Патент USA US2124242код для вставки
July 19, 1938-‘ _ ~ I N. s. BELLMAN PORTABLE BUILDING’ Filed Oct. 6, 1936 ‘ ‘ 2,124,242 I ' 8 Sheets-Sheet_l July 19, 1938. _ N. s. BELLMAN ' 2;12_4,242 ~ PORTABLE BUILDING glad Oct. 6, 1936 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 5 Fig.2. k] h 9W» M i July 19, 1938. ‘ ' N's. BELLMAN 2,124,242 - PORTABLE BUILDING Filed Oct. v6, 1956 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 u ' ' 9W.~ July 19, 1938. N. s. BELLMAN 2,124,242 PORTA?LE BUILDING Filed 001:. e, 1956 8 Sheets-Sheet 4' ‘July 19, 193s.v ' N. s. BELLMAN 2,124,242 PORTABLE BUILDING Filed Oct. 6. 1936 " 8 She'ets-Shee'ti a \lglr/ - I July 19, 1938‘. N, s, BELLMAN _ ‘ v 2,124,242 PORTABLE BUILDING :Filed 001:. 6, 1956 8 she'etsv-sheet 6 /1 " July, 19, 1938.‘ N. s. BELLMAN - 2,124,242 j PORTABLE BUILDING Filed Oct. 6, 1936 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 2,124,242 Patented July 19, 1938 ' ‘UNITED-‘STATES PATENT oFFlcE ron'rnizirlizai?lwmo ‘ 2 v I ‘Application In Great October Britain 6, 1936, November Serial7, No_ 1935 104,291 . . 13 Claims. This invention relates to portable buildings, for example airplane hangars or sheds, and has for its main object to provide an improved struc tural arrangement adapted for rapid and easy 5 transportation, erection and dismantling and also allowing variation of size to suit require ments. ' Another object of the invention is to provide an improved form of sectional unit adapted for 10 assembly with other ‘similar units to constitute (Cl. 189-2) Fig. 10 is an elevation and Fig. '11 a plan of a foundation member supporting‘one‘of the sec tional units of a side wall. ' .1 . . Fig. 12 is a detail on a larger scale, ‘showing one of the saddle blocks which, receive the ends of the purlins. ’ " l " ‘ Figs. 13 and 13a represent two parts of an ele vation at right angles to Fig. 9, seen at the top of the roof adjacent to one end of the shed, show ing means for supporting a canvas door or ‘our either a roof principal or a wall stanchion for a tain to close the doorway or opening. portable building, and also adapted for assem Fig. 14 is an elevation of an alternative form of door support with bottom guide track. Fig. 15 is a plan view in section on the line bly with one or more other similar units to con stitute a pole or derrick to be employed in the 15 erection of the roof principals or wall stanchions of the building. A further object of the invention is to provide a base or foundation member upon which a wall l5—l5 of Fig. 14. . ‘ the door supports. , . bottom end of the lowest unit of the stanchion. wire operating the doors. section and the doors being adapted for rapid operation but providing a substantially rigid 15 , ' Fig. 1'7 is an elevation at right angles to Fig. 14, showing the lower end of a door. support en gaged in the bottom track. of area approximating to' said rectangular cross o Fig. 16 is a part plan of vthe bottom track for stanchion composed of assembled sectional units of rhomboidal shape will stand in substantially vertical position,'in spite of the obliquity of the A still further object is to provide improved doors for closing the ends of portable buildings 25 of rectangular cross section, the doorways being _ ‘ Figs. 18 and 19 represent guide pulleys for a 7 , Figs. 20, 21, and 22 are diagrams of- the door, operating system. ' steel slats. _ _ ‘ ' vertical Fig. 23 illustrates a door made of , _ 25 , Figs. 24, 25, and 26 are diagrams showing in end elevation various sizes of building which can be built up by assembly of different num closure. / ' . , The invention is hereafter described with ref erence to the accompanying drawings, in which:--- ' ‘ Figs. 1 and 1a represent two- halves of an end 1 elevation, partly in section,‘ of an airplane shed 35 or hangar. ' ‘ , Fig. 2 is a partial side view of the structure, and Fig.3 a partial plan of the roof, the cover ing material being partly broken away to show the internal bracing. Fig. 4 represents on a larger scale one of the 40 sectional units from which the side walls and roof principals are built up. ' Fig. 5 is a plan and Fig. 6 an end view of Fig. 4:. ‘ Fig. '7 shows a modi?ed form of sectional unit preferably employed for the corner connection of the roof to the walls.I Fig. 8 represents an alternative construction of sectional unit. 50 Fig. 9 is a. partial end elevation of the struc ture on the same scale as Figs. 4-7, showing in outline the modi?ed or corner unit (Fig. '7) con nected to the adjacent units of the roof and wall respectively, together'with the side rails, purlins and covering material. bers and arrangements of the sectional units.