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July 19, 1938. A. Am. JR., ET AL 2,124,457 TESTING EYES Filed Oct. 25, 1934 Dam‘. % PM 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 jaw, 5 J A A} l 0, "2.. l r=z..50 . ,r/ 6 S=0J6JDQ , - 1/ Mr 0.05» - 9 fM/ Mk Patented July 119, 1938 v 2,124,451 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 1 . 2,124,457 7 TESTING EYES Adelbert Ames, Jr., and Gordon H. Gliddon, Han over, N. H., assignors to Trustees oi.’ Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H., a corporation of New - Hampshire Application October 25, 1934, Serial No. 749,948 5 Claims. (Cl. 88-20) The present invention deals with lens sets for the correcting or evaluating, especially for testing purposes of so-called eikonic defects of the eyes, or aniseikonia, which involve binocular 6 vision as a?ected by discrepancies of the ocular images, the latter term being used to describe the impression formed in the higher brain cen ters through the vision of one eye. It is deter mined not only by the properties of the dioptric image that is formed in the retina of the eye, but also by the modi?cations imposed upon that image by the anatomical properties and physio logical processes by which this image is carried to the higher brain centers. . 15 Such lens sets are of particular importance for use in connection with instruments dealt with in our Letters Patent No. 1,944,871 of January 30, 1934 entitled “Clinical optical mensuration method and instrument” and in Letters Patent No. 1, 20 954,399 of April 10, 1934 to Adelbert Ames, Jr. entitled “Eye testing instrument and method”, and in copending applications Serial Nos. 618, 200 ?led June 20, 1932 and 706,523 ?led Janu ary 13, 1934. allowed for when dealing with the eikonic con ditions of a‘ patient. Any investigation of eikonic conditions must take into account the facts that they may vary with varying visual distances, and that they involve not only overall di?erences in the size of the ocular‘ images but also so-called shape differences the most important ones of which are symmetric to a so-called eikonic' meridian. Hence, the investigator should have at his dis posal means for changing the size or shape, or both, of ocular images by known degrees con veniently stepped, and either the light vergence should notbe changed, or changed to a prede termined degree that can be easily taken into account. When ?rst dealing with the investigation ‘of eikonic phenomena, we used two sets of lenses, one for near vision (at approximately 2.5 di opters of 40 cm.) and another one for distant vision (at approximately 0.165 diopter or 6 m., which distance isv for practical purposes equiva lent to in?nity), each set comprising a series of spherical ‘lenses producing, at the distance Certain terms used in the above mentioned " for which it was to be used, overall magni?cations disclosures and in the present speci?cation and at convenient steps of approximately 25% angu N) claims have the following meaning. “Eikonic” lar magni?cation without change of vergence, is the term used to describe the. conditions which and another series with similar characteristics have to do with the size and shape of the cou 30 lar image's. “Iseikonic" is that condition in which the sizeand shape of the ocular images are equal. “Aniseikonia” is that condition in which the size or shape, or both, of the ocular images are unequal. It can be divided in two types; 35 one involving overall di?‘erence, in which one image is larger than the other in all meridians, and another one involving meridional differences in which one image is larger than the other in one meridian. 40 As explained in these disclosures, tests on such instruments comprise the measurement and com but having cylindrical surfaces effecting meridi- onal magni?cation. By vergence we mean the ' amount to which the light rays coming from an object point are either diverged or converged when entering the eye. However, we found it rather disadvantageous to.use two sets of lenses for the‘ two test dis tances, mainly because of the necessary frequent, and sometimes confusing, changes from one set to the other. Also, the large number of lenses renders such a trial set for eikonic tests expen sive and bulky. > ' - - 40 To overcome these and related drawbacks is the purpose of the present invention, some of whose objects are therefore the testing of eyes pensation of eikonic defects with the aid of lenses which change the» size of the ocular images, preferably without affecting the vergence of the for 'eikonic conditions at di?‘erent visual dis- . 45 image bearing rays or, in other words, without .tances with a single set of trial lenses, and to optical power in the commonly used meaning of provide trial lens sets suited for testing such that term. If such lenses, for some reason, are not pure magni?cation lenses, they should at least have a known power. that can be conven 60 ientlycompensated while testing, or otherwise conditions at various distances. ‘ ~ » ‘ These and other aspects and objects of our invention will be apparent from the following explanation describing two illustrative embodi 50 2 2,124,407 ments thereof exemplifying its genus. The de and of the following tables being given in Fig. 5. scription refers to drawings in which: where R’, and R, are the radii of the surfaces of ' Fig. 1 is a schematical drawing explaining the a lens, and d is its thickness. ‘ terminology of the description; TABLI I Fig. 2_is a diagramjshowing the principle the invention generally: - _ I Figs. 3 and 4 are similar diagrams giving the data of two practical embodiments of the in ~ " W No‘ ~ Mint ' mm at ‘in mm. n m I mm. B m 0.1551) vention; Pindiopterl D mm. _ 0.1641) 2.5D 10 Fig. 5 is a section through an individual of 10 a lens set according to the invention; and 7 Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic representation of the compensation of residual magni?cation. According to the invention, we use a lens set 15 whose individual lenses have at different prede termined visual ,distances predetermined mag ni?cations in convenient steps and, at these dis tances, predetermined powers, which may be zero or other values especially selected, accord 20 ing to our invention, to facilitate the evaluation and correction of eikonic defects with the aid 1 ............. .. 