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Патент USA US2124369

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July 19, 1938.
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2,124,369
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PROPELLER
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Filed Feb. 4,
1957
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Patented July 19, 1938 ~
_. 2,124,369
UNITEDl STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,124,369
PnoPELLEn
Walter' W. Everts, Baltimore, Md., assi'gnorito'
Everel Products Corporation,` Baltimore, Md.,
a> corporation of Maryland
Application February 4, 1937, serial No. 124,129
7 Claims. (ci. 11o-162)
My invention relates to propellers.
5
_
Figure 8 is an assembled perspective view of the
An important object of the invention is to pro
vide a propeller for operation within a fluid, such
inner bearing unit of the bearing device,
as a gas or liquid, whereby the propeller may be
showing the blade at the minimum pitch,
advantageously use_d in connection with aircrafts,
boats including surface ships or submarines, and
at the maximum pitch, and,
fans used for Ventilating purposes or the like.
_
A further object of the invention is to provide
a propeller of the above mentioned character,
10 which is automatically actuated by-centrifugal
, Figure y9 is an end elevation of the propeller _
Figure 10 is a similar view showing the blade 5
Figure 11 is a similar view showing the blade
swung past the maximum driving pitch position. ,
In the- drawings, wherein for the purpose of
force, to vary its pitch, as the pressure of the
fluid` medium within which its operating varies
illustration is shown a preferred embodiment of 10
lmy invention, the numeral I0 designates the
blade of the propeller, which propeller may beV
at any given speed of rotation.
formed of suitable material, such as aluminum,
_
A further object of the invention is to provide
an aluminum alloy, bakelite, wood or the like.
' a propeller of the above mentioned character, . The propeller is preferably formed integral and 15
having opposed centrifugally balanced "portions,
' for reducing friction and permitting of the> free
turning movement of the propeller blade upon
its axis for varying its pitch.
20
A further object of the invention is to provide
a propeller of the above mentioned character so
constructed that the iiuid or air load acting upon
the same is opposed by the action of centrifugal
force, these two forces balancing each other to
find the correct angle of the propeller, to elimi
nate vibration and bending moments and gyro
scopic forces.
'
A further object of the invention is to provide
, a propeller of the above mentioned character em
30 bodying a single blade, whereby the propeller may
be driven at an increased maximum speed with
efliciency.
>
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A further object ofthe invention is to provide
strong and simple means for assembling the var
ious parts of the device, for effecting a strong
union, and permitting of the proper Vaccess of
parts when desired. . '
_
In the accompanying drawings forming a part
of this- application and _in which like numerals
40 are employed to designate like parts throughoutv
the same,4
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a propeller em
bodying my invention,
_
comprises a hub portion II, carrying a shank I2
upon one side which is integral with the hub and
blade I0. The hub also has a counterweight
shank or member I3 integral therewith, arranged
opposite the shank I2. The hub II projects upon 20
opposite sides radially beyond the shanksl I2 and
I3, in the direction of the plane of rotation of
the propeller. It might be stated at this point
that _the action of centrifugal force upon the
blade I0 and shank I2 is balanced by the action 25
of ~ centrifugal force upon the 4counterweight
shank or member I3, these forces of course oper
ating in opposite directions. This reduces fric
tion upon the engaging parts and permits of the
proper movements .of _the propeller, to'be de- 30
scribed.
As more clearly shown in Figure 6, .the hub II
is provided with an opening I4, having opposed
cylindrically curved walls I 5, oppositely arranged,
and opposed radial extensions I6, having side 35
walls I 6' and end walls- I1.
The numeral I8 designates a propeller or‘driv
ing shaft, upon which is rigidly mounted a sleeve
I9, for rotation therewith. This sleeve carries
opposed pivot elements 20, preferably in the form 40
of tubular stub-shafts. These stub-shafts are
radial with respect to the driving shaft I8. The
numeral 2I designates an inner bearing unit as
Figure 2 is a front elevation of the propeller, > a whole, comprising semi-cylindrical bearing ele.
upon an enlarged scale, parts being broken away, ments 22, having reduced innerñtting edges 23, 45 '
Figure 3 is a longitudinal section taken on line as shown. 'I'hese inner bearing elements 22,
' 3_3 of Figure 2,
when assembled, produce a tubular structure, .
Figure 4 is a transverse section taken on line
l-4` of Figure
\
Figure 5 is asimilar view taken on line 5_5
of Figure 3,
Figure 6 is a side elevation of the propeller with
the bearing device removed,
Figure '7 is an exploded perspective view of the
5
bearing device,
having segmented flanges 24, slidably receiving
the sleeve I9 and positioned upon opposite sides ~
of the stub-shafts 20, as shown. Formed integral 50
with the bearing elements 22 are enlargements,
Webs, or lugs 25, having straight parallel side
faces\26, and cylindrically curved oppositely ar
ranged faces 2'I.
