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Патент USA US2124268

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July 19, 1938.
> _ H, M‘ wlLLlAMS
2,124,268
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Filed Aug.v 31, 1931'
_
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
75
67
ATTORNEY
July 19, 1938.
2,124,268
H. M. WILLIAMS
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR
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ATTORNEY
Patented July 19, 14938 .
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* 2,124,268
, . UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,124,268
‘ nnrmesaarnve APFABATUS
Harry M. Williams, Dayton, Ohio,- assignor, by
mesne assignments, to General Motors Cor
poration, a corporation of Delaware
‘Application August 31, 1931, Serial‘ No. 560,279
'7 Claims.
This invention relates to refrigerating appa
ratus of the type which includes a cooling ele
ment adapted to be placed in the path of a cool
ing medium and which is adapted to be main
5 tained normally at a temperature causing solidi
10
15
20
25
.
30
35
(01. 62-115).
element which usually operates automatically in
response to normal conditions within the appaa
ratus to chill the cooling element and induce the
circulation of air in the space to be cooled. This
cooling element soon becomes coated with frost 5
and ice formed by the freezing of water con-.
?cation of_ a part of said medium ?owing there
over and more particularly to improved means densing on the cooling element from the circu-'
for quickly removing the solidi?ed medium accu .lating air and this frost and ice forms a resist
ance to the transfer of heat from the air to the
mulated on said cooling element.
'
_
One of the objects of this invention is to pro ‘cooling element and thus reduces the ef?ciency 10
of the system.‘ Since the refrigerating require
vide improved means for freeing the cooling ele
ments of the cabinet vary from time to time and
ment from frost and iceaccumulated thereon.
More speci?cally it is an object to provide a since refrigeration is produced by the apparatus
refrigerating cabinet with a cooling element for at a substantially uniform rate, which rate must
cooling food articles stored in said cabinet and be slightly higher than the» maximum require- 15
ment of the space to be cooled, it is usual to oper
to arrange said cooling element in such a man
ner whereby circulating air within the cabinet is ate the refrigerating system intermittently in
order to prevent cooling the space below the de
circulated over said cooling element and to. ar
.
range said cabinet and cooling element in such sired temperature.
In practicing this invention it is a further ob- 20
a manner so that said element may be exposed
to a medium of a higher temperature than the ject to prevent operation of the refrigerant cir
circulating air within the cabinet for defrosting culating element in response to normal condi- .
said element. In practicing this invention it is tions within the apparatus when it is desired to
a further object to utilizethe warm air outside defrost the cooling element. This is accom
25
of the refrigerating cabinet and circulate‘ said plished in a manner hereinafter described.
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to
warm air over the cooling. element for defrost
Figs. 1 and 4, the numeral 20 designates in gen
ing said element while at the same time prevent
ing said warm air from entering the food storage eral a refrigerator cabinet embodying features of
my invention. The cabinet 20 includes an insu
compartment of the refrigerating cabinet.
Further objects and advantages of the present lated shelf 2|. The shelf 2| divides the cabinet 30
invention will be apparent from the following into a food storage compartment 23 and a com
partment 24 in which is disposed a cooling ele
description, reference being had to the accom
panying drawings, wherein a preferred form of ment or evaporator 26. The evaporator 26 is formed of a continuous
the present invention is clearly shown.
coil of pipe and is supported upon supports 28 35
In the drawings:
'
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a re
' frigerating apparatus embodying features of the
invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view- of a portion of the
40 apparatus shown in Fig. 1 and showing a modi
?ed arrangement for controlling the operation of
the- refrigerating apparatus;
'
in the compartment 24. Liquid refrigerant is
supplied to the evaporatorv through a liquid con
duit 30 under the control of a pressure responsive
expansion valve 3| which increases the ?ow of
refrigerant to the evaporator as the pressure 40
therein decreases and decreases the flow of re
frigerant to the evaporator as the pressure
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of a modi
therein increases. vaporized refrigerant is
?ed form of refrigerating apparatus embodying ~ vwithdrawn from the evaporator through a vapor 45
- 45 features of the invention;
'
'
Fig. 4 is a view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig.
