Патент USA US2124084код для вставки
Jug? E9» @938° ` c. F.; SAUER'EHSEN BUILDING BLOCK AND STRUCTURE FORMED Fiied Feb. 2e, 1937 Zßìáßäß THEREFROM n 2,124,084 Patented July 1,9, 193s UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,124,084 BUILDING BLOCK AND STRUCTURE - FOBMED THEREFROM christian F. saucreisen, Aspinwau, Pa.' -Application February 26, 1937, Serial No. 127,855 ' (Cl. 'l2-37) 8 Claims. recesses in the brick, thus obviating the necessity of laying each brick separately in a plastic mortar. or bricks and to ñoors, walls and other built-up . My present invention relates to building blocks More specifically, my invention resides in the production of a parallelepipedal brick which is especially configured on three surfaces thereof so 5 structures made therefrom Bricks> and built-up Astructures composed of 5 bricks are usually laid with a plastic mortar or' that when laid connecting recesses or passage-' the like for holding the blocks or bricks together. In the case of ordinary rectangular building brick, ways are formed which, when ñlled with liquid binding material poured therein, causes the brick to be secured in place and to each other in proper position; my invention also contemplates the 10 speeding up of the laying of brick and the form ing of built-up structures therefrom. In the accompanying drawing wherein like nu a row or course of such brick is laid one brick at a time in the plastic mortar which thereafter hardens. For some types of use, as in industry, in the making of plant floors, tanks, walls and analogous structures, such a constructiony is not satisfactory. In cases where the structure comes in contact with corrosive materials such as acids - 15 or corrosive vapors the mortar is. attacked and ment of an adjoining brick; sary or desirable to have a surface, i. e., a vertical wall or tank surface, which has no exposed or Fig. 2 is a side elevational Fig. 1; visible joints and hence wherein corrosiveattack Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken on ` the line IVp-IV of Fig.~ 1; and a number of modified bricks have been pro Fig. 5 is an elevational View of the brick of one posed in the past to take care of such instances. end of Fig. 1; These prior proposals, however, have for the most Fig. '7 is a sectional view on line VII-VII of cases where the brick itself is of a relatively "sat Fig. 6; ' isfactory type, diiiiculty is encountered in laying cast joining strips. For example, in the construc tion of acid containers such as tanks for pickling iron and steel it has been found that the best 35 results can be secured by laying brick in molten sulphur or in some other molten composition specially prepared for such service. The'use of ordinary rectangular bricks with‘molten binder _is difl‘icult- and troublesome, 'necessitating the pre- ' casting of sulphur or other strips to form spacers' which must be placed between successive courses. Paper strips must then be pasted along every ' It is accordingly one of the objects of my pres ent invention to produce a novel brick from which built-up structures can be conveniently made with A _ ^ ' Fig. 8 is a view showing a section of the ñcor „ the brick, necessitating the use of spacers or pre poured joints. ' vertical wall extending at right angles to said special divided molds, etc., and at the same time the expense` is unduly increased. Even in those course to seal off the joints. , Fig. 6 is a plan view of a floor formed from the brickv o'f Fig. 1 and a sectional view 'through a 25 part been objectionable inl that the special >brick shapes required are too difficult to form, requiring 40 view of the brick of " Fig. 3 is a bottom view of the brick of Fig. 1; 20 is prevented or greatly retarded. With the com mon form of building brick such is notv possible 3 ’ Figure 1 is a perspective view of a brick em-V bódying my present invention and showing afrag rapidly deteriorates. In otherfcases it is neces 2 merals designate corresponding parts: ' Another object of my invention resides in the 50 production of brick’from which tanks or walls can be made free from Visible joints and hence which present a 100 per cent ceramic surface. A further object resides in a brick of such na ture that an entire course is ñrst laid and then s liquid or melted binder poured into pre-formed and an elevation of the wall taken .on line VIII of Fig. 7; and Fig. 9 is a view similar 'to Fig. 7 of a modified 35 form of the invention. Referring ñrst to the brick itself, as illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, the numeral I0 indi cates the upper surface thereof. It will be noted that this upper surface is planar. Likewise, the side Il