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Патент USA US2123993

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July 19, 1938.-
2,123,993
D. s. GElsER
'
LOCK
Filed March 13, 1936
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Patented July 19, 1938
2,123,993
UETED STATES FATE 'l'
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FFECE
2,123,993
LOCK
Daniel S. Geiser, Waynesboro, Pa.
Application March 13, 1936, Serial No. 68,729
12 Claims. (Cl. 70-149)
One of the important objects of the present by which the spindle can be turned, to operate
invention is to provide a novel and eifective means
for controlling the character of the key to be in
serted in the lock, said means being readily a1
. terable in order to accommodate various forms of
keys of the general type and exclude improper
keys.
A further object is to provide novel key op
erated means that will require the service of a
W) particular type of key that can be inserted in the
above mechanism, and which operates through
frictional contact, thereby making it practically
impossible to “pick” the lock, or in other words
surreptitiously operate it by means other than
the authorized key.
The invention may be applied to any form of
key operated lock.
One embodiment of the invention in which the
device is shown applied to a door knob is illus
trated in the accompanying drawing, wherein:
Figure 1 is a sectional view through a portion
of a door in which the embodiment of the inven
tion is installed.
Figure 2 is a cross sectional view on the line
. 2-2 of Figure l, and showing the locking mecha
nism in its effective relation with respect to the
operating knob.
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2, but show
ing the locking mechanism coupling the knob to
the latch bolt operating means.
Figure 4 is an end elevation of the key-receiv
ing knob.
Figure 5 is a detail sectional view on the line
5_5 of Figure 1.
Figure 6 is a detail perspective view with the
sections of the key guard separated.
Figure '7 is a detail sectional view through the
coupling plunger.
Figure 8 is a sectional view on the line 8-8
of Figure '1.
Figure 9 is an end elevation of the plunger
operating cam device.
Figure 10 is a side elevation of the same.
Figure 1l. is a View of the other end of said
cam device to that shown in Figure 9.
Figure l2 -is a perspective view of a key for use
with the device.
A horizontal sectional portion of a door .is
shown at i2, the same being mortised to receive
a reciprccatory latch bolt I 3. Extending across
the door is a knob spindle It having the usual
cam or other device I5 for operating the latch.
One end of this spindle projects from one side of
55 the door and has iixed thereto the usual knob IG
the latch bolt in a well-known manner.
Mounted on the side of the door opposite to
that from which the knob I6 projects, is an es
cutcheon plate I'I carrying an outstanding sleeve
I 3 that provides a shield as hereinafter explained.
The end of the spindle I4 projects into the shield
and is provided with a head I9. An outer knob
20 is provided with a tubular shank 2| that is
rotatable within the shield sleeve i8 and around
the head I9, the same being secured in place by a
holding washer 22 mounted on its inner end and
located behind the inner end of the sleeve I8.
The head I9 and consequently `the spindle Ill is
adapted to be coupled to the knob shank 2| in
order that the spindle and consequently the latch
bolt I3 can be operated. For this purpose the
said head I9 has a transverse socket 23 in which
is a transversely reciprocatory coupling plunger
24 whose outer end is adapted to move into and
out of one of a set of openings 25 formed in the
tubular shank 2|. When the plunger 24' is out
of such engagement, or as shown in Figures 1
and 2, the knob 20 is free to rotate and can have
no effect on the spindle M. When the plunger
24 is in one of the openings 25, or as shown yin
Figure 3, it Will be obvious that when the knob 20
is turned, the head I9 and the spindle Hl will >be
rotated, thereby actuating the latch bolt.
The plunger 24 is operated by a cam piece 26 -lo 30
cated longitudinally in the head i9 and rotating
on the axis thereof. 'I‘his cam piece has a round
ed face 2l and a flat face 28 adapted to respec
tively bear against a follower 29 slidably mounted
in a socket 3B of the plunger, said follower in turn
operating against a spring 3| that bears against
the end of the plunger. If the cam piece is
turned so that the follower 29 rests against the
flat side 28 of the cam piece 26, or as shown in
Figures 1 and 2, the plunger will be in its in
active position and the spring bearing against the
flat face, will hold the cam against rotation. If,
however, the cam piece is rotated, so that the
rounded face 27 bears against the follower 29, or
as shown in Figure 3, then through the interme
diate spring 3| the plunger will be forced out
wardly, so that if the knob is turned until one of
the openings 25 registers with said plunger, it
will snap into the opening. The knob Will be
thereby locked to the head I9 and if the knob is
now turned, it Will turn the spindle S4 and actu
ate the latch bolt. It will be noted incidentally
that these parts are entirely housed within the
shield sleeve I3 of the escutcheon plate.
The cam piece 26, it will be noted, extends 55
2,123,993
2
transversely through the plunger and has bear
ings on opposite sides of the same in the head
I9.