‘ Referring to Figs. 1 to 3, the building illus trated represents an airplane shed or hangar, the plan dimensions being for example 175 feet long and 95 feet wide, giving a clear inside width of about 90‘ feet; with these dimensions the 35 building may comprise ?fteen complete roof arches A, with ?fteen pairs of wall stanchions B, providing fourteen bays 0, each 12 feet 6 inches long, two such bays being represented in Figs. 2 and 3. Each wall stanchion is shown as built up of three similar sectional, units a, giving 'a clear height of about 25 feet inside the building. Each roof arch is shown as built up of ten simi lar sectional units a, ?ve on each side of the centre line of the building at the corners, where the roof is connected to the walls, slightly modi ?ed sectional units b are provided, for a purpose hereafter ‘explained, these corner units being con nected between the outmost sectional units a- of the roof arch A and the topmost units a of‘the wall-stanchion B. 50 . The main sectional units a, when assembledtoé } gether to form a main arch or principal A of the roof, have their abutting ends substantially ver- ‘ tical while their top and bottom membersare 55 2 2,124,242 inclined at a relatively small angle (for example 15 degrees) to the horizontal; in order that sec tional units a of the same form may serve for vertical side wall stanchions B of the structure, in which the abutting ends will be inclined to the horizontal, the foundations 0 upon which the walls rest are each given a slightly oblique top face, inclined at the same angle as the main arch or roof principal A, the substantially vertical 10 rhomboidal units of the walls resting endwise on these oblique faces. The sectional units a are arranged for bolting together at their meeting ends directly or by ‘means of cover straps across the joints, or for 15 assembling in any other convenient manner, the spacing of the bolt holes or the like being uniform in all the units as Well as in the foundation mem bers c on which the walls ‘are ‘mounted; similarly spaced bolt holes or the like may be’ provided at other points of some or all of the units, for ex ample to allow of securing the outermost units of fth’eroof'principals‘ in suitable angular relation to the topmost units of‘the walls, so that the roof can rest directly upon the top of‘the wall at 25 each side.“ Preferably,'however, a modi?ed form of ‘unit b is provided for the corner-connection of the roof to the walls or for the connection between other sectional units in angular relation. ‘ The'preferred construction of the main sec 39 tional units a is shown more clearly in Figs. 4 to 6, ‘ where it" can be seen. that‘the unit is of rhom boidal shape, the ends ‘being substantially ver tical (in the position'occupied when forming a sectional‘ unit of the‘ roof arch) and the top and bottom‘lon'gitudinal members or booms being in clined atlan angle of about 15 degrees to the hori zontal. " The 'unit ~is built up by b'olting together a number of rolled steel angles, vcut to suitable lengths, comprising end members a1, longitudinal members or booms a2, arranged in pairs, and di agonal stays as. The members a1 a2 are secured together'by means of angle plates w1E at each corner of the unit, one of these plates being bolted between‘ the two' ‘longitudinal members‘ a2 and 45 having the end of the member a1 bolted thereto; ‘ the second'an‘g‘le plate a4 has ‘its side flange ex tending in the reverse direction. At each end of the unit, the sidel?ang'es of- the two angle plates a4 at'the top‘ and ofrt'he two atxthe bottom are flush, with the ?ange of the angle a1 so as to ‘ form" an 'end'surface'for jointing to an adjacent un‘it’f'by ‘bolts passing through holes in these ?anges.‘ The booms a2 may also ‘be formed with correspondingly arranged bolt holes, so that two 55 such units can be bolted together in angular rela ‘ tion as analternative to ‘the end-to-end relation. The modi?ed corner unit I; (Fig. '7) differs from the standard a mainly in that its lower longi tudinal member or boom 1)2 is cranked or offset to 60 provide end‘ portions of, different depth; one end 121 ‘is of. the same depth as the end a1 of the standard unit, but the other end 123 is made 65 stanchion unit a, or in a reversed position, with the end b1 resting on the top of a wall-stanchion unit and the face b4 bolted to the vertical end a1 of a roof principal unit a. The corner unit also provides a slight increase of strength, as com pared with the bolting of a standard roof unit a upon the top of a similar Wall-stanchion unit a, by reason of the stiffening due to the extra