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Патент USA US2124362

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July 19, 1938-
'
v., F. ZAHODIAKIN
‘
2,124,362
AI~R INSULATED VALVE AND GUIDE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed July 2, 1936
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W‘ 1 1i”l ;
11v VENTOR
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W/ATTORNE Y5
Patented July 19, 1938
2,124,362;
AIR INSULATED} V-ALVE"; AND GIJIDE-v ,FOR;
INTERNAL {COMBU STION?‘€ENGINES ,
Victor F; zahouiakin, New York',‘ N.‘ Y; '
ApplicationaJuly~2,-Q 1936,; ‘Serial: No.2 88,644":
This‘ , invention relates :to :internal combustion 1:
combustion chamber‘ (9' laterally ' of '1': the ; cylinder-1: '
engines and is particularly‘. directed. to‘. improve»
The improved
usual’manne'r.
valve; [5 is slidajblyrmountediinq
;
-.
men'ts in the exhaustilval-ves andlexhaustivalven blocklinithe
guides thereof;
'
~
‘
l‘ '
an improved guide I611, and issea'tedaon 11a; valve?
The modern engine: " operates‘ atiiexceptionallya seat; 8; The :diameter of ‘the valve» stem§is*re~
high‘ speed s‘ and ‘at high 1 compression‘ Accord; duced close to the head; as at-I'Li The-1 valv
ingly; theiavalvesv‘must “operate: extremel-yr ef?e
stem~ extends across'the exhaust passagewayiltcie
ciently, since'ithey'plazy the most: importantzand ’ a: .point immediately adj a'cent- to -':the l'lrearzl side: i;
of the head-of the valve; Thewinte'ri'ialfor;guidear
bore noftlthe guide is. annularly'igrooved-as~»_atl'I :f
vital part" .in the. operation‘ a of I the :Le‘nginew The:
14) ‘~ fuels‘ or‘ hydrocarbonsrused, in’ the ‘modern sengineg;
such as ethyl ‘gasoline; produce‘ excessive .ic'arboni‘l to- provide‘ an - elongated ‘i chamber which: extends?v :
formations “on: thelexhaustwalveftstems; whichzo; substantially from ‘ the ‘plane. ‘toil-‘the “lower'wall DfI-T:
theexhaust passageway to »~the-_;-upper end (of then?’
formations ‘interfere ‘ withithe .1 operation rot I‘. the
valves causing: stickinggra'ndfultimate sbu-rningr guide, stoppingshort su?iciently vof?the‘iipperiendr-a ‘
of the guide to provide a closed upper 'endrfonlwlii
It is the". object :of' thezpresentl inventionato-v thechamber. Thus an air chamber- is'constf
provide an: improved exhaustv valve‘vzandisguideer tuted ‘which ‘serves as an ‘insulator ‘for the: valve“
'
thereforpadaptedrfonzuse in"an;internalicombuse stem preventing overheating thereof; ‘
_The vstructural arrangement of the gu'idexrela
tion 1 engine, which - eliminates excessive i“for-n‘1'a-—= .1
go'éitions ' or ‘deposits’ of?carbon‘ on‘--th"e>'=valvev stems, : tiveT to'the valve~stem¢ substantially‘ complete'l
thus. preventing the: usual iinterferencewwith freer-1* encasing the valve stem sealsvthewvalvenste
operation and rthereby'eliminating ‘ sticking‘; Ace. from the ‘exhaust passageway and;prevents'anyi?
withereof.
v
r
.
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;
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cordingly,-by'~the-iuse’> of :thewvalvesi andtguidesq-ofy , accumulation or "deposit- “of carbon I ;on :the valves;
this ‘ invention;x the" efficiency lot; »:the evalves rgWi' ; ;' stem; " The ‘reduced portion ell provides;
95*. gnotvebe ' impaired * and» the, normal: power»: of ; the; ~
enginewill be maintained;»
-
'
~ .
‘der I9~which~=actswas a iscrapingfiedge
:~
stantlyr
upper‘is
guide
scraping’
closed
portion-obthe
thisedgejmovesdown
the- carb‘on;Vfromfl-theristraightwl
guide, Eachbelowlgthea
timelthe;
(2011-32
In‘ra more fre?nedxsensel, it? is - thelobject .rof "they. valve
present; invention torprovide for? thevgul'desvand
valves a > new ‘ arrangement and a structure; which; 1;, topredge ‘of the ‘guide but no lowersthanzrnidwaya
goo-{create an‘ air! chamber in. 1 combination r-with‘ the; oflthevguide portion of the-guide.» Each time the? :30“? 1
valve stem; insulating the~,-_valve.¢stem from/the»~ valve,’ raises or-- unseats, .- the 5 edge- scrapes san-ywr
effects ofgthe; heat, l thus ;materially<-reduci-ng- gthe accumulation of 'carbon' from; the guideaportionlra
ing
operating
‘ the; e?iciencygof»
‘temperature
valve
of itheyal
operation. ndqinerease.
I l
a l I.