When the plunger is retracted the follower
jections 45 to cooperate with the scores 35a of
the key shank to exclude improperly scored keys
and further safeguard the lock against opera
29 rests upon the flat side 26 of the cam piece.
tion by unauthorized keys,
When the plunger is projected and is borne
against by the rounded side of the cam piece
pling plunger 24 is in its retracted and inactive
relation, the latch bolt I3 can only be operated
26, the flat side thereof bears against the flat
ends 24a of the openings and thus there is no
tendency of the cam piece to accidentally turn.
10 The cam piece 26 in turn is key-operated and
When the cou
by the inner knob I6, the outer knob being freely
rotatable without effecting any operation of the
lock. With this structure it will be noted par 10
ticularly by reference to Figure 5 that the eX
for that purpose it has at its outer end a head
32 which is preferably provided with an out
posed opening to the interior of the lock through
wardly opening .and inwardly tapered socket 33
the intersecting portions of the slots.
whose side Walls are smooth.
15
The lock functions as follows.
The key preferably employed is shown at 34,
and includes a shank 35 that is twisted or sub
stantially of screw shape. The twisted shank
of the key may be provided with scores 35o.
The inner end or bit 36 of this key is tapered,
20 the taper corresponding substantially to the ta
per of the socket 33 so that the edges of the bit
will frictionally bear against the side walls of
the socket. By forcing the key in, therefore, .a
sufficient frictional grip will be obtained between
25 the key and the head so that the cam piece 25
can be turned either tol project the plunger or
to permit its withdrawal. The provision of a
rounded socket allows the entrance of a key in
any position instead of requiring it to be in a
30 definite position with respect to the head 32 and
also accommodates the twisted end of a spiral
key.
In order to insure that the lock will only be
operable by a predetermined authorized key, a
35 guard is placed in the tubular shank of the knob
20 between the keyhole 31 of said knob and the
head 32 of the cam piece 21. 'I'his guard con
sists of detachably telescoped tubular sections
38 and 39, »each having an end wall provided
40 with a passageway in the form of slots 40 and
4l. The key guards are relatively rotatable, that
is to say, when separated as shown in Figure 6,
the position of one with relation to the other
can be changed and the sections again inter
45 ñtted. In order to hold them against relativ-e
rotation when interñtted, any suitable means
may be employed, but in the structure shown
the exterior wall of the section 39 is provided
with ribs 42 and the internal wall of the other
50 section 38 has grooves 43 that receive the same.
It will be evident therefore that by changing the
relation of the sections the relative angularity
of the two passageways or slots 40 and 4l can be
altered and consequently the pitch of the twisted
55 key shank that can pass through the two pas
sages. The same effect may be obtained by
changing the distance between the end walls of
the telescoped sections.
By placing them far
ther apart or closer together, the pitch of the
60 key that can pass through both passages is
changed.
In order to accurately and positively
space the two walls, washers 4la may be inserted
within the outer tubular section 38 and between
its end wall and the inner end of the inner sec
tion 39. Thus any one of a. set of keys having
shanks provided with different degrees of pitch
can be made to become operable by either of the
adjustments while others are excluded. The
guard as a whole it will be understood is rotat
able within the knob shank 2| and there is pref
erably interposed between the rear end of the
guard and the front end of the head 32 an anti
friction washer 44.
The side of the key passages 40 and 4l of the
75 guard sections are provided with suitable pro
the slots 40 and 4l is very small, being merely
More
over the key-receiving socket of the cam piece 15
having smooth walls, leaves nothing to be en
gaged by any unauthorized device that may be
passed through the keyhole and engaged with
the socket piece. The danger of effectively tam
pering with the lock is thus reduced to a mini
20
mum.
When the proper key is inserted, it will obvi
ously pass through th-e slots 40 and 4l and slight
ly turn the guard until the inner end or bit of
the key is frictionally engaged with the walls 25
of the socket. When so engaged approximately
a one-half turn to right or left of the key will
positively rotate the cam piece, thus forcing out
the plunger and as already explained, coupling
the outer knob 2li to the spindle. Consequently 30
when said knob is turn-ed the latch bolt will be
withdrawn.
If an attempt is made to use a
key having a pitch different from that of the
proper key, it will be evident that it cannot enter
because the relation of the slots 4€) and 4I will
prevent its passage.
It will be readily appreciated that any form
of rotatable lock operating mechanism may be
substituted for the cam piece, and that this de
vice may therefore be applied to any form of 40
key operated lock.
From the foregoing, it is thought that the
construction, operation and many advantages of
the herein described invention will be apparent
to those skilled in the art without further de 45
scription, and it will be understood that various
changes in the size, shape, proportion and minor
details of construction may be resorted to with
out departing from the spirit or sacrificing any
50
of the advantages of the invention.