depth at the corner where the maximum stresses in the frame occur. The corner units may also be em ployed for connecting sectional units in angular relation at other positions, for example for the 10 ridge connection of the two principals of a roof arch, twov such units being inverted and bolted together at their deeper ends b3, and the other 15 ends 121 being bolted to the ends a1 of the‘main units forming the roof principals. It will be understood that the sectional units may be built up by bolting, riveting or welding together any suitable rolled steel sections to form a girder structure of rhomboidal shape, and that the units may be composed of metal sheets or pressings built up in any convenient manner. For example, Fig. 8' shows the corner unit b formed by pressed steel booms b2 of channel sec tion having their side flanges connected together 25 by‘parsnei steel plates b5 cut out to provide apertures of which the edges are reinforced by continuous lips b6; flat steel plates are welded between'the extremities :of the booms b2 and 30 platesb? to ‘form the ends b1 b3 of the unit, and also at intermediate points of the length to form diaphragms b7, stiffening webs I)8 being welded between the plates b5 to’ connect the lips I)6 with the booms 62. or' diaphragms b". Each- of the wall stanchions B has its lowest sectional unit a bolted down upon a foundation member‘c (Figs. IQ and 11) havinga pair of oblique steel‘angles c1 secured thereto, the top faces “of the‘ angles 01 having the same inclina tion as theroof principals, viz. 15 degrees, so that 35 40 when the unit a is laid in a vertical position upon this member 0, its end a1 will rest evenly upon the oblique angles (31, upon which it will then be se cured bybolts passing through bolt holes provided to’ correspond with those in the end (11. The member 0 may consist, of a steel plate, having the oblique angles c1 riveted thereto and itself riv eted in'place between two channel steel bearers 45 d, the opposite ends d1 of which are bolted down 50 being anchored to the ground, for example by screw piekets 1‘ passed through bridge plates ]‘1 secured to’ the sleepers e;; alternatively the sleep to pairs of pressed steel sleepers e, the whole ers e may be held down by sand bags ?lled on the 55 site and laid across the sleepers. , The severalmain arches A and wall-stanchions B thus constituted'are connected together in the longitudinal direction by purlins g and external side rails h respectively, arranged at the points of 60 connection of‘ theends a1 of the main units a, and also at intermediate points half-way along deeper, for example about half as deep again; the offset face I)? of the deeper end, extending par, allel to the top boom, is made of width equalto the depth of the end b1, and formed with corre spondingly arranged bolt holes, so that this unit the booms a2; all of these members g h are prefer ably similar and formed by trough-section steel pressings, or rolled steel angle-sections with round (i5 backs, adaptedto nest into one another for stor b can be bolted to the end of anotherunit in angular relation thereto. The corner unit is de signed to allow a variation of the height and connected to the main units a of the roof prin ' width of the building, since it can be arranged either invthe position shown in Fig. 9, with‘the end 121 bolted to the vertical end a1 of a roof arch or gable unit ‘and the offset face b‘1 at the deeper 75. end I)? bolted down on the top, end a1 of arwall age and transport. The purlins g are detachably cipals by means of saddle blocks 2' (Figs. 9 and 12), the extremities of the purlins being slotted transversely at g1 so as to engage with bolts 2'1 projecting from the sides of the saddle blocks; the latter_comprise base'plates izvbolted to the top booms d2, b? of the roof units, and adapted to form cover straps over the joints between ad 75. 3 2,124,242 jacent units, the booms 0.2 I)2 being formed with the‘ necessary bolt holes near the ends and also at the middle of their length. The side rails h are connected to the main units a‘ of the wall stanchions by means of similar saddle blocks bolted to the outside booms of these units. Suitable stifleners 7' (Figs. 13 and 13a), consist ing of angle or trough-section pressings, with one or both of their extremities (i1 cranked for ex 10 ample at 45 degrees, are bolted at one end to the purlins g alternately on opposite sides of the main units a of the roof principals, the opposite ends of these stiffeners being secured to the lower booms . a2 of the roof units; as shown in Figs. 9, 13, and 15 13a, the lower ends of these sti?eners a‘ may