The webs 25 are provided with
oppositely arranged cylindrical radial openings 55
9,124,869
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28, pivòtally receiving the radial stub-shafts 20,
peller blade. If the rotating propeller rises- to
as shown. It is obvious that the inner bearing
elements 22 are placed upon the sleeve I9, after
the sleeve ls applied to the drive shaft I9. The
numeral 29 designates outer bearing elements or
blocks, which are elongated and rectangularin
longitudinal and transverse section. These outer
bearing elements or` blocks are oppositely ar
a higher altitude, the resistance of the air upon
recesses include curved tops 3i and straight side
to ,overcome this air pressure action and to turn
the unbalanced areas of thefblade decreases. v
The trailing area Ißa of the blade is greater than
the leading area lia and these surfaces are un 5
balanced so that the action of the air pressure
thereon tends to turn the propeller upon its axis
I0’ to reduce its pitch. The action oi' centrifugal
force îîupìfn ltheîîî?‘adially,iënlaì?gedï portion vfor hub
I ’Il’isnovi súfdci'ent-,to canse jthis¿enlarg'e<iportion
10
walls 32, as shown. The cuter bearing elements-"i r^theffpropeller upon the pivots or stub-shafts 20
P„iiirlirection to increase the pitch of the pro
or blocks 29 have grooves or notches 33 at their
radially outer sides. `The outer blocks or b'e’a'r‘-A ‘p‘ellërf‘ Figure 10 shows the centrifugally oper
'ted hubpo'rti'o'n =I>Iiatë`the true radial position at
15 ings are longer than the widthiofçthebubi'i I, and
are adapted to project beyond same;ì;.~ïasfj;showii. whieh'atimegthe blade‘ïll! will have the maximum .
The outer bearings or blocks 29 are placed uponk propelling" "pitchf‘fï/“When the resistance of the
the webs 26, and the entire.assembledpearlng, airexceeds ¿thehdrlvingaction of the propeller, as
when making >a power drive, the pressure upon
unit is then inserted into the'openin‘g’il of
20 hub II of the propeller.
ïl‘l the-«trailliìgë area I6a, which is greater than the 20
-'
_Adapted to be arranlg~ed.upon> the oppositeface
leading area Iï5q,«.fwill,:.serve„to,overcome the ac
ofiheemagged mib ¿lliarèïdis'cs‘ si, ’which~v mehr?,l tlon„of¿centrifug
or'ce ,upori’lthe .L radially Ven
cular, _and are clamped tof' the 'hubÍíI Ij by boltsì 35" larged cel'itrifugalîlyy operated ,portion , ofl huby .I I
orth'e like.. ¿These ,discs haveiopenings Y VSii formed _
extremefpositiori as `"shown,in Figure 11p/which
25., therein, yoorr'e'sporiding to the .Shape jof the jfoplen
ings ' Mí" ‘Theopenings 36_ havegoppositelyfar
is limited by nie jç’ö‘r‘itactfof thewaus or the sleeve'
ranged curved walls 31,’adapte`d to "coincide Íwith I9 withÍ'theIendjS. of fthe inner-È'bearing _unit 2I',.
the curved walls I5 of the opening I4 and sides thereby further increasingfthe pitch "of the `pro
asjtqcoiacide _with the 'sides is', and. end walls' peller'l blade @beyond .the .maximum propelling
39'V winch'. are arranged slightly >inwardly of the
‘endjwalls I‘I.` The end walls 39 engage-.within
pitcnïf'
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"
80
`When the aeroplane is in aknose dive, with the
engine idling,` or dead,r the air pressurey acting
ofthe outer bearing'elements or blocks 29 ‘snugly upon- the propeller 'will tend'to swing the same
engagethe s_ide walls` 38 >and also 'the side walls , upon its transverse axis abouty the cylindrical sur
I6’. j` The sleeve I9 is Ispacedfrom the inner wall ` face 21,. which' act’ion is opposed by that , of
the notches `orA grooves 33," while 'the side walls , 32 ’
35
35
' of the j‘inner tubular bearing, unit 2|, vand 4this centrifugal forcervbut :this rearward swinging
permits" of theturning ofthe propeller, upon its ` ‘movement-»will relieve the propeller` ofstrains, to
axisj"_i0’,`to"vary its’pitch; 'The centers of theA a considerable extent,l and will ,prevent rattling.