1; and
Fig. 5 is an enlarged view in cross-section of a
portion of the refrigerating apparatus shown in
50 Fig. 3.
.
'
It is usual to refrigerate rooms, compartments,
cabinets and the like to place a cooling element
such as an evaporator in the cabinet to be cooled
and circulate refrigerant through! the cooling
55 element by means of a refrigerant circulating
conduit 32, both conduits 30 and 32 being suit
ably connected to a refrigerant circulating ele- .
ment 35. The element 35 includes a condenser
31', receiver 38, to which the conduit 3|! is con
nected, a compressor 40 and a motor 42 for drlv- 50
ing the compressor. The motor is supplied with
current through the power mains 45 under the
control of; an automatic switch 41. The switch
4'! is actuated by means of a thermostat 48 dis
posed in the compartment 23 and responsive to 55
2
2,124,268
the temperatures therein for actuating said
switch for starting and stopping the motor 42.
during defrosting periods from warming up the
compartment 23.
In order to provide for the proper circulation
of air within the cabinet 20, I have provided a
fan 52 which is driven by electric motor 54. The
motor 54 is connected directly across the power
mains 45 and is preferably operated continu
ously. However, if desired, any suitable switch
may be placed in the circuit to the motor 54 for
10 interrupting the flow of current thereto. The
From the foregoing it will be noted that I have
provided a refrigerating cabinet for the storage
and display of food articles and that I have ar
ranged said cabinet and cooling element in such
a manner that the cooling element may be readily
air within the compartment 20 circulates or
passes from the compartment 24 through an
elongated opening 56, ?ue 58 and into compart
ment 23 and is returned to the compartment 24
15 through an elongated opening 51. Thus, it will
be apparent that the fan 52 will force the air
over the cooling element 26 through opening 56 ‘
into compartment 23 whence it returns to com
fan 52 is preferably operated continuously for
circulating the cool air through the compart
element at defrosting periods. Furthermore, it
means for increasing the temperature of the air '
being circulated over the cooling element during
defrosting periods.
'
I have provided a modi?ed form of control for
ture or frost insulates the element. For this rea
son it is desirable to defrost the evaporator occa
I have provided a control apparatus 80 which
sionally and such defrosting should be done"
quickly in order to prevent the temperature of
the food storage compartment from rising above
movable contacts 83 and 85. This control appa
'
In accordance with this invention, I provide
means for quickly defrosting the cooling element
and for sealing the food storage compartment
against the warming effect of defrosting. This
25
Referring now to Fig. 2, it will be noted that
the foods and from the air is condensed and
frozen on the cooling element, which frozen mois
warm air over the cooling element 26 by means
of fan 52. In order to accomplish this, I have
75
warm air from entering the food storage com 15
partment. It will also be noted that the electric
will be noted that I have provided auxiliary
means comprises utilizing the warm air on the
65
frigerator cabinet for defrosting the cooling ele
ment and I have arranged for preventing said
employed to maintain frozen food articles in a
frozen condition and consequently to maintain
the temperature of the storage- or display com
partment in which they are stored below the
40 outside of the cabinet 20' and circulating the
60
this by utilizing the warm air outside of the re
ments 23 and 24 or for circulating the warm air
from the outside of the cabinet over the cooling 20
the thawing point of said articles.
45
food storage compartment to any. material extent. 10
It will also be noted that I have accomplished
partment 24 through opening 51 to be recircu
lated by fan 52.
In many instances the cooling element 26 is
thawing point of such articles. Moisture from
35
and quickly defrosted without interfering with
the temperaturessought to be maintained in the
the refrigerating apparatus. In this embodiment
comprises movable levers 8| and 82 which actuate 30
ratus 80 is arranged to be actuated by roller _81
carried by door 60. As shown in the drawings
the circuit through the motor 42, which drives
compressor 40, is closed and the circuit through 35
the motor 54 which drives fan .52 is also‘ closed
while the circuit to the electric heater 6'! is open.
