Патент USA US2123981код для вставки
July 19, 1938. E, G_ wH|PPLE 2,123,981 AMMUNITION Filed Sept, 28’ 1935 Fig.2 FI‘S VII/II, u INVENTOR. ERNEST G. WHlPPLE BY m ‘2,123,981 ‘Patented July 19, 1938 ~ ;_ _.__-omrao ‘STATES. PATENTOFFICE Ernest G. Whipple, Stratford, Conn, assignor e ‘ ' ‘Remington Arms Company,_lnc., a corporation of Delaware Application ‘September-"28,1935, Serial No. 42,519 4 Claims. ((1102-26) -This invention relates to ammunition, particu larly projectiles, ‘and will be described with par ticular reference to projectiles for small arms, although it is to be understood that its desirable 5 features may be utilized in ordnance projectiles as well. . ity thanwany previously known bullets, and that ‘such bullets have an extraordinary penetrating power. The raw material is preferably zinc in a cartridge and a projectile of advanced and dis tinctive ballistic properties. While of‘ light weight the form of rolled rods, which rods can be se- 10 19 and susceptible to comparatively easy manufac ture from very inexpensive materials, the projec tile is adapted to be propelled with great ac curacy at a high velocity andpossesses great power of penetration. cured on the market. , Slugs of suitable size are made by cutting from such rods‘ and these slugs are swaged into bullets in an ordinary bullet swaging press. It has been found that, not withstanding the hardness of zinc, the swaging 15 ‘ In the use of ?rearms by law enforcement of ?cers di?iculties have been introduced by the use requires no more power and no heavier machin ery than the usual operation of swaging jacketed bullets to shape while assembling their cores and jackets. The reason for this may be found in the low friction coe?icient of zinc with respect to 20 steel. When such projectiles are assembled with the usual metallic cartridge components, the usual priming and the usual powder charge, and the resulting cartridge ?red in an ordinary hand of the so-called "bullet-proof" vest. Ordinary small arms projectiles are, generally speaking, of two types; those made entirely of lead or 20 alloys consisting chiefly of lead; and those com prising a lead core encased or partly encased in a jacket of a harder metal such as an alloy of 95% copper with 5% zinc, commonly known in this art as “gliding metal.” Jacketed pro gun or ri?e, the bullet is projected with a very 25 25 jectiles in general are ?red with a higher velocity high velocity and has an extremely high pene and have greater penetration than lead pro jectiles, but even jacketed projectiles cannot be trating power. There seems to be no tendency whatever for fragments of the bullet to break or tear off in the barrel; and neither is there any appreciable wear on the barrel ri?lng. Such 30 zinc bullets can be made from commercial zinc ?red from hand guns of the sort ordinarily used by law enforcement o?icers with su?icient veloc 30 ity to insure penetration of bullet-proof vests. In one aspect, the present invention contem plates a bullet or projectile capable of penetrat rod without annealing, whereas other materials, such and even as copper, when require completely veryannealed thoroughrequire annealing ex tremely high pressures for swaging. Further, 35 the resulting copper bullets, when loaded into otherwise identical cartridges and ?red from the same guns, develop higher pressures, have a much lower velocity, and rapidly wear out the barrel. The comparative pressures and velocities of ordi- 40 nary metal point, zinc, and copper bullets, are ing bullet-proof vests; however, the projectile 35 has other uses and ?lls other long .telt needs. For example, the demand for increased speeds and ?at trajectories has led to reduction in bul let weights. The caliber (diameter) of a given bullet cannot be altered, hence with a given ma terial weight can only be reduced by shortening 40 and/or forming large cavities in heel and/or point. ' r and low-power. ri?es with a much higher veloc - More particularly,v the invention contemplates 15 ‘ Fig. 5 shows a mushrooming bullet of the type shown in Fig.‘ 3, after impact with a target. It has been found that commercial or sub stantially pure zinc may be readily formed into bullets which may beprojected from hand guns 5 Carried beyond certain very narrow as follows: limits, these practices seriously impair accuracy. Additional complications develop when it is neces 45 sary to maintain a standard cartridge length. cartridge The improved projectile is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which: Fig. 1 shows a typical cartridge comprising a Bullet Metal point _______ _- C Average Average velocity pressure 1077 15940 966. 9 . 15580 15260 27200 projectile or bullet embodying the present inven 50 50 tion. ' Fig. 2 shows the bullet alone. _ Fig. 3 is a section of one type of mushrooming bullet embodying the invention. . Fig. 4 is a section of an alternative form of 55 mushrooming bullet. 45 Zinc bullets have about 50% greater penetrat ing power than the corresponding metal cased or metal pointed bullets. A standard penetration test consists in ?ring the bullets at a target consist- 55 2 2,128,981 ing of 11;" steel plates alternating with %" pine boards, the ?rst steel plate being in front of the penetration and excellent mushrooming. Abullet of the type shown in Fig. 3. mushroomed by im first board. An ordinary .38 caliber pistol bullet pact with a target, is illustrated in Fig. 5. penetrates the ?rst steel plate and the ?rst board and makes a dent in the second steel plate. A zinc bullet penetrates two steel plates and two bullet is shown as it actually lays in the pine board boards and dents the third steel plate. In an other test of revolver bullets the usual metal pointed bullet passed through one steel plate and one board and broke an opening in the second plate but did not pass through. A zinc bullet penetrated two plates and two boards and broke an opening through the third plate. The application of the invention to hunting 16 cartridges produces the long desired result of a ‘bullet which both mushrooms and penetrates. The target, the core portion l3 being separated slight ly from the zinc body it. . It will be obvious that the bullet may have any desired exterior con?guration and that if a lead core is provided this, "core may have a variety of shapes and sizes other than those illustrated. 10 The invention is of broad scope. and the append ed claims are to be broadly construed. What is claimed is: ‘ ‘ 1. A projectile comprising an unjacketed zinc body containing a relatively small core of a soft 15 metal. ' trated in section in Fig. 3, l0 being the zinc bodyv 2. A‘ projectile comprising an unjacketed zinc body having a longitudinal recess therein, and a plug of soft metal in said recess and projecting therefrom to form the nose of the projectile. 20 3. A symmetrical and accurately shaped pro and ii the soft metal core, which core projects jectile for ri?ed' ?rearms consisting substantially from its recess to form a soft nose the surface of entirely of zinc and having a zinc surface for en gagement'with the bore of a ?rearm in which the For this purpose it is desirable to form a recess in the nose of the zinc body, which recess is ?lled ‘or partly ?lled with a softer metal such as lead 20 or a lead alloy. One form of such bullet is illus which is a continuation of the surface of the zinc 25 body. Alternatively,‘ the bullet may be madehof?u projectile is ?red. the “hollow point” type, the core metal not‘ en? ' ' 14. A'pr'ojectile for ri?ed ?rearms accurately and tirely ?lling the recess but leaving an un?lled por symmetrically shaped from a section of rolled tion adjacent the tip, as illustrated in Fig. 4. zinc rod and having a zinc surface for engagement Such bullets have been found'to possess very with the bore of a ?rearm in which the projec 30 satisfactory mushrooming properties, thus fur tile is ?red. ' 30 nishing an extraordinary combination of high ERNEST G. WHIPPLE.