use
requires no more power and no heavier machin
ery than the usual operation of swaging jacketed
bullets to shape while assembling their cores and
jackets. The reason for this may be found in
the low friction coe?icient of zinc with respect to 20
steel. When such projectiles are assembled with
the usual metallic cartridge components, the
usual priming and the usual powder charge, and
the resulting cartridge ?red in an ordinary hand
of the so-called "bullet-proof" vest. Ordinary
small arms projectiles are, generally speaking,
of two types; those made entirely of lead or
20 alloys consisting chiefly of lead; and those com
prising a lead core encased or partly encased in
a jacket of a harder metal such as an alloy
of 95% copper with 5% zinc, commonly known
in this art as “gliding metal.” Jacketed pro
gun or ri?e, the bullet is projected with a very 25
25 jectiles in general are ?red with a higher velocity
high velocity and has an extremely high pene
and have greater penetration than lead pro
jectiles, but even jacketed projectiles cannot be
trating power. There seems to be no tendency
whatever for fragments of the bullet to break
or tear off in the barrel; and neither is there any
appreciable wear on the barrel ri?lng. Such 30
zinc bullets can be made from commercial zinc
?red from hand guns of the sort ordinarily used
by law enforcement o?icers with su?icient veloc
30 ity to insure penetration of bullet-proof vests.
In one aspect, the present invention contem
plates a bullet or projectile capable of penetrat
rod without annealing, whereas other materials,
and even
as copper,
when require
tremely high pressures for swaging. Further, 35
the resulting copper bullets, when loaded into
otherwise identical cartridges and ?red from the
same guns, develop higher pressures, have a much
lower velocity, and rapidly wear out the barrel.
The comparative pressures and velocities of ordi- 40
nary metal point, zinc, and copper bullets, are
ing bullet-proof vests; however, the projectile
35 has other uses and ?lls other long .telt needs.
For example, the demand for increased speeds
and ?at trajectories has led to reduction in bul
let weights. The caliber (diameter) of a given
bullet cannot be altered, hence with a given ma
terial weight can only be reduced by shortening
40 and/or forming large cavities in heel and/or
r and low-power. ri?es with a much higher veloc
More particularly,v the invention contemplates
Fig. 5 shows a mushrooming bullet of the type
shown in Fig.‘ 3, after impact with a target.
It has been found that commercial or sub
stantially pure zinc may be readily formed into
bullets which may beprojected from hand guns 5
Carried beyond certain very narrow
as follows:
limits, these practices seriously impair accuracy.
Additional complications develop when it is neces
45 sary to maintain a standard cartridge length.
The improved projectile is illustrated in the
accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 shows a typical cartridge comprising a
Metal point _______ _-
Average Average
velocity pressure
966. 9
projectile or bullet embodying the present inven
50 tion.
' Fig. 2 shows the bullet alone.
Fig. 3 is a section of one type of mushrooming
bullet embodying the invention.
Fig. 4 is a section of an alternative form of
55 mushrooming bullet.
Zinc bullets have about 50% greater penetrat
ing power than the corresponding metal cased or
metal pointed bullets. A standard penetration test
consists in ?ring the bullets at a target consist- 55
ing of 11;" steel plates alternating with %" pine
boards, the ?rst steel plate being in front of the
penetration and excellent mushrooming. Abullet
of the type shown in Fig. 3. mushroomed by im
first board. An ordinary .38 caliber pistol bullet
pact with a target, is illustrated in Fig. 5.
penetrates the ?rst steel plate and the ?rst board
and makes a dent in the second steel plate. A
zinc bullet penetrates two steel plates and two
bullet is shown as it actually lays in the pine board
boards and dents the third steel plate. In an
other test of revolver bullets the usual metal
pointed bullet passed through one steel plate and
one board and broke an opening in the second
plate but did not pass through. A zinc bullet
penetrated two plates and two boards and broke
an opening through the third plate.
The application of the invention to hunting
16 cartridges produces the long desired result of a
‘bullet which both mushrooms and penetrates.
target, the core portion l3 being separated slight
ly from the zinc body it. .
It will be obvious that the bullet may have any
desired exterior con?guration and that if a lead
core is provided this, "core may have a variety of
shapes and sizes other than those illustrated. 10
The invention is of broad scope. and the append
ed claims are to be broadly construed.
What is claimed is:
‘ 1. A projectile comprising an unjacketed zinc
body containing a relatively small core of a soft 15
trated in section in Fig. 3, l0 being the zinc bodyv
2. A‘ projectile comprising an unjacketed zinc
body having a longitudinal recess therein, and a
plug of soft metal in said recess and projecting
therefrom to form the nose of the projectile.
3. A symmetrical and accurately shaped pro
and ii the soft metal core, which core projects
jectile for ri?ed' ?rearms consisting substantially
from its recess to form a soft nose the surface of
entirely of zinc and having a zinc surface for en
gagement'with the bore of a ?rearm in which the
For this purpose it is desirable to form a recess in
the nose of the zinc body, which recess is ?lled
‘or partly ?lled with a softer metal such as lead
20 or a lead alloy. One form of such bullet is illus
which is a continuation of the surface of the zinc
25 body. Alternatively,‘ the bullet may be madehof?u projectile is ?red.
the “hollow point” type, the core metal not‘ en? ' ' 14. A'pr'ojectile for ri?ed ?rearms accurately and
tirely ?lling the recess but leaving an un?lled por
symmetrically shaped from a section of rolled
tion adjacent the tip, as illustrated in Fig. 4. zinc rod and having a zinc surface for engagement
Such bullets have been found'to possess very with the bore of a ?rearm in which the projec
30 satisfactory mushrooming properties, thus fur
tile is ?red.
nishing an extraordinary combination of high
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