of the` brick is planar, as will be >appar ent from Figs. 4 and 5 in particular. One end I2 is also planar. , The remaining three surfaces of the brick, namely, the other end I3, the other side I4v and the bottom I5 are specially configured as willbe apparent from Figs. 5, 2 and 3, respectively.' Referring first to Fig. 5 which 'illustrates the end of the brick, it will be apparent that this end is characterized by a semi-circular recess "or flute I6 substantially centrally disposed. This 50 flute extends from the upper surface I0 of the brick to a point I1 short of the bottom of the brick and from such point to the bottom there Ais provided 'a somewhat semi-circular beveled portion I8 which together with .flute I6 forms 2 ' 2,124,084 an inverted funnel-shaped recess and it will be noted that the lower edge I 9 of this portion I8 is above the‘extreme lowermost point of the brick. From the ilute the end wall of the brick is pro vided with the two portions 20 which are non vertlcal being inclined from top to bottom, -that is, the upper edge of these portions is inwardly disposed relative to the bottom edge thereof and also these walls are inclined from the flute toward 10 the corners of the brick. Thus these portions 20 uid'material ilows into the recess in the bottom of the brick and spreads along into the bottom recesses of contiguous bricks but the flow of such liquid material is laterally limited on one side by the longitudinal bottom marginal portion 29 and on the other side by the two segmental por have a double or compound slope or inclinationI both vertically and horizontally. These portions 20 do not, however, extend all the way to the edges of the brick, thus forming marginal por by pouring a liquid binding or joining material into the inverted funnel-like recesses. Such liq tions 30 thus preventing any undesirable spread ing, flowing or wasting of the liquid material. 10 'I’his liquid material is poured hot or in melted condition and` when it cools or hardens forms an effective joint securing the bricks to each other and to the foundation or subjacent course. Thus 15 tions 2l which consequently are of somewhat in utilizing the present brick in producing hori the bottom and their thickest portion at the top. 20 and 2| are joined by triangular bevel walls 22. It will be further noted that one edge of the flute 20 (the left edge in Fig. 5) extends the entire height of the brick whereas the other has a flaring lower zontal surfaces, such as floors, an entire course wedge shape having their thinnest portion at end designated by thevnumeral 23. The non-planar side I4 of the brick (Fig. 2) is generally of the same nature as the non-planar 25 end I3 just described, the major difference being in the proportions. The non-planar side has a -ñute 23 which is off-center (but which> may be centered if desired) and which has a semi-cir cular beveled portion 24 which together with flute 30 23 forms an inverted funnel-like recess and it will be noted that the lower edge 25 of this portion 24 is also above the lowermost~ point of the brick. From the flute the brick side walls 26 have the compound inclination described in connection 35 with walls 20 of Fig. 5 and hence wall portions 26 in Fig. 2 have their upper edges inwardly dis posed with relation to their lower edges and also slope from the flute toward the corners, the in nermost point being at the ñute. In this manner 40 marginal edge portions 2l are formed which are of wedge shape, this is, their lower portions are the thinnest and merge with the side wall of the brick and their upper portions are the thickest. Wall 26 is connected to portions 21 by triangular bevel walls 28. It will be noted, however, that both the marginal portions 21 of Fig. 5 and the marginal portions 2| of Fig. 2 are actually ver tical and that the fact that they are wedge shaped arises from the sloping of the in-between 50 portions and not from any alteration in the mar ginal portions themselves. It will be noted that the bottom I5 of the brick (Fig. 3) is almost entirely cut away or recessed, leaving only a longitudinal marginal strip 29 55 along one side of the brick and two segmental portions 30 on the opposite corners of the brick. These three portions rest upon the top of a sub jacent course of bricks and form between the two courses recesses which are adapted to receive a liquid binding or joining material. Attention is also called to the fact that the inverted funnel like recesses provide communication with the re cess in the bottom of the brick. This is taken advantage of in laying and uniting the bricks as 65 lwill be pointed out hereinafter. From a consideration of the above