As the valve begins to“ close:each-etime-wthea; I
sharp upper edgeJ-of the valvey/guideiwil-l;lscrapea»'
35431., Other objects and-pertaimadvantages-mil bee; from the “valve stem, any formations-pf “carbon.
r
more , fully; apparent,“ from .iawdesvcription lot-ether“ which » may have been" deposited-lthereon-during;
the exhaust stroke of the piston.“ivIhisl-constantw
accompanyingtdrawing};iimwhieh:
Figure 1 isua fragmentarytsectyionall
) ‘ l view
.
of“I‘ any
‘removal of carbon,~»not only-fromfthe;valvegstem
portion ‘of; an internal ,vcombusti-omengi-ne :at; ithef-m but ‘from the guide portion ofatheguideipreventsr'
40mpoint’ of - the ‘exhaust valve, shoWingqthev exhaust“. any accumulation-‘ofvv carbon andinsuresa free?mm
valve in closed'position.~.
, I >
,
.,;
working valve‘ ‘I It will beqobservedithatuon-ly
>~
Figure~2 is a-sectiqnahview taken-similaritow small portion of the ‘valve? stem iswmomen-tarily
Figure 1, but showing thesvalvezin-riopen positions“: ' in contact‘ with» the ‘discharge, lgaseswduringatha -=
' Figure/3 iS?wSBClElOIl?lfViBW {taken/a similar to exhaust stroke ofthelpistons Consequentlwthewv ‘
;;';Figurea1,'showing the, valve:inrclosedwpositionrziny{I valves will ‘not be damaged :bygverheatingeand~gl45ml
conjunction
Figurev 4 l-iseawith sectional
amodi?edtype
,y-view taken
of»;.g-ui-de.
[Similar/11:10‘;
1' > _
>
there will be} no interference ‘with
tion of the-engine"
‘-
‘
:_ ..
A,
normalqop
,,
a-
"
‘
Figure 1, showing -a still "further- modi?cation-‘l,'0fpv;v Referring to the‘ modi?edT form, Lathe ‘tiny
the. valve and guide<with¢ the~ valve:v inrcloseda tion in» Figure-3, the corresponding‘ parts; will ‘
F
“Imposition;
q
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~'
beafound to be identi?ed by the samevnumeralsqsow
Referring to 'the lstructure-i-disclo'sedfinv. Figures ;; as those
:'case the
employed
valve’ stem
in the
is perfectly
‘precedingplain,
form.there
--In;;'1 ‘
1 andZ, the-cylinder-blockis generallyqindicateda._ this
at III,‘ the cylinderheadFat-1i;- onao?the-cylin-w being no reduction of ' diameter; 1The valve guide"
ders-at. I2; and the~piston¢~at¢ lap-Th 'exhaus extends into very close proximity itolthe backxof
'
ssipassageway, indieatedvatwli, eXt-endsefr9m:§~thee the "valve head 1:35" in the p-recedi-ngyinstancea; ‘The; “55 it
2
2,124,362
hot gases passing through the exhaust passage~
tion of reduced diameter immediately adjacent
its head, the shoulder between the reduced diam
eter portion and the body of the stem disposed
within the upper end of the valve guide when
way.
This counterbored portion is tapered or enlarges
‘carbon deposits from the upper end’ of the valve
guide bore of the guide is counterbored as at 20
to provide an air space or annular chamber for
insulation of the valve stem from the effects of
toward the top of the guide. Any carbon de
posits which may take place will occur toward
the upper end of the valve stem, that is, ad
Accordingly, due to the en
largement of the bore, ample clearance is pro
vided in order that operation of the valve stem
10 jacent the head.
may not be interfered with.
There is no op
portunity for carbon deposit fardown in the’
the valve is seated and adapted to scrape any
guide upon the opening movement of the valve,
said valve guide including a counterbored portion
terminating slightly below the outer end of the
vave guide and extending along that portion of 10
the valve guide disposed across the exhaust pas
sageway, thereby providing‘ an insulating cham
her.
2. In an internal combustion engine including
a'cylinder block and head thereof, said parts
in this chamber effectively blocking the entrance _ including an exhaust passageway incorporating a
of carbon to the lower end of the chamber where valve seat, a valve guide element mounted in
it might tend to enter the guide bore portion 2|. the cylinder block and extending to a point just
This air chamber just as the chamber in the below the valve seat, a valve slidably mounted in
said guide and adapted to engage said seat, the
20 preceding form acts as an insulator and prevents
stem of saidvalve including a portion of re
overheating of the valve and stem.
In the modi?cation disclosed in Figure 3, the duced diameter immediately adjacent its head,
parts corresponding to those of the preceding a shoulder between the reduced diameter portion
forms are identi?ed by similar numerals. A and the body of the stem disposed within the
25 counterbore is provided in the guide bore of the" upper end of the valve guide when the valve is
guide, as indicated at 22, the counterbore being seated and adapted to scrape any carbon depos
straight in this instance and slidably receiving its from the upper end of the valve guide as the
an enlarged straight cylindrical portion 23 of the 1‘ opening movement of the valve takes place and
valve stem. The portion 23 is disposed adjacent the upper end‘ edge of the valve guide bore adapt
30 the head of the valve, the upper edge or shoulder: ed to scrape any carbon deposits from the porthereof being in the same relation to the ‘upper tion of the valve stem which is exposed to the
end of the valve guide as the shoulder l9 of the‘ exhaust gases when the valve is opened.