be bolted to saddle blocks 2', in the same way as the purlins g on the top of the units. Similar stiffen ers (not shown) may be provided in the plane of . the roof, between the arches or principals and 20 the uppermost side rails of each wall. Diagonal to the top of the roof and-also covering "the end wall-stanchions B. > ‘ ‘ . Figs 14 to 17 show the vertical steel bars 0 guided at their lower ends for sliding movement in a bottom track 1' of channel section, with at tached sills r1, made in convenient lengths, and supported by pressed steel sole-plates s, to the number for example of four to each length of track; the sole-plates are secured to the track by spot-welding ‘and are anchored by angle-iron 10 stakes s1 driven obliquely through holes 82 in the ?at ends of the plates, the earth being excavated to allow the laying of the track and then re placed level with the latter. The lower ends of the bars 0 are ?tted with socket sleeves o2 carry bars o from being blown inwards or outwards of the building by wind pressure. The ‘sleeves o2 are provided with hand-operated drop bolts 05 20 braces k, preferably adjustable in length to allow adapted to engage holes r2 in the bottom of the for uneven ground, may also be provided between ‘the ends of units in adjacent roof-principals and wall-stanchions, as indicated in Figs. 2 and 3; 25 these braces k are preferably clipped to‘the inter mediate purlins and side rails at their crossing track for holding the ,door in closed position; points W. The roof and walls may be covered with canvas, but are preferably covered with galvanized sheets 30 I, either flat or corrugated, which can be ar ranged for rapid erection and eliminating the customary end ample, the two ends 11 Z2 of the the roof may be curled upwards dismantling by laps. For ex sheets covering and downwards 35 respectively so that the lower end Z2 of a sheet merely hangs over the upturned top end Z1 of the next lower sheet, as shown in Fig. 9; the sheets are fastened by means of hook bolts Z3 engaging under the edges of the purlins ‘g, with nuts 14 40 screwed upon their projecting ends above the 15 ing pins 03 with .revoluble rollers 04 which run freely in the track 1' but prevent the door and , ‘ when the door 'is opened, the‘ bars 0 are pre vented from crowding too closely together as they run along the overhead track p by means of stops 25 or bumpers o6 fastened near their top ends, these stops abutting together as shown in dotted lines in Fig.- 15. The opening and closing of the doors may be operated by wires t attached to the bars 0 ad 30 jacent to the center of the doorway, by knotting to eye-bolts t1 near the top ends of these bars, the wire passing freely through the eye-bolts of the other vertical bars; preferably one endless length of wire is employed at each doorway end 35 of the building, the overhead track rail 10 be ing utilized to carryv at its respective ends a pair of vertical pulleys u u1 (Fig. 18) and a hori zontal pulley. 11,2 (Fig. 19) so that the wire is looped over the doorway with a crossing at the sheets. Alternatively, as shown in Fig. 2 in the case of the wall-covering sheets, the end lap may center, so that the two halves or doors are lapping sheets, and the positions of the bolts 13 down to a winch v, as shown in Fig. 22, the wire being given two or three turns around the winch drum so that it can be wound in either direc opened and closed simultaneously. Figs. 20 to be maintained, rapid erection and dismantling 22 show the operating system, the vertical bars 0 . being provided for by facilitating the removal .being spaced out in Fig. 20, which represents the closed position, and being brought together at 45 45 of the bolts Z3'fastening these sheets to the side rails h; for this purpose, the holes in the inner or one side adjacent to the wall stanchion B in Fig. overlapped sheets are made with ample clearance 21, which represents the open position. The wire for the bolts passing through the outer or over passing over the vertical pulleys u 11,1 is taken are chosen so that they do not pass through more than two sheets at any point. Transparent top panels m, consisting of oiled fabric or like mate rial, may be ?tted to the sides of the shed, as shown in Fig. 9, in order to give light to the 55 interior. Doors may be provided at either or both ends of the building, these doors being preferably divided at the center; in the arrangement shown in Figs. 1a and 13, the door 7!», which extends 60 across one half of the doorway, is constructed of canvas or like material, sitffened by vertical steel bars or arranged to travel upon rollers 01 along an overhead track 12‘ formed by a T~section member mounted across the doorway, so that the 65 canvas doors or curtains can be run aside, the bottom ends of the bars 0- being adapted for ?x ing to screw pickets or the like when the doors are shut. The track-member p may be mounted 70 upon hangers 121 above the doorway, these be ing steadied by oblique stays 122 (see Fig.