Патент USA US2124268код для вставки
July 19, 1938. > _ H, M‘ wlLLlAMS 2,124,268 REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Aug.v 31, 1931' _ 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 75 67 ATTORNEY July 19, 1938. 2,124,268 H. M. WILLIAMS REFRIGERATING APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 // /%//////" y ° / // 1 _\ ,1 WWW 7 (A... We “an a!’ E... 2 I27 H3 W745 INVENTOR 1M Mwww M341“, ATTORNEY Patented July 19, 14938 . " ‘ * 2,124,268 , . UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,124,268 ‘ nnrmesaarnve APFABATUS Harry M. Williams, Dayton, Ohio,- assignor, by mesne assignments, to General Motors Cor poration, a corporation of Delaware ‘Application August 31, 1931, Serial‘ No. 560,279 '7 Claims. This invention relates to refrigerating appa ratus of the type which includes a cooling ele ment adapted to be placed in the path of a cool ing medium and which is adapted to be main 5 tained normally at a temperature causing solidi 10 15 20 25 . 30 35 (01. 62-115). element which usually operates automatically in response to normal conditions within the appaa ratus to chill the cooling element and induce the circulation of air in the space to be cooled. This cooling element soon becomes coated with frost 5 and ice formed by the freezing of water con-. ?cation of_ a part of said medium ?owing there over and more particularly to improved means densing on the cooling element from the circu-' for quickly removing the solidi?ed medium accu .lating air and this frost and ice forms a resist ance to the transfer of heat from the air to the mulated on said cooling element. ' _ One of the objects of this invention is to pro ‘cooling element and thus reduces the ef?ciency 10 of the system.‘ Since the refrigerating require vide improved means for freeing the cooling ele ments of the cabinet vary from time to time and ment from frost and iceaccumulated thereon. More speci?cally it is an object to provide a since refrigeration is produced by the apparatus refrigerating cabinet with a cooling element for at a substantially uniform rate, which rate must cooling food articles stored in said cabinet and be slightly higher than the» maximum require- 15 ment of the space to be cooled, it is usual to oper to arrange said cooling element in such a man ner whereby circulating air within the cabinet is ate the refrigerating system intermittently in order to prevent cooling the space below the de circulated over said cooling element and to. ar . range said cabinet and cooling element in such sired temperature. In practicing this invention it is a further ob- 20 a manner so that said element may be exposed to a medium of a higher temperature than the ject to prevent operation of the refrigerant cir circulating air within the cabinet for defrosting culating element in response to normal condi- . said element. In practicing this invention it is tions within the apparatus when it is desired to a further object to utilizethe warm air outside defrost the cooling element. This is accom 25 of the refrigerating cabinet and circulate‘ said plished in a manner hereinafter described. Referring to the drawings, and particularly to warm air over the cooling. element for defrost Figs. 1 and 4, the numeral 20 designates in gen ing said element while at the same time prevent ing said warm air from entering the food storage eral a refrigerator cabinet embodying features of my invention. The cabinet 20 includes an insu compartment of the refrigerating cabinet. Further objects and advantages of the present lated shelf 2|. The shelf 2| divides the cabinet 30 invention will be apparent from the following into a food storage compartment 23 and a com partment 24 in which is disposed a cooling ele description, reference being had to the accom panying drawings, wherein a preferred form of ment or evaporator 26. The evaporator 26 is formed of a continuous the present invention is clearly shown. coil of pipe and is supported upon supports 28 35 In the drawings: ' Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a re ' frigerating apparatus embodying features of the invention; Fig. 2 is an enlarged view- of a portion of the 40 apparatus shown in Fig. 1 and showing a modi ?ed arrangement for controlling the operation of the- refrigerating apparatus; ' in the compartment 24. Liquid refrigerant is supplied to the evaporatorv through a liquid con duit 30 under the control of a pressure responsive expansion valve 3| which increases the ?ow of refrigerant to the evaporator as the pressure 40 therein decreases and decreases the flow of re frigerant to the evaporator as the pressure Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of a modi therein increases. vaporized refrigerant is ?ed form of refrigerating apparatus embodying ~ vwithdrawn from the evaporator through a vapor 45 - 45 features of the invention; ' ' Fig. 4 is a view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1; and Fig. 5 is an enlarged view in cross-section of a portion of the refrigerating apparatus shown in 50 Fig. 3. . ' It is usual to refrigerate rooms, compartments, cabinets and the like to place a cooling element such as an evaporator in the cabinet to be cooled and circulate refrigerant through! the cooling 55 element by means of a refrigerant circulating conduit 32, both conduits 30 and 32 being suit ably connected to a refrigerant circulating ele- . ment 35. The element 35 includes a condenser 31', receiver 38, to which the conduit 3|! is con nected, a compressor 40 and a motor 42 for drlv- 50 ing the compressor. The motor is supplied with current through the power mains 45 under the control of; an automatic switch 41. The switch 4'! is actuated by means of a thermostat 48 dis posed in the compartment 23 and responsive to 55 2 2,124,268 the temperatures therein for actuating said switch for starting and stopping the motor 42. during defrosting periods from warming up