pivotsforstubÍ-‘shaftfs 2liV arejin alignment with the"
A further advantage `of my propeller is` that it
has Vonly a single blade and may therefore be 40
40 `linelll’ of ther propeller bla‘de when the propeller
blade is injthe true 'radial position; In addition driven Iat an rincreased maximum speed,4 with
to theturning movement ofthe propeller Aupon its efiiciencyigAs >is well,v known,_; when` a,.twoÍ or
longitudinal axis about the longitudinal line Ill', three. blade propeller is driven beyond about.
theV »propeller blade isl adapted to be turned lupon seventeen to nineteen hundred R.` P. M., the .
transverse _axis„l about the center of the cy
efficiency,v of the., propeller is reduced, due Atothe 45
45 >its
lindrically curved fa'ce 2l of `the innerf bearing factthat one blade movesinto the space or hole
unit. `The`propeller .is therefore adapted to be in the air produced by the leading blade. By
turned upon its`transverse axis in a direction ' having only one blade, properly balanced, this. dis
longitudinally of the drive shaft I8.Y `_By virtue of ` advantage is overcome,`and my one blade pro
peller> may be driven ata speed considerably 50
posed by the action of centrifugal force, tends/t0. above the normalemciency speedy of a two or
swing .the propeller forwardly in a direction longi
tudinallyy of the drive shaft, which action is - three blade propeller',` with eillciency, thus allow
balanced bythe action'of centrifugal `force tend- ` ing engine tobe‘fdriven at >its maximum eilìciency
`this turning movement, the air load which is op
50
ing to return the propeller to the true radialrposi
55
` tion with respect to the drive shaft. .These two`
forces willtherefore automatically ñndfthe cor
rect angleof .the propeller, withrespect to the
longitudinal.- axis l‘of the drive shaft, to thereby
60 eliminate vibration of the propeller, >bending moment and gyros'copicforces..
`
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speed.
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ment offparts, maybe `resortedtmwithout ,depart-1
ing from the spirit of my invention or therscope ï`
.When the propelleris rotating at,y sea level, as
applied toy an aeroplane or thelike, _and in lthe
of the subjoined claims.
directionof the arrow, wherethe pressure of the
claim- and desire to protect by Letters Patent'is: '1 l
speedQlfThe radial axis of thecentrifugally oper
elongated rotary element to rotate therewithJ and '
ated Áportion .or` hub A I 3 is> inclined or disposed-at
turn upon an axis radially of the rotary element,
a second bearing device mounted upon the‘iirstA
Having thus described my inventiomfwhaflfl;
atmosphere is. at the maximum, the propeller Lhas « .L1A-propeller comprisingan elongated rotary».
' themi'nimum pitch, regardless of variations of. element," a. bearing device mounted uponïf'the
an_..acute angle withrespect'to the working face
70 of the propeller blade..v lÍThe position o_f the blade
I0 (at ,thisminimum pitch ¿is _shown in Figure `9
and` also'ftheÍpositiorlv ‘ofv the `enlarged hub> por
65
named bearing device and capable of swingingfin 70
a direction longitudinally of the rotary element` I
and‘positively turning with the first named bear
tion I,I~,.the walls ofthe sleeve I9¿now„engaging. . ing device, and a, single blade propellerzmounted
75
55
It isltojbefunderstood that the form of my in
vention herein nshown and described is to be taken y,
as -a.-preferred.-,example of the‘same and Athe
various changesin the shape-size, and arrange-3,»
embodying a blade having unbalanced areas ar
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9,124,360
‘ranged forwardly and rearwardly of the longi
tudinal axis of the yblade and having a centri!
ugall'y ‘ operated portion adapted to turn the
blade upon its longitudinal axis when the pres
3
ma wel».l the bearing una and blocks serving to' j
rotate the propeller.
5. A propeller comprising a rotary element,
bearing means mounted upon the rotary element.
~ sure upon the blade varies at any given'speed of
and including opposed webs, the webs l having
rotation, theilrst and second named bearing dè
.outer curved faces extending `lomi'itudinally of'v
vices serving to rotate the propeller, and means
to substantially balance the radial thrust of the
the longitudinal axis of the rotary element to provide a pivot element having its turning axis dis
f
posed at a right angle to the axis of rotation of
2. A propeller comprising a rotary element. a - the rotary element, a propeller element including 10
propeller.