What I claim is:
l. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key,
the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a
key guard comprising sections having passage
ways for the shank of the key, said sections being 55
relatively adjustable to vary the relative position
of the passageways and thereby govern the char
acter of the key shank that can be effectively en
gaged therein.
2. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, 60
the combination with a key receiving casing, of a
key guard comprising sections having passage
ways for the shank ofthe key, said sections being
relatively adjustable to vary the relative position
of the passageways and thereby govern the char 65
acter of the key shank that can be engaged there
in, and means for securing the sections against
relative movement and in different adjusted posi
tions.
3. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, 70
the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a
key guard comprising telescoped sections having
passageways for the shank of the key, said sec
tions being relatively angularly adjustable to
vary the relative position of the passageways and 75
2,123,993
thereby govern the character of the key shank
that can be engaged therein, and a plurality of
ribs in the meeting surfaces of. the sections for
securing the sections against relative rotation and
in different adjusted positions.
4. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key,
the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a
key guard comprising sections having passage
ways in which the screw-like portions of the key
shank can simultaneously be engaged, said sec
tions being relatively angularly adjustable to
‘vary the relative positions relation of the pas
sageways and thereby change their pitch and
govern the pitch of the key shank that can be
engaged therein, and means for securing the sec
tions, in their adjusted relative- positions.
5. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key,
the combination v/ith a key-receiving casing, of a
key guard comprising detachably interfitting
angularly adjustable sections having interlock
ing portions and each section having a passage
way for the key shank and said passageways being
brought into different relative positions when the
sections are relatively rotated and interlocked in
different positions to control the character of the
pitch of the key shank that can be eiïectively
engaged therein.
6. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key,
the combination With a casing having a key en
30 trance opening and a device therein to be oper
ated by the key, of a key guard interposed be
tween. the entrance and the device and compris
ing angularly
adjustable interñtted sections
having passageways through which the screw
35 like shank of the key passes, said sections being
relatively rotatable to change the relative posi
tions of the passageways and thus vary their
pitch and the consequent pitch of the key shank
that will pass therethrough, and a plurality of
40 flutes in the meeting face of the inter?itted sec
tions for securing the shanks against relative
rotation and in different adjusted relations and
whereby a multiplicity of different adjustments
may be made.
7. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key,
45
the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a
key guard comprising spaced Walls, the Walls
having slot-like passageways arranged in rela
tively angular relation for the shank of. the key,
and the distance between the Walls being adjust
able to vary the relative positions of the passage
ways and thereby govern the character of the key
shank that can be engaged therein.
8. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key,
55 the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a
key guard comprising adjustably telescoping sec
tions, each section having an end Wall spaced
from the end wall of the other section, and the
3
end walls having slot-like passages in relatively
angular relation for the screw-like shank of the
key, and means for securing the sections in ad
justed positions whereby the pitch of the- key
shank that will pass through the passageways is
controlled.
9. In a lock, the combination with a latch bolt
and spindle for operating the same, of a knob
freely rotatable with respect to the spindle and
having a chambered shank, a coupler for con
necting the knob and spindle, and a rotatableY
device for operating the coupler and having a
tapered substantially smooth walled socket for
frictional engagementby the tapered end of a
key and operable by such frictional engagement.
10. In a lock including a latch bolt and a
15
spindle for operating the same, the said spindle
having a transverse bore and a knob freely rotat
able with respect to the spindle and having a
chambered shank surrounding the spindle, a 20
coupler movable from an inoperative position
within the bore of the head to an extended posi
tion in engagement with the knob shank for
connecting the spindle and knob, and a rotatable
cam for moving the coupler having means for en
25
gagement and operation by a key.
11. In a lock, the combination with a latch
bolt, of a rotatable spindle for operating it hav
ing a head, a rotatable knob having a tubular
shank rotatable about the head, a transverse 30
plunger in the head movable into and out of en
gagement with the knoby shank to couple the two,
a cam rotatably mounted in the head and en
gaging the plunger to actuate it, a substantially
smooth Walled socket piece carried by the cam,
and key-receiving mechanism in the knob in 35
cluding a guard interposed between the end of
the knob and said socket piece, and comprising
angularly adjustable sections having passageways
that can be set in diiîerent angular relations to 40
permit the passage o1” the screw-like shank of a
key having a certain corresponding pitch and
preventing the passage of. those of other pitches
and giving access of the proper key to the socket
piece of the cam.
12. In a lock including a latch bolt, a spindle 45
for operating the latch bolt, the said spindle
having a head provided with a transverse bore, a
knob having a tubular shank rotatably surround
ing the head of the spindle and having a series
of spaced sockets for registering with the bore, 50
a coupler slidably mounted within the bore of
the head for coupling the knob shank and head, a
rotary cam mounted in the head for moving the
coupler into and out of engagement with the
55
sockets of the knob shank, and a spring interposed
between the cam and the coupler.
DANIEL S. GEISER.
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