Патент USA US2123993код для вставки
July 19, 1938.- 2,123,993 D. s. GElsER ' LOCK Filed March 13, 1936 FZ? .1.' _alll l / / v SÉ f 91 __Hilf 01% «man Patented July 19, 1938 2,123,993 UETED STATES FATE 'l' e. FFECE 2,123,993 LOCK Daniel S. Geiser, Waynesboro, Pa. Application March 13, 1936, Serial No. 68,729 12 Claims. (Cl. 70-149) One of the important objects of the present by which the spindle can be turned, to operate invention is to provide a novel and eifective means for controlling the character of the key to be in serted in the lock, said means being readily a1 . terable in order to accommodate various forms of keys of the general type and exclude improper keys. A further object is to provide novel key op erated means that will require the service of a W) particular type of key that can be inserted in the above mechanism, and which operates through frictional contact, thereby making it practically impossible to “pick” the lock, or in other words surreptitiously operate it by means other than the authorized key. The invention may be applied to any form of key operated lock. One embodiment of the invention in which the device is shown applied to a door knob is illus trated in the accompanying drawing, wherein: Figure 1 is a sectional view through a portion of a door in which the embodiment of the inven tion is installed. Figure 2 is a cross sectional view on the line . 2-2 of Figure l, and showing the locking mecha nism in its effective relation with respect to the operating knob. Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2, but show ing the locking mechanism coupling the knob to the latch bolt operating means. Figure 4 is an end elevation of the key-receiv ing knob. Figure 5 is a detail sectional view on the line 5_5 of Figure 1. Figure 6 is a detail perspective view with the sections of the key guard separated. Figure '7 is a detail sectional view through the coupling plunger. Figure 8 is a sectional view on the line 8-8 of Figure '1. Figure 9 is an end elevation of the plunger operating cam device. Figure 10 is a side elevation of the same. Figure 1l. is a View of the other end of said cam device to that shown in Figure 9. Figure l2 -is a perspective view of a key for use with the device. A horizontal sectional portion of a door .is shown at i2, the same being mortised to receive a reciprccatory latch bolt I 3. Extending across the door is a knob spindle It having the usual cam or other device I5 for operating the latch. One end of this spindle projects from one side of 55 the door and has iixed thereto the usual knob IG the latch bolt in a well-known manner. Mounted on the side of the door opposite to that from which the knob I6 projects, is an es cutcheon plate I'I carrying an outstanding sleeve I 3 that provides a shield as hereinafter explained. The end of the spindle I4 projects into the shield and is provided with a head I9. An outer knob 20 is provided with a tubular shank 2| that is rotatable within the shield sleeve i8 and around the head I9, the same being secured in place by a holding washer 22 mounted on its inner end and located behind the inner end of the sleeve I8. The head I9 and consequently `the spindle Ill is adapted to be coupled to the knob shank 2| in order that the spindle and consequently the latch bolt I3 can be operated. For this purpose the said head I9 has a transverse socket 23 in which is a transversely reciprocatory coupling plunger 24 whose outer end is adapted to move into and out of one of a set of openings 25 formed in the tubular shank 2|. When the plunger 24' is out of such engagement, or as shown in Figures 1 and 2, the knob 20 is free to rotate and can have no effect on the spindle M. When the plunger 24 is in one of the openings 25, or as shown yin Figure 3, it Will be obvious that when the knob 20 is turned, the head I9 and the spindle Hl will >be rotated, thereby actuating the latch bolt. The plunger 24 is operated by a cam piece 26 -lo 30 cated longitudinally in the head i9 and rotating on the axis thereof. 'I‘his cam piece has a round ed face 2l and a flat face 28 adapted to respec tively bear against a follower 29 slidably mounted in a socket 3B of the plunger, said follower in turn operating against a spring 3| that bears against the end of the plunger. If the cam piece is turned so that the follower 29 rests against the flat side 28 of the cam piece 26, or as shown in Figures 1 and 2, the plunger will be in its in active position and the spring bearing against the flat face, will hold the cam against rotation. If, however, the cam piece is rotated, so that the rounded face 27 bears against the follower 29, or as shown in Figure 3, then through the interme diate spring 3| the plunger will be forced out wardly, so that if the knob is turned until one of the openings 25 registers with said plunger, it will snap into the opening. The knob Will be thereby locked to the head I9 and if the knob is now turned, it Will turn the spindle S4 and actu ate the latch bolt. It will be noted incidentally that these parts are entirely housed within the shield sleeve I3 of the escutcheon plate. The cam piece 26, it will be noted, extends 55 2,123,993 2 transversely through the plunger and has bear ings on opposite sides of the same in the head I9. When the plunger is retracted the follower jections 45 to cooperate with the scores 35a of the key shank to exclude improperly scored keys and further safeguard the lock against opera 29 rests upon the flat side 26 of the cam piece. tion by unauthorized keys, When the plunger is projected and is borne against by the rounded side of the cam piece pling plunger 24 is in its retracted and inactive relation, the latch bolt I3 can only be operated 26, the flat side thereof bears against the flat ends 24a of the openings and thus there is no tendency of the cam piece to accidentally turn. 10 The cam piece 26 in turn is key-operated and When the cou by the inner knob I6, the outer knob being freely rotatable without effecting any operation of the lock. With this structure it will be noted par 10 ticularly by reference to Figure 5 that the eX for that purpose it has at its outer end a head 32 which is preferably provided with an out posed opening to the interior of the lock through wardly opening .and inwardly tapered socket 33 the intersecting portions of the slots. whose side Walls are smooth. 