When it is desired to defrost the cooling element
26, the door 60 is moved inwardly and in so doing
the roller 81 engages lever 82 to move the con
tact member 83 downwardly to engage stationary
contact 94 to thereby close the circuit to the elec
provided doors 60 and BI located at opposite ends tric heater 61. When this movement of the con
of the compartment 24. Doors 60 and GI nor
trol apparatus 80 takes place, the movable con
mally close openings 63 and 64 respectively. tact member 85 is separated from stationary con
These doors are arranged to be swung inwardly tact member 88 to thereby interrupt the circuit
for admitting outside air into the compartment to the electric motor 42 to render the refrigerant
24 and I have also arranged these doors so that
circulating element inoperative at this time. As
they will seal the openings 56 and 51 to prevent shown in Fig. 2, the roller 81 is adapted to engage
the warm air in the compartment 24 from enter
a member 91 carried by the insulated shelf 2| to
ing the food storage compartment 23. In order hold the door 60 in the position shown in dot
to prevent operation of the refrigerant circulat
and dash lines in Fig. 2 of the drawings. The
ing element when it is desired to defrost the cool
member 91 is preferably resilient to provide a
ing element 26, I have provided a switch 65 which suf?cient frictional connection between itself and
may be opened to interrupt the circuit to the the roller 81 to hold the door 60 in the dot and
electric motor 42. If desired, an electric heating dash line position. When .the door 60 is in this
element 6'! may be placed in the compartment 24 position it will engage a gasket seal member 99
for increasing the temperature of the air being to seal the compartment 24 from the compart
ment 23. When the door 60 is being moved to
circulated over the cooling element 26 for reduc
ing the time required for defrosting the cooling close opening 63 the roller member 81 will engage
the lever 8| which is at this time in a substan
element 26. The circuit through the heating ele
ment 6‘! is controlled by switch 10. As shown in tially vertical position to thus return the control
Figs. 1 and 4 the food storage compartment 23 is » apparatus to its position shown in Fig. 2 to thus
provided with a plurality of shelves 12 preferably interrupt the circuit to the electric heater and
of the open-work type adapted to support food ' close the circuit to the electric motor 42. When
articles to be refrigerated. The cabinet 20 is also this takes place, and the switch 41 has closed
its contacts, the motor 42 will operate to drive
provided with a plurality of insulated walls 13, the compressor to supply refrigeration to the
14, 15, 16, 11 and 18. Walls 75 and "are pro— cooling element 26. A separate switch I05 is
vided with transparent portions 90 and 9| respec
provided for interrupting the circuit to the elec
tively. Wall 18 is provided with one or more
tric heater in the event it is desired to render
openings 19 closed by one or more doors 84. The the heating element ineffective. Thus it will be
shelf 2| which serves to support articles to be noted that all that is necessary in order to defrost
refrigerated is insulated so as to prevent any of
the cooling element 26 is to move the doors 60
the heat which is present in compartment 24 and 6| inwardly and that when the cooling ele
40
45
50
55
65 I.
70
75
3
2,124,268
ment 25 has been defrosted, the doors 50 and 6| ' chunks; It will‘ also be apparent that the fan
I10 (see Fig. 3) circulates warm air-from the
may be returned to their normal position.
In Fig. 3 I have shown a modi?ed form of outside of the cabinet over the cooling element
I25 for rapidly defrosting the cooling element.
- control mechanism and cooling element. In this
The circuit through the heating element is
embodiment a cabinet I20 which corresponds to
completed upon closure of a set of contacts I15
cabinet 20 is employed for the storage and dis
play of food articles which are adapted to be which takes place in a manner about to be de
cooled by a cooling element generally represented scribed.