the compartment 23. In order to provide for the proper circulation of air within the cabinet 20, I have provided a fan 52 which is driven by electric motor 54. The motor 54 is connected directly across the power mains 45 and is preferably operated continu ously. However, if desired, any suitable switch may be placed in the circuit to the motor 54 for 10 interrupting the flow of current thereto. The From the foregoing it will be noted that I have provided a refrigerating cabinet for the storage and display of food articles and that I have ar ranged said cabinet and cooling element in such a manner that the cooling element may be readily air within the compartment 20 circulates or passes from the compartment 24 through an elongated opening 56, ?ue 58 and into compart ment 23 and is returned to the compartment 24 15 through an elongated opening 51. Thus, it will be apparent that the fan 52 will force the air over the cooling element 26 through opening 56 ‘ into compartment 23 whence it returns to com fan 52 is preferably operated continuously for circulating the cool air through the compart element at defrosting periods. Furthermore, it means for increasing the temperature of the air ' being circulated over the cooling element during defrosting periods. ' I have provided a modi?ed form of control for ture or frost insulates the element. For this rea son it is desirable to defrost the evaporator occa I have provided a control apparatus 80 which sionally and such defrosting should be done" quickly in order to prevent the temperature of the food storage compartment from rising above movable contacts 83 and 85. This control appa ' In accordance with this invention, I provide means for quickly defrosting the cooling element and for sealing the food storage compartment against the warming effect of defrosting. This 25 Referring now to Fig. 2, it will be noted that the foods and from the air is condensed and frozen on the cooling element, which frozen mois warm air over the cooling element 26 by means of fan 52. In order to accomplish this, I have 75 warm air from entering the food storage com 15 partment. It will also be noted that the electric will be noted that I have provided auxiliary means comprises utilizing the warm air on the 65 frigerator cabinet for defrosting the cooling ele ment and I have arranged for preventing said employed to maintain frozen food articles in a frozen condition and consequently to maintain the temperature of the storage- or display com partment in which they are stored below the 40 outside of the cabinet 20' and circulating the 60 this by utilizing the warm air outside of the re ments 23 and 24 or for circulating the warm air from the outside of the cabinet over the cooling 20 the thawing point of said articles. 45 food storage compartment to any. material extent. 10 It will also be noted that I have accomplished partment 24 through opening 51 to be recircu lated by fan 52. In many instances the cooling element 26 is thawing point of such articles. Moisture from 35 and quickly defrosted without interfering with the temperaturessought to be maintained in the the refrigerating apparatus. In this embodiment comprises movable levers 8| and 82 which actuate 30 ratus 80 is arranged to be actuated by roller _81 carried by door 60. As shown in the drawings the circuit through the motor 42, which drives compressor 40, is closed and the circuit through 35 the motor 54 which drives fan .52 is also‘ closed while the circuit to the electric heater 6'! is open. When it is desired to defrost the cooling element 26, the door 60 is moved inwardly and in so doing the roller 81 engages lever 82 to move the con tact member 83 downwardly to engage stationary contact 94 to thereby close the circuit to the elec provided doors 60 and BI located at opposite ends tric heater 61. When this movement of the con of the compartment 24. Doors 60 and GI nor trol apparatus 80 takes place, the movable con mally close openings 63 and 64 respectively. tact member 85 is separated from stationary con These doors are arranged to be swung inwardly tact member 88 to thereby interrupt the circuit for admitting outside air into the compartment to the electric motor 42 to render the refrigerant 24 and I have also arranged these doors so that circulating element inoperative at this time. As they will seal the openings 56 and 51 to prevent shown in Fig. 2, the roller 81 is adapted to engage the warm air in the compartment 24 from enter a member 91 carried by the insulated shelf 2| to ing the food storage compartment 23. In order hold the door 60 in the position shown in dot to prevent operation of the refrigerant circulat and dash lines in Fig. 2 of the drawings. The ing element when it is desired to defrost the cool member 91 is preferably resilient to provide a ing element 26, I have provided a switch 65 which suf?cient frictional connection between itself and may be opened to interrupt the circuit to the the roller 81 to hold the door 60 in the dot and electric motor 42. If desired, an electric heating dash line position. When .the door 60 is in this element 6'! may be placed in the compartment 24 position it will engage a gasket seal member 99 for increasing the temperature of the air being to seal the compartment 24 from the compart ment 23. When the door 60 is being moved to circulated over the cooling element 26 for reduc ing the time required for defrosting the cooling close opening 63 the roller member 81 will engage the lever 8| which is at this time in a substan element 26. The circuit through the heating ele ment 6‘! is controlled by switch 10. As shown in tially vertical position to thus return the control Figs. 1 and 4 the food storage compartment 23 is » apparatus to its position shown in Fig. 2 to thus provided with a plurality of shelves 12 preferably interrupt the circuit to the electric heater and of the open-work type adapted to support food ' close the circuit to the electric motor 42. When articles to be refrigerated. The cabinet 20 is also this takes place, and the switch 41 has closed its contacts, the motor 42 will operate to drive provided with a plurality of insulated walls 13, the compressor to supply refrigeration to the 14, 15, 16, 11 and 18. Walls 75 and "are pro— cooling element 26. A separate switch I05 is vided with transparent portions 90 and 9| respec provided for interrupting the circuit to the elec tively. Wall 18 is provided with one or more tric heater in the event it is desired to render openings 19 closed by one or more doors 84. The the heating element ineffective. Thus it will be shelf 2| which serves to support articles to be noted that all that is necessary in order to defrost refrigerated is insulated so as to prevent any of the cooling element 26 is to move the doors 60 the heat which is present in compartment 24 and 6| inwardly and that when the cooling ele 40 45 50 55 65 I. 70 75 3 2,124,268 ment 25 has been defrosted, the doors 50 and 6| ' chunks; It will‘ also be apparent that the fan I10 (see Fig. 3) circulates warm air-from the may be returned to their normal position. In Fig. 3 I have shown a modi?ed form of outside of the cabinet over the cooling element I25 for rapidly defrosting the cooling element. - control mechanism and cooling element. In this The circuit through the heating element is embodiment a cabinet I20 which corresponds to completed upon closure of a set of contacts I15 cabinet 20 is employed for the storage and dis play of food articles which are adapted to be which takes place in a manner about to be de cooled by a cooling element generally represented scribed. ' . by the reference character I25. The cooling ele 10 ment I25 is of' the ?ooded ?oat controlled type and includes headers I21 and I28 forming reser voirs for liquid refrigerant the level of which I have indicated atI29 in Fig.5. The headers I21 and I28 of cooling element I25 are intercon 15 nected by a plurality of conduits I30. The liquid level is maintained substantially constant by a float valve not shown herein but fully disclosed in the patent to Osborne 1,556,108, issued Octo ber 13, 1925. Liquid refrigerant is supplied to the cooling ele 20 ment through a liquid conduit I35 and evapo rated refrigerant is withdrawn from the cooling element through a. vapor conduit I31, both con duits being suitably connected to a refrigerant 25 circulating element I40. The element I40 in~ cludes a condenser I42, receiver I43, to which the conduit I35 'is connected, a compressor I45 and During defrosting periods of the cooling ele ment, it is desired to render the refrigerant cir 10 culating element inoperative and in order to ac complish this, I have provided a suitable arrange ment which renders the switch I50 ineffective to normal conditions within the system for caus ing operation of the circulating element, while at the same time the circuit through the electric heating element is completed. I have provided a pivoted lever I18 which moves the leverage mechanism I53 upwardly to engage the movable member of contacts I15 to close the electric heat 20 ing circuit and by this upward movement of the leverage mechanism the switch is moved out of its normal operating position and is ineffective to normal pressures within the bellows I52. In order to maintain the heating circuit closed and 25~ to maintain the leverage ‘mechanism I53 out of its operating position, I have provided a resilient a motor I41 for driving the compressor. The _ locking device’ I80 which receives the handle end I8I. of lever I18. This locking device keeps the >motor is supplied with current from the power mains I48 under the control of an automatic lever I18 locked in position during defrosting '’ period and prevents the movement of the lever switch I50. The switch I50 is actuated in re sponse to normal conditions within the system forvstarting and stopping the motor, and for ‘instance, in response to change in pressure in the vapor conduit I31. The switch includes an expansible bellows I52 and suitable leverage mechanism I 53 pivoted at' I54. In this embodiment I have prevented the op eration of the refrigerant circulating element in response to normal .conditions within the system 40 and have arrange for simultaneously rendering a heating element IBIla effective when it is desired to defrost the cooling element. I have also ar ranged for the automatic restoration of said means to its normal position in the event that certain abnormal conditions occur within the system to thus render the heating means inef fective to produce its function and to place the refrigerating element in readiness for operation. In this embodiment I have provided doors I 60 and IGI which correspond to doors 60 and GI for exposing the cooling element I25 to the outside air and for shutting off the food storage compart so during defrosting operation. ‘However, the lever I18 may be so arranged that when the defrosting period has been completed the pressure in the bellows will be su?icient, due to the increased temperature of the cooling element I25, so that it will exert su?icient pressure on the lever I53 to move the lever I18 downwardly by means of pin I90 to thus restore the leverage mechanism and switch I50 to its normal operating position. The pressure at which the bellows I52 renders the heating device ineffective and restores the switch I50 to normal operating position occurs after the cooling element has been entirely de frosted. ' - While the form of embodiment of the inven tion as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow. What is claimed is as follows: 50 1. Refrigerating apparatus comprising in com bination, a. cabinet having a food storage com ment from said outside air. I have also provided an electric fan I10 which is driven by electric motor I12 for circulating the warm outside air over the cooling element I30 during the defrost partment therein, a, cooling element for cooling the food compartment, a door for said cabinet, and electrical means controlled by said door for ing periods and for circulating the cool air throughout the cabinet when the food storage ment to cause defrosting thereof. compartment is being refrigerated. Preferably combination, a cabinet having a chamber there 60 in, means dividing said chamber into an upper cold storage compartment and a cooling element the motor I12 operates continuously. As shown in Fig. 5 the heating element I600. has a portion thereof secured to and extending through the end wall of header I28 and has increasing the temperature of the cooling ele 2. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in compartment disposed below said cold storage compartment, a cooling element disposed within another portion thereof extending into the lower- - said cooling element compartment, said means 65 most conduit I30 of cooling element I25 and said having a normally open passage therein for the heating element is thereby immersed in the liquid circulation of air cooled by said cooling ele refrigerant in the cooling element I25. Thus, ment from said cooling element compartment to it will be apparent that the heating element gives said cold storage compartment, means for closing up its heat to the refrigerant which causes it to said normally open passage in said ?rst named 70 boil and circulate refrigerant throughout the means to isolate said compartments from air circulation therebetween, and means for expos entire cooling element. This causes the temper ature of the walls of the cooling element to be ing said cooling element compartment to at? increased, causing'the ice and frost to melt and mosphere exteriorly of said cabinet while said drop loose from the cooling element in large passage is closed to defrost said cooling element. 4 . 2,124,288 3. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in combination, a cabinet having a chamber there in, means dividing said chamber into a cold stor age compartment and a cooling element com _ partment, a cooling element disposed within said cooling element compartment, said means hav ing a plurality of normally open passages there in for the circulation of air cooled by said cool ing element from said cooling element compart ment to said cold storage compartment, means for closing said normally open passages in said ?rst named means to isolate said compartments from air circulation therebetween, means for opening a plurality of sides of said cooling ele ment compartment to atmosphere exteriorly of said cabinet while said passages are closed, and means for creating a flow of air entirely through said cooling element compartment to defrost said cooling element. 4. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in combination, a cabinet having a chamber therein, means dividing said chamber into a cold storage compartment and a cooling element compart ment, a cooling element disposed within said cooling element compartment, said means hav ing a normally open passage therein for the cir culation of air cooled by the cooling e?ect pro duced by said cooling element from said cooling element compartment to said‘ cold storage com 30 partment, a door for closing said normally open passage in said means for isolating said compart ments from air circulation therebetween, and means controlled by said door for stopping the cooling effect produced by said cooling element to cause defrosting of same. 5. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in combination, a cabinet having a chamber therein, means dividing said chamber into a cold storage compartment and a cooling element compart 40 ment, a cooling element disposed within said cooling element compartment, said means having a normally open passage therein for the circu lation of air cooled by the cooling effect produced by said cooling element from said cooling element compartment to said cold storage compartment, a door for closing said normally open passage in said means for isolating said compartments from air circulation therebetween, and electrical means controlled by said door for increasing the temperature within said cooling element‘ com partment to defrost said cooling element. 6. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in combination, a cabinet having a chamber there in, means dividing said chamber into a cold storage compartment and a cooling element com partment, a cooling element disposed within said cooling element compartment, said means hav ing a normally open passage therein for the cir culation of air cooled by said element from said cooling element compartment to said cold storage compartment, and a single means for closing said a normally open passage in said ?rst named means to isolate said compartments from air circulation therebetween and for exposing said cooling ele ment compartment to atmosphere exteriorly of ~ said cabinet to cause defrosting of said cooling element. 7. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in combination, a cabinet having a chamber there in, means dividing said chamber into a cold stor age compartment and a cooling element com partment, a cooling element disposed within said cooling element compartment, said means hav ing a normally open passage therein for the cir 30 culation of air cooled by said element from said cooling element compartment to said cold stor age compartment, a single means for closing said normally open passage in said first named means to isolate said compartments from air circulation therebetween and for exposing said cooling ele ment to atmosphere exteriorly of said cabinet to cause defrosting of said cooling element, and means rendered effective by movement of said single means for increasing the temperature 40 within said cooling element compartment to aug ment the defrosting of said cooling element. HARRY M. WILLIAMS.