10'
bearing device mounted upon the rotary element a blade and hub,l said hub having an opening
for rotation therewith and capable of swinging formed therein, bearing blocks arranged within ,
with relation to the rotary element about an ax'is the opening and having recesses to receive the
which is radial with relation to the rotary ele
webs, said recesses having outer curved walls ex
15 ment. and a single blade propeller pivotally tending longitudinally of the longitudinal axis of 15
mounted upon the bearing device to turn upon~its the vrotary element, the bearing blocks turning
transverse axis with relation to' the bearing de
about the turning axis of the- pivot element
vice and to turn upon its longitudinall axis with formed by the webs, elements secured to the oppo
the Vbearing device, the bearing device serving to site sides of the hub to retain the bearing blocks
rotate the propeller, the propeller embodying a within the opening of the hub, pivot means for
blade having unbalanced areas arranged for , mounting the websupon the rotary element. the
wardly and rearwardly of the longitudinal axis pivot means having its longitudinal axis arranged
of the blade and an enlarged centrifugally oper
at a lright angle to the axis of rotation of the ro
ated portion disposed generally at an acute angle - tary element and at a right angle to the turning
with respect to the working face of the blade, the axis of the pivot element formed by the webs.
arrangement being such that the pitch of the‘ means for causing the‘propeller element to'turn`
blade varies as the pressure varies upon the
upon its longitudinal axis about the pivot means
blade when the blade is being rotated at any given
to vary its pitch, and means to substantially bal
speed.
ance the radial thrust of the propeller.
,
_ 3. A propeller comprising a rotary element, a
bearing device ‘mounted upon the rotary element,
6. A propeller comprising a rotary element, op 30
positely arranged radially projecting webs, said
pivot means between the rotary element and webs having outer curved faces extending longi
bearing device and disposed radially of the rotary ' tudinally o_f the rotary element, the curved faces
element, a companion bearing device mounted providing a pivot element having its turning axis
upon the iirst named bearing device to rotate at a right angle to the axis of rotation of the
rotary element, a propeller element including a
therewith and capable of turning upon the bear
ing device in a direction at a right angle to the blade and hub, said hub having an opening pro.
vided with opposed recesses to receive the webs,
plane vof rotation of the rotary element, the com
panion- bearing device rotating with the iirst said recesses having outer curved faces extend
ing longitudinally, of the longitudinal axis of the
named bearing device, and a single blade pro
peller comprising a blade having unbalanced rotary element and engaging the curved faces of
areas arranged forwardly and rearwardly of the
longitudinal _axis of the blade and alcentrifugal
ly actuated hub extended laterally in the plane
of_ rotation of the propeller, the -hub being ar
ranged at an inclined angle with relation to the
working face of the blade, the hub being iixedly
secured to the second named bearing device, the
first and second named bearing devices serving
to rotate the‘propeller.
.
4. A propeller comprising a rotary element,
substantially radial pivots carried thereby, a
bearing unit mounted upon the rotary element
and havingl substantially radial openings to pivot--l
ally receive the pivots, said bearing unit embody
ing webs having cylindrically curved faces ex
tending in a direction at substantially a right
angle to the axis of rotation of the rotary element,
a single blade propeller element including a blade
the webs, the recesses having side walls to engage
with the side walls of the webs so that vthe webs
rotate the propeller, pivot .means )for mounting
the webs upon the rotary element, the pivot 45
means having its turning axis disposed at a
right angle to the axis of rotation of the rotary'
element and at a right angle to the turning axis
o! the pivot element, means to cause the propeller
element to turn upon its longitudinal axis about
the turning axis of the pivot means, and means
to balance the radial thrust of the propeller.
.
7. A rotary element, a' single blade propeller
having unbalanced areas upon opposite sides‘ot
its longitudinal axis, means to balance the blade
against radial thrust, a centrifugally operated
part to turn the blade upon ,its longitudinal axis, `
and bearing means to mount the blade upon the
rotary element, said bearing means including a '
pivot element having its longitudinal axis dis 60
posed at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of
inclined angle with respect to the working face. of the blade so that the blade may turn thereon and
the blade, the working face of the blade having ,l find its plane of rotation and a second, pivot ele
unbalanced areas arranged forwardly and rear
ment having its longitudinal axis arranged at a
wardly of the longitudinal axis of the blade, the right angle to the longitudinal axis of the iirst 65
hub having an opening formed therein, and bear
pivot element and also extending longitudinally
ing blocks iixedly mounted within such opening of the longitudinal axis of the blade so that the
blade may tum upon its longitudinal axis to vary
and having cylindrically curved recesses extend
~
"
ing in a direction at a right angle to the plane of its pitch.
70 rotation'of the propeller, said recesses receiving- _
WALTER W. EVERTS. 70'
and a centrlfugally operated hub arranged at an
,
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