description and Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, it will be understood that I have provided a parallelepipedal brick having three planar surfaces and three non 70 planar surfaces and that the non-planar sur faces are so configured and related to one an l other that when a plurality of bricks are laid either upon a suitable foundation or upon a sub jacent course the bricks can be secured to one 75 another and to the foundation or subjacent course 15 of brick may be laid and then the joints poured. Pouring is carried out via each funnel-like re cess. Such a floor is illustrated in Fig. 6 espe cially and of course in such a floor the joints on 20 the top course are exposed or visible unless cov ered by a layer of tile or other material which may or may not be resorted to, depending upon circumstances. The longitudinal joints are des ignated by numeral 3| and the transverse joints 25 by numeral 32. I am thus able to produce an exceptionally strong and even brick floor in a simplified manner and in a much shorter period of time as compared to ordinary brick having six planar surfaces and wherein each brick must be 30 set individually in a plastic mortar and each course leveled olf. In a floor made of my new brick a level floor is insured without any special precautions being taken provided the foundation is itself level. The exposed joint material is also 35 minimized being only a fraction of that where regular rectangular bricks and plastic mortar are used. Such liquid binding or joining material may be of any known or desired composition and I do 40 not in this application claim per se novelty or invention in such composition, since a number of these are known in the art. The composition may, however, either be one which is normally liquid and which hardens or sets when in place 45, or after a given period of time or it may be a material which is hard or solid at normal tem peratures and- which is liquid at raised temperatures. Sulphur is one material that may be suc cessfully used. In such case the material is 50 poured hot and hardens upon cooling and in connection with the use of a liquid joining ma terial it will be noted that there can be no waste of the_same because the recesses are filled sub stantially full and hence the material is utilized 55 more economically than plastic mortar or analo gous materials which are w'asteful in that an ex cess must always be used and the excess removed. My present invention also provides neater joints having no projecting portions and thus has addi 60 tional advantages over the use of plastic mortars. Ceramic surfaces may be produced from brick made in accordance with the present invention which have no exposed or visible joints and this is particularly useful ln connection with walls or tanks as above outlined where corrosive condi tions or agents exist which would attack ordi nary mortar joints or any joints of an exposed nature or for ornamental purposes. es Such surfaces have also been indicated in Figs. 70 6, ’7 and 8 and it will be observed from Fig. 8 ~ in particular that there are no visible or exposed joints or joining material in the vertical wall there shown. In building such surfaces it will be appreciated that the bricks. as shown in Figs. 75 3 2,194,084 intermediate ñute connected by inclined sur faces'which slope from the ends thereof toward the flute, each flute terminating in an enlarged v be understood by referring to the bricks marked semi-circular beveled recess formed partly in the Illa in Figs. 6 to 8 and, as shown, these bricks e respective side and end surfaces and partlyin the 1 to 5, inclusive, may be so assembled that their planar sides Il are the ones which are exposed to view and form the visible surface. Such will may abut against a concrete or other wall or surface 33' depending upon the particular use. In Figs. 6 to 8, inclusive, the vertical wall with the invisible joints is made from brick of the same 10 size as the ñooring brick but in Fig. 9 a narrower slightly modiñed brick Ica' has been used having different proportions but otherwise being sub stantially the same as is indicated by the use of y the same numerals thereon with a prime (') 15 designation. bottom surface and communicating with the re cess in the bottom surface which is defined by a raised marginal projection along one side and spaced .segmental projections along the other 10 side. 3. A parallelepipedal brick the bottom surface of which is provided with a longitudinal marginal projecting portion along one edge and spaced, "raised sectors along the other edge, there being a semi-circular beveled recess between said 15 Vertical walls or tanks may thus be formed