‘ 13) anchored to the purlins g in the end bay of the roof. A canopy q is provided across the top of the door opening, covering in the hangers p1 as 75 well as the‘ space above the track-member 10 up tion as required by appropriate movement of the winch handle 01. ' The doors may be made of material other than canvas or the like, particularly where 55 danger of ?re exists; for example, as shown in Fig. 23, the vertical bars 0 may be hinged at 10‘1 to steel slats to which are themselves hinged to gether at wz, the hinges being disposed at inter vals of ?ve feet for example along the edges of 60 the bars and slats. The hinges may be either inside or outside the shed, and they are ar ranged -to limit the unfolding movement so that the slats cannot reach a straight-line position. When the door is opened by bringing the bars 0 together by means of the operating wire, the slats fold up together as shown in dotted lines on the right of the ?gure. ' The erection of the shed can be effected by assembling the several units to form the stan: 70 chions and raising the latter by hand; the roof principals, also formed by assembling the re? quired number of units a, with or without corner units b, to make up the two halves of each arch A, are then hoisted into position by suitable 75 4 2,124,242 tackle, employing a number of assembled units a or other members to constitute a pole or derrick. . By. way- of example, the main units-a may be roof to one of said'walls, said member comprising a straight longitudinal boom, a second, longitu dinal boom cranked intermediate of its ends, two 8>feet long, 2 feet 3 inches deep, and 6 inches wide; thus three assembled units a will make up a stanchion 24 feet high, and ?ve assembled units a will make up a roof principal or girder 40 feet' long, allowing with the addition of the ends of different lengths connecting said booms, corner units 1) for a roof span of about 95 feet, 10 as already mentioned in relation to Figs. 1 to 3, stanchions and roof principals forming a series of parallel frames, each of said side wall stan chions and roof principals being formed by the height can be reduced to about 21 feet near the walls. The dimensions of the units may them 25 selves be varied from those mentioned by way of example, the units being made of lighter design (for example 18-inches deep) for spans up to 65 feet and of heavier design (for example 3 feetdeep) for spans over 120 feet. The invention may obviously be applied to the construction of portable or “sectional” buildings to be used as-garages for motor trucks or the like or as store-sheds for any purpose, whether tem porary or permanent. What I claim is:— 1. In a shed having two side walls and a low pitched roof, the combination of sectional units of rhomboidal shape, assembled to form side wall stanchions, and similar sectional units of rhom 40 boidal shape, assembled to form roof principals. 2. In a shed having two side walls and a low pitched roof, the combination of sectional units of rhomboidal shape, assembled to form side wall stanchions, and similar sectional units of rhom 45 boidal shape, assembled to form roof principals, one unit of each wall stanchion being assembled to one unit of a-roof principal. 3. In a shed having two side walls and a low 65 75 '7. In a shed having two side walls and a low in Fig. 24. These dimensions may be varied to any desired extent by employing different num~ bers. of units‘in each case and slight variations may be‘ obtained by means of the corner units 1) only four units a and one corner unit b in each 60 to constitute a rigid structure. pitched roof, the combination of side wall roof principal or girder, as represented in Fig. 25, the span can be reduced to about 75 feet, and again by arranging the corner units b in reversed positions, standing upright upon two-unit wall stanchions as represented in Fig. 26, the inside 55 one another and oblique to said booms, and means connecting said booms and ends together this arrangement being shown diagrammatically as already explained; for example, by assembling 30 one portion of said cranked boom being parallel to said straight boom, said ends being parallel to assembly of substantially similar sectional units 15 having their ends oblique to their length, series of horizontal rails connecting saidv wall stanch ions along each side of said shed, and series of purlins connecting said roof principals. 