15 The lock functions as follows. The key preferably employed is shown at 34, and includes a shank 35 that is twisted or sub stantially of screw shape. The twisted shank of the key may be provided with scores 35o. The inner end or bit 36 of this key is tapered, 20 the taper corresponding substantially to the ta per of the socket 33 so that the edges of the bit will frictionally bear against the side walls of the socket. By forcing the key in, therefore, .a sufficient frictional grip will be obtained between 25 the key and the head so that the cam piece 25 can be turned either tol project the plunger or to permit its withdrawal. The provision of a rounded socket allows the entrance of a key in any position instead of requiring it to be in a 30 definite position with respect to the head 32 and also accommodates the twisted end of a spiral key. In order to insure that the lock will only be operable by a predetermined authorized key, a 35 guard is placed in the tubular shank of the knob 20 between the keyhole 31 of said knob and the head 32 of the cam piece 21. 'I'his guard con sists of detachably telescoped tubular sections 38 and 39, »each having an end wall provided 40 with a passageway in the form of slots 40 and 4l. The key guards are relatively rotatable, that is to say, when separated as shown in Figure 6, the position of one with relation to the other can be changed and the sections again inter 45 ñtted. In order to hold them against relativ-e rotation when interñtted, any suitable means may be employed, but in the structure shown the exterior wall of the section 39 is provided with ribs 42 and the internal wall of the other 50 section 38 has grooves 43 that receive the same. It will be evident therefore that by changing the relation of the sections the relative angularity of the two passageways or slots 40 and 4l can be altered and consequently the pitch of the twisted 55 key shank that can pass through the two pas sages. The same effect may be obtained by changing the distance between the end walls of the telescoped sections. By placing them far ther apart or closer together, the pitch of the 60 key that can pass through both passages is changed. In order to accurately and positively space the two walls, washers 4la may be inserted within the outer tubular section 38 and between its end wall and the inner end of the inner sec tion 39. Thus any one of a. set of keys having shanks provided with different degrees of pitch can be made to become operable by either of the adjustments while others are excluded. The guard as a whole it will be understood is rotat able within the knob shank 2| and there is pref erably interposed between the rear end of the guard and the front end of the head 32 an anti friction washer 44. The side of the key passages 40 and 4l of the 75 guard sections are provided with suitable pro the slots 40 and 4l is very small, being merely More over the key-receiving socket of the cam piece 15 having smooth walls, leaves nothing to be en gaged by any unauthorized device that may be passed through the keyhole and engaged with the socket piece. The danger of effectively tam pering with the lock is thus reduced to a mini 20 mum. When the proper key is inserted, it will obvi ously pass through th-e slots 40 and 4l and slight ly turn the guard until the inner end or bit of the key is frictionally engaged with the walls 25 of the socket. When so engaged approximately a one-half turn to right or left of the key will positively rotate the cam piece, thus forcing out the plunger and as already explained, coupling the outer knob 2li to the spindle. Consequently 30 when said knob is turn-ed the latch bolt will be withdrawn. If an attempt is made to use a key having a pitch different from that of the proper key, it will be evident that it cannot enter because the relation of the slots 4€) and 4I will prevent its passage. It will be readily appreciated that any form of rotatable lock operating mechanism may be substituted for the cam piece, and that this de vice may therefore be applied to any form of 40 key operated lock. From the foregoing, it is thought that the construction, operation and many advantages of the herein described invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art without further de 45 scription, and it will be understood that various changes in the size, shape, proportion and minor details of construction may be resorted to with out departing from the spirit or sacrificing any 50 of the advantages of the invention. What I claim is: l. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a key guard comprising sections having passage ways for the shank of the key, said sections being 55 relatively adjustable to vary the relative position of the passageways and thereby govern the char acter of the key shank that can be effectively en gaged therein. 2. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, 60 the combination with a key receiving casing, of a key guard comprising sections having passage ways for the shank ofthe key, said sections being relatively adjustable to vary the relative position of the passageways and thereby govern the char 65 acter of the key shank that can be engaged there in, and means for securing the sections against relative movement and in different adjusted posi tions. 3. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, 70 the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a key guard comprising telescoped sections having passageways for the shank of the key, said sec tions being relatively angularly adjustable to vary the relative position of the passageways and 75 2,123,993 thereby govern the character of the key shank that can be engaged therein, and a plurality of ribs in the meeting surfaces of. the sections for securing the sections against relative rotation and in different adjusted positions. 4. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a key guard comprising sections having passage ways in which the screw-like portions of the key shank can simultaneously be engaged, said sec tions being relatively angularly adjustable to ‘vary the relative positions relation of the pas sageways and thereby change their pitch and govern the pitch of the key shank that can be engaged therein, and means for securing the sec tions, in their adjusted relative- positions. 5. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, the combination v/ith a key-receiving casing, of a key guard comprising detachably interfitting angularly adjustable sections having interlock ing portions and each section having a passage way for the key shank and said passageways being brought into different relative positions when the sections are relatively rotated and interlocked in different positions to control the character of the pitch of the key shank that can be eiïectively engaged therein. 6. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, the combination With a casing having a key en 30 trance opening and a device therein to be oper ated by the key, of a key guard interposed be tween. the entrance and the device and compris ing angularly adjustable interñtted sections having passageways through which the screw 35 like shank of the key passes, said sections being relatively rotatable to change the relative posi tions of the passageways and thus vary their pitch and the consequent pitch of the key shank that will pass therethrough, and a plurality of 40 flutes in the meeting face of the inter?itted sec tions for securing the shanks against relative rotation and in different adjusted relations and whereby a multiplicity of different adjustments may be made. 7. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, 45 the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a key guard comprising spaced Walls, the Walls having slot-like passageways arranged in rela tively angular relation for the shank of. the key, and the distance between the Walls being adjust able to vary the relative positions of the passage ways and thereby govern the character of the key shank that can be engaged therein. 8. In a lock for operation by a screw-like key, 55 the combination with a key-receiving casing, of a key guard comprising adjustably telescoping sec tions, each section having an end Wall spaced from the end wall of the other section, and the 3 end walls having slot-like passages in relatively angular relation for the screw-like shank of the key, and means for securing the sections in ad justed positions whereby the pitch of the- key shank that will pass through the passageways is controlled. 9. In a lock, the combination with a latch bolt and spindle for operating the same, of a knob freely rotatable with respect to the spindle and having a chambered shank, a coupler for con necting the knob and spindle, and a rotatableY device for operating the coupler and having a tapered substantially smooth walled socket for frictional engagementby the tapered end of a key and operable by such frictional engagement. 10. In a lock including a latch bolt and a 15 spindle for operating the same, the said spindle having a transverse bore and a knob freely rotat able with respect to the spindle and having a chambered shank surrounding the spindle, a 20 coupler movable from an inoperative position within the bore of the head to an extended posi tion in engagement with the knob shank for connecting the spindle and knob, and a rotatable cam for moving the coupler having means for en 25 gagement and operation by a key. 11. In a lock, the combination with a latch bolt, of a rotatable spindle for operating it hav ing a head, a rotatable knob having a tubular shank rotatable about the head, a transverse 30 plunger in the head movable into and out of en gagement with the knoby shank to couple the two, a cam rotatably mounted in the head and en gaging the plunger to actuate it, a substantially smooth Walled socket piece carried by the cam, and key-receiving mechanism in the knob in 35 cluding a guard interposed between the end of the knob and said socket piece, and comprising angularly adjustable sections having passageways that can be set in diiîerent angular relations to 40 permit the passage o1” the screw-like shank of a key having a certain corresponding pitch and preventing the passage of. those of other pitches and giving access of the proper key to the socket piece of the cam. 12. In a lock including a latch bolt, a spindle 45 for operating the latch bolt, the said spindle having a head provided with a transverse bore, a knob having a tubular shank rotatably surround ing the head of the spindle and having a series of spaced sockets for registering with the bore, 50 a coupler slidably mounted within the bore of the head for coupling the knob shank and head, a rotary cam mounted in the head for moving the coupler into and out of engagement with the 55 sockets of the knob shank, and a spring interposed between the cam and the coupler. DANIEL S. GEISER.