3. In an internal combustion engine including
form shown in Figures 1 and v2. For this rea- "
son the same scraping action takes place in this an engine body consisting of a block and head
15 chamber since a back pressure of air is built up
15
20
25
“
including an exhaust passageway therein and a 35
.
The portion 23 acts as a plug for the upper end ' valve seat in the exhaust passageway, a valve
of the chamber 22, and this chamber is therefore 1’ guide disposed across the exhaust passageway
and having its upper end adjacent the valve seat,
e?ective as an insulating chamber in the man
a valve slidably mounted in the guide and having
ner and for the purposes previously described.
The portion 23 is of sufficient length so that its a head adapted to engage the valve seat, said 40
‘form.
40
lower edge will not rise above the upper edge of
the valve guide in the opening motion of the
valve guide having an enlarged bore portion
along that portion extending across the exhaust
valve. Accordingly, the chamber is always sealed. ‘ passageway, and. the stem of said valve includ
Longitudinal grooves 24 extend from the base”_ ing an enlarged portion adjacent the head there
of but'spaced therefrom, said latter portion slid 45
45 of the chamber 22 along the internal bore'iof the
guide to the extreme lower end thereof. These i ably mounted in the counterbored portion of the
grooves permit the expulsion of air from‘the in-' guide, and passageways disposed along the guide
sulation chamber on the closing movement of the: bore connecting the lower ‘end of the enlarged
valve and permit intake of cooler air from ‘they bore portion with the lower end of the valve
lower outer end of the valve guide into the‘ chamé" guide for air circulation to and fromthe cham 50
her as the opening movement of the valve takes berf‘ormed by the enlarged bore portion.
4. In an internal combustion engine including
place. Thus the air in the insulation chamber
is constantly replenished, cool air replacing the the engine body consisting of a cylinder block
heatedair which results from the passage of ‘the ’ and head and incorporating an exhaust passage~>
55 .hot gases around the valve guide. Thus a‘ con-v‘ v- way having a valve‘ seat therein, a valve guide 55.
stant cooling circulation ensues with the valve mounted in the body and having a portion ex
tending across the‘ exhaust passageway to a
In all forms of the valve guide it will be noted ' point adjacent the valve seat, a valve slidably
acting as a pump.
that the upper portion thereof tapers toward the mounted in the guide element and adapted to
The gradual increase in~ engage said seat, said guide having its internal 60.
60 ‘ upper edge thereof.
vcross sectional area of the guide from the upper ~ ' bore counterbored to provide an annular in
end downwardly provides the proper structure 7 sulation chamber surrounding the valve stem,
for heat dissipation. The tapering of the struc
and a cool air inlet to said chamber.
5. In an internal combustion engine including
ture and reduction in mass toward the upper
‘end of the valve guide is doubly true in they form‘ an engine body consisting of a block and head in 65
of Figure 3 since the counterbored portion of the _ cluding an exhaust passageway therein and a
internal bore of the guide ?ares upwardly.
valve seat in the exhaust passageway, a valve
guide disposed across the exhaust passageway
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. In an internal combustion engine including a and having its upper end adjacent the valve seat,
cylinder block and head, said parts including an a valve slidably mounted in the guide and having 70
exhaust passageway incorporating a valve seat,‘ ‘ a head adapted to engage the valve seat, said
a valve guide element mounted in the cylinder’ , valve guide having an enlarged bore portion
block and extending to a point just belowv the" along that portion extending across the exhaust
valve seat, a valve slidably mounted in said guide ,_ " passageway, and the stem of said valve including
75.. for vengagement on said seat and including a por-"' an enlarged portion adjacent the head thereof 75
3
2,124,362
but spaced therefrom, said latter portion slidably
‘ mounted in the counterbored portion of the guide,
and said guide including passageways disposed
along the guide bore connecting the lower end
of the enlarged bore portion with the lower end
of the valve guide for air'circulation to and from
the chamber formed by the enlarged bore por
tion, said enlarged portion of the valve stem
serving as a pumping piston for said chamber.
6. In an internal combustion engine includ
ing a cylinder block and head thereof, said parts
including an exhaust passageway incorporating
a valve seat,va valve guide element mounted in
the cylinder block and extending to a point just
15 below the valve seat, a valve slidably'mounted
in said guide and adapted to engage on said
10
seat, the stem of said valve including a shoulder
disposed immediately adjacent‘to the valve head
and within the upper end of the valve guide
when the valve is seated and adapted to scrape
any carbon deposits from the upper end of the
valve guide on the opening movement of the
valve, said valve guide element and said valve
stem providing a closed insulation chamber
around the valve stem extending along the valve
stem across the exhaust passageway, and the 10
upper end edge of the guide bore adapted to
scrape any carbon formations from the exposed
part of the valve stem which is above the edge
when the valve is opened. .
15
VICTOR F. ZAHODIAKIN.
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