8. In a shed having two side walls and a low pitched roof, the combination of side wall stan chions and roof‘ principals forming a series of parallel frames, each of said side wall stanchions and roof principals being formed by the assem bly of substantially similar sectional units hav 25 ing their ends oblique to‘their length, series of horizontal rails connecting said wall stanchions along each side of said shed, series of purlins connecting said roof principals, diagonal stays connecting points of connection of said rails with said wall stanchions, and other diagonal stays connecting points of connection of said purlins with said roof principals. 9. In a shed having two side walls and a low pitched roof, the combination of side wall stan 35 chions and roof principals forming a series of parallel frames, each of said side wall stanchions and roof principals being formed by the assembly of-lsectional units having-their ends oblique to their length, saddles forming cover plates over .40 the joints between adjacent sectional units, and members extending at right angles to said frames to connect the several wall stanchions along each side of said shed and the several roof principals respectively, said connecting members ?tting upon said saddles. 10. In a shed having two side walls and a low pitched roof, the combination of a plurality. of pitched roof, the combination of a plurality of substantially similar sectional units of rhomboi~ sectional units, and means for assembling said dal shape to form side wall stanchions and a units together to form side wall stanchions and a roof principal, said sectional units being adapted roof principal extending between said side wall for end-to-end connection in alignment and’ also stanchions, all of said units being of similar adapted for end-to-side connection in angular relation, the number of sectional units assembled rhomboidal shape. 4. In a shed having two, side walls and a low in alignment to form the side wall stanchions be 55 pitched roof, a sidewall stanchion formed by a ing variable according to the desired height of plurality of sectional units of rhomboidal shape said shed, and the number of sectional units as and means for assembling said units together in ' sembled to form the roof principal being var vertical alignment, and a base member for said iable according to the desired span of said shed. 11. In a shed having two side Walls and a low 60 wall stanchion, said base member having an oblique face inclined to the horizontal at the pitched roof, the. combination of side wall stan same angle as the inclined ends of said sectional chions and roof principals forming a series of parallel frames, each of said side Wall stanchions units when assembled in vertical alignment. 5. In a shed having two side walls and a low and roof principals being formed ‘by the assembly pitched roof, the combination of a plurality of of substantially similar sectional units of rhom 65 sectional units. of similar rhomboidal shape and boidal shape, means for covering the gable in one two sectional units of .modi?ed rhomboidal shape, of said frames at one end of said shed so as to and means for assembling said'units together in leave a substantially rectangular doorway of area end-to-end relation to form side wall stanchions approximating'to the cross-section of said shed, and a roof principal extending between said side and means for closing said doorway. 70 12. A portable shed comprising sectional units wall stanchions,..said modi?ed rhomboidal units being located at the junctions of said Walls and of substantially rhomboidal shape, means for as roof principal. ' sembling said units in end-to-end relation to 6. In a shed having-two side walls and a 10w form wall stanchions and roof principals, means pitched roof, a corner member connecting said for bracing said wall stanchions and roof prin 2,124,242 cipals, means for covering said walls and roof, and means for closing the ends of said shed, all component parts of said shed being readily transportable and adapted for easy assembly, erection and dismantling. 13. A portable building, comprising two side walls and a roof of relatively low pitch, with a ‘ 5 door opening at one end, characterized by the fact that both the wall stanchions and they roof principals are composed of substantially similar sectional units of rhomboidal shape, assembled together in numbers depending on the height and 5 span respectively of said building. NORMAN STUART BELLMAN.