which are permanent and proofed against deter ioration, particularly where' corrosive atmos spaced, raised sectors. i _ 4. A parallelepipedal brick the bottom surface of which is provided with a longitudinal projec- » pheres or agents are present,` but the use of the tion along one side and spaced, raised segmental 20 brick is not limited to such because I have dis covered that subway tubes or vehicular tunnels can be advantageously so produced and in such cases where it is desired to make the built-up beveled semi-circular recesses. one-of which is structure impervious to water the joints may be 25 composed of tar, asphalt, or other bituminous compound, thus adequately preventing inñltra tion of water or other liquid. Likewise, man holes and analogous vertically disposed tunnel like structures may also be produced in accord 30 ance with the foregoing with a 100 per cent ce ramic surface and with'out visible joints. My invention therefore comprises a parallel epipedal block or brick having one side, one end and its bottom especially configured so as to pro vide new and useful features and results. Such a brick not only makes it possible ‘to more quick ly and more simply produce'vbuilt-up structures which are vstronger and more durable as well as level but also the formation of certain types of built-up structures wherein no spacers or pre cast strips are required and wherein there are no visible or accessible joints, thus providing a projections along the opposite side, the bottom 20 surface aforesaid being provided with two located between the segmental projections and the other of which is located between one of the segmental projections andthe end of the longi 25 tudinal projection. 5. A parallelepipedal brick, one side surface of which is provided with an inverted funnel-shaped recess and sloping side walls extending from a point near the ends of said side surface to said 30 recess, the extreme ends of said side surface be ing provided with marginal wedge-shaped pro jectionsrwhich have a maximum height at the top of the brick and which merge into the side 35 wall near the bottom of the brick. 6. A parallelepipedal ceramic brick, one side surface of which is provided with an inverted funnel-shaped recess, 'the side surface extending from such recess toward the ends thereof with a compound inclination, the termini of the side surface being constituted of vertical, marginal' wedge-shaped portions tapering from top to bot 40 tom. '1. A parallelepipedal brick which has one end surface thereof provided witha centrally dis The foregoing description and explanation are posed flute, the bottom of the flute being con however intended as illustrative or exemplary nected to and merging with a substantially semi rather than limitative and I may make certain circular beveled recess formed partly in the end surface of the brick and partly in the bottom additions, omissions, modiñcations or substitu surface thereof, the end wall being inclined to 50 tions within the scope and principle of the fore going. The invention is rather to be deñned by ' ward the ñute and being also inclined from bot-_ the appended claims, wherein the term brick is tom to top from the ñute toward the outer cor used in its broadest sense as covering bricks, ners of the brick. the` extreme outer portions blocks, tiles and similar articles forming units of of the end wall surface being in the form of structure extremely long in life and substantial ly entirely free vfrom any ordinary form of de 45 terioration, particularly as to the joints thereof. building construction. - Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new’and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: which merge into the wall surface adjacent the bottom thereof. y 1. A parallelepipedal brick having its bottom, one end and one side surface provided with com municating recesses, the recesses in the side and end surfaces including an intermediate flute and ` the brick surface adjacent the ñutes being dis posed on a gradual inclination which slopes to ward said flutes. wedge-shaped projections which have their 55 greatest thickness at the top of the brick 'and ' 2. A parallelepipedal brick having its bottom', one end and one side surface recessed, the re cesses in the end and side surfaces including an , ~ 8. A parallelepipedal ceramic brick, one end surface of which is provided with an inverted 60 >funnel-shaped recess, the termini of‘ the end surface being constituted of vertical, marginal wedge-shaped portions tapering from top to bot tom, the'end surface between the recess and the wedge-shaped-portions being of compound incli 65 CHRISTIAN F. SAUEREISEN. nation. . .