'
. by the reference character I25. The cooling ele
10 ment I25 is of' the ?ooded ?oat controlled type
and includes headers I21 and I28 forming reser
voirs for liquid refrigerant the level of which I
have indicated atI29 in Fig.5. The headers
I21 and I28 of cooling element I25 are intercon
15 nected by a plurality of conduits I30. The liquid
level is maintained substantially constant by a
float valve not shown herein but fully disclosed
in the patent to Osborne 1,556,108, issued Octo
ber 13, 1925.
Liquid refrigerant is supplied to the cooling ele
20
ment through a liquid conduit I35 and evapo
rated refrigerant is withdrawn from the cooling
element through a. vapor conduit I31, both con
duits being suitably connected to a refrigerant
25 circulating element I40. The element I40 in~
cludes a condenser I42, receiver I43, to which the
conduit I35 'is connected, a compressor I45 and
During defrosting periods of the cooling ele
ment, it is desired to render the refrigerant cir 10
culating element inoperative and in order to ac
complish this, I have provided a suitable arrange
ment which renders the switch I50 ineffective
to normal conditions within the system for caus
ing operation of the circulating element, while
at the same time the circuit through the electric
heating element is completed. I have provided
a pivoted lever I18 which moves the leverage
mechanism I53 upwardly to engage the movable
member of contacts I15 to close the electric heat 20
ing circuit and by this upward movement of the
leverage mechanism the switch is moved out of
its normal operating position and is ineffective
to normal pressures within the bellows I52. In
order to maintain the heating circuit closed and 25~
to maintain the leverage ‘mechanism I53 out of
its operating position, I have provided a resilient
a motor I41 for driving the compressor. The _ locking device’ I80 which receives the handle end
I8I. of lever I18. This locking device keeps the
>motor is supplied with current from the power
mains I48 under the control of an automatic lever I18 locked in position during defrosting '’
period and prevents the movement of the lever
switch I50. The switch I50 is actuated in re
sponse to normal conditions within the system
forvstarting and stopping the motor, and for
‘instance, in response to change in pressure in
the vapor conduit I31. The switch includes an
expansible bellows I52 and suitable leverage
mechanism I 53 pivoted at' I54.
In this embodiment I have prevented the op
eration of the refrigerant circulating element in
response to normal .conditions within the system
40
and have arrange for simultaneously rendering a
heating element IBIla effective when it is desired
to defrost the cooling element. I have also ar
ranged for the automatic restoration of said
means to its normal position in the event that
certain abnormal conditions occur within the
system to thus render the heating means inef
fective to produce its function and to place the
refrigerating element in readiness for operation.
In this embodiment I have provided doors I 60
and IGI which correspond to doors 60 and GI for
exposing the cooling element I25 to the outside
air and for shutting off the food storage compart
so
during defrosting operation. ‘However, the lever
I18 may be so arranged that when the defrosting
period has been completed the pressure in the
bellows will be su?icient, due to the increased
temperature of the cooling element I25, so that
it will exert su?icient pressure on the lever I53
to move the lever I18 downwardly by means of
pin I90 to thus restore the leverage mechanism
and switch I50 to its normal operating position.
The pressure at which the bellows I52 renders
the heating device ineffective and restores the
switch I50 to normal operating position occurs
after the cooling element has been entirely de
frosted.
'
-
While the form of embodiment of the inven
tion as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred
form, it is to be understood that other forms
might be adopted, all coming within the scope of
the claims which follow.
What is claimed is as follows:
50
1. Refrigerating apparatus comprising in com
bination, a. cabinet having a food storage com
ment from said outside air. I have also provided
an electric fan I10 which is driven by electric
motor I12 for circulating the warm outside air
over the cooling element I30 during the defrost
partment therein, a, cooling element for cooling
the food compartment, a door for said cabinet,
and electrical means controlled by said door for
ing periods and for circulating the cool air
throughout the cabinet when the food storage
ment to cause defrosting thereof.
compartment is being refrigerated. Preferably
combination, a cabinet having a chamber there 60
in, means dividing said chamber into an upper
cold storage compartment and a cooling element
the motor I12 operates continuously.
As shown in Fig. 5 the heating element I600.
has a portion thereof secured to and extending
through the end wall of header I28 and has
increasing the temperature of the cooling ele
2. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in
compartment disposed below said cold storage
compartment, a cooling element disposed within
another portion thereof extending into the lower- - said cooling element compartment, said means 65
most conduit I30 of cooling element I25 and said having a normally open passage therein for the
heating element is thereby immersed in the liquid circulation of air cooled by said cooling ele
refrigerant in the cooling element I25. Thus, ment from said cooling element compartment to
it will be apparent that the heating element gives said cold storage compartment, means for closing
up its heat to the refrigerant which causes it to said normally open passage in said ?rst named 70
boil and circulate refrigerant throughout the means to isolate said compartments from air
circulation therebetween, and means for expos
entire cooling element. This causes the temper
ature of the walls of the cooling element to be ing said cooling element compartment to at?
increased, causing'the ice and frost to melt and mosphere exteriorly of said cabinet while said
drop loose from the cooling element in large passage is closed to defrost said cooling element.
4 .
2,124,288
3. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in
combination, a cabinet having a chamber there
in, means dividing said chamber into a cold stor
age compartment and a cooling element com
_ partment, a cooling element disposed within said
cooling element compartment, said means hav
ing a plurality of normally open passages there
in for the circulation of air cooled by said cool
ing element from said cooling element compart
ment to said cold storage compartment, means
for closing said normally open passages in said
?rst named means to isolate said compartments
from air circulation therebetween, means for
opening a plurality of sides of said cooling ele
ment compartment to atmosphere exteriorly of
said cabinet while said passages are closed, and
means for creating a flow of air entirely through
said cooling element compartment to defrost said
cooling element.
4. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in
combination, a cabinet having a chamber therein,
means dividing said chamber into a cold storage
compartment and a cooling element compart
ment, a cooling element disposed within said
cooling element compartment, said means hav
ing a normally open passage therein for the cir
culation of air cooled by the cooling e?ect pro
duced by said cooling element from said cooling
element compartment to said‘ cold storage com
30 partment, a door for closing said normally open
passage in said means for isolating said compart
ments from air circulation therebetween, and
means controlled by said door for stopping the
cooling effect produced by said cooling element
to cause defrosting of same.
5. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in
combination, a cabinet having a chamber therein,
means dividing said chamber into a cold storage
compartment and a cooling element compart
40 ment, a cooling element disposed within said
cooling element compartment, said means having
a normally open passage therein for the circu
lation of air cooled by the cooling effect produced
by said cooling element from said cooling element
compartment to said cold storage compartment,
a door for closing said normally open passage in
said means for isolating said compartments from
air circulation
therebetween, and electrical
means controlled by said door for increasing the
temperature within said cooling element‘ com
partment to defrost said cooling element.
6. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in
combination, a cabinet having a chamber there
in, means dividing said chamber into a cold
storage compartment and a cooling element com
partment, a cooling element disposed within said
cooling element compartment, said means hav
ing a normally open passage therein for the cir
culation of air cooled by said element from said
cooling element compartment to said cold storage
compartment, and a single means for closing said a
normally open passage in said ?rst named means
to isolate said compartments from air circulation
therebetween and for exposing said cooling ele
ment compartment to atmosphere exteriorly of ~
said cabinet to cause defrosting of said cooling
element.
7. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in
combination, a cabinet having a chamber there
in, means dividing said chamber into a cold stor
age compartment and a cooling element com
partment, a cooling element disposed within said
cooling element compartment, said means hav
ing a normally open passage therein for the cir 30
culation of air cooled by said element from said
cooling element compartment to said cold stor
age compartment, a single means for closing said
normally open passage in said first named means
to isolate said compartments from air circulation
therebetween and for exposing said cooling ele
ment to atmosphere exteriorly of said cabinet to
cause defrosting of said cooling element, and
means rendered effective by movement of said
single means for increasing the temperature 40
within said cooling element compartment to aug
ment the defrosting of said cooling element.
HARRY M. WILLIAMS.
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