0. 25 1. 21 215. 00 215. 13 0. 006 —0.'00t 0. 50 0. 75 ' 1. 00 1. 25 1. 50 1. 75 1. 22 1. (ll 1. 39 95. (I) 53. 15 51. 44 94. 80 52. 89 51. 0D 0. 011 0. 018 0. 024 l. 68 1. 97 2. m 2. 55 2. 83 3. 11 3. 39 3.55 4. 18 4. 70 5. 18 5. 66 40. m 48. B5 48. 05 49. 54 48. 35 47. 45 0. 030 0. 035 0. 041 -'0. 011' —0- 011 —0. 02! —0. 029 ~ -0. (B5 —0 040 47. 43 45. Q3 46. 34 45. 98 45.55 44. 80 44. 27 43. 47 42. 90 46. 77 46. 21 45. 53 45. 11 44.60 43. 71 43. 04 42. 10 4].. 40 0. 048 0. 053 0. m0 0. m6 0.572 0. 084 0. 0% 0. 11B 0. 121 -0 045 --o 052 —0 068 —0 (B4 --0 m0 *0. 082 -0. 094 —0. 1m 20 -—0. 118 2. 00 2. 25 2. 50 2. 75 3.“) 3. 50 4. 00 4. 50 5. 00 of the speci?ed magni?cation properties of the lenses. As herein used, the terms power and magni? 25 cation are de?ned as follows, referring to Fig. 1: If N is a point of reference, as for example the nodal point of an eye, 0 an object, I the image of 0 produced by optical element L, a the object distance, b the image distance, a the angle sub 30 tended at N by rays coming from the object and p the corresponding image angle, the power P can be expressed by 1 , 85 . 1 8 V and the angular magni?cation M by M=§ or in percent, 40 The above given general principle of our in vention may be better understood by referring to Fig. 2, which indicates, in a system of Cartesian 45 coordinates, the relations of object distance (that is the visual distance of the test), magni?cation and power of each lens of a series. The dis tances are plotted in cm as abscissas, and mag The same values for the ?rst six individuals numbered one to six are indicated in Fig. 3 with corresponding lens numbers used as superscripts 25 for M and P, whereby it should be noted that the lines connecting the M and P values of any individual for distances 1', 3, (these letters being correspondingly applied as subscripts of M and P) and t do not necessarily furnish correspond 80 ing values for other distances but are mainly drawn in order to facilitate the understanding. of the construction of the set by correlating the data of each individual lens thereof. The powers at 40 and 600 cm. vary so little from 35 the zero value at 74 cm., that they may be neg lected except in some of the lenses of higher magni?cation, above about 2%. These lenses have been calculated by conven tional and error ray tracing methods, ‘which 40 are familiar to anyone skilled in the art of de signing lenses (as indicated in our Patent No. 1,933,578 of November 7, 1933) and are therefore not repeated herein. All lenses of this example are calculated for a distance of 23 mms. from the 45 nodal point to the front lens surface. As mentioned before, sets for both overall and ' ni?cation M and power P as ordinates, in percent meridional magni?cation should be provided. The lenses of the overall magnit?cation set have 50 and diopters respectively. Thus, the individual lenses of a set according to our invention, if, for example, they are to be used at distances 1) and of the corresponding meridional magni?cation set are ground with cylindrical surfaces with the w, (assuming for the sake of simplicity that there are only three lens individuals, A, B, and C) have 55 at these distances predetermined magni?cations Me, Mé’ M5’ M2! M9!’ Mel and selected powers 60 P6. P5, P5, P3. P9. P5 the above data in every meridian, whereas those 50 curves given in Table I in one meridian and plano clurves in the meridian perpendicular thereto. When these meridional size lenses are used for tests at 40 cm. visual distance, they produce a certain magni?cation in the zero curvature me ridian perpendicular to the meridian having the speci?ed magni?cation, which magni?cation may 60 The relation of magni?cations and powers of the lens individuals should be chosen to suit prac be referred to as “residual” and can not always a tical requirements at hand, and two examples of it can be compensated by placing before the other lens sets according ‘to our invention, which we 65 have found especially suitable for the tests above referred to, will now be given. In the example graphically shown in Fig. 3, the magni?cations are graded in similar steps of 0.25%, from zero to 5%. The powers are so cal 70 culated that all lens individuals have zero power at an intermediate distance t of approximately 74 cm. (1.35 D), which results at r=40 cm. (read ing distance) and at s=600 cm. (practically equiv alent to in?nite) in powers of values given in the 75 following Table I, the terminology of this table be neglected. We have found, however, that eye an auxiliary lens which has the residual mag ni?cation in a meridian placed parallel to the zero curvature meridian of the main lens, and zero magni?cation in the meridian perpendicular thereto. This arrangement is shown in Fig. 6,- ‘ where a meridional size defect of 0.75 of the right eye is indicated as corrected by a lens No. 3 which, 70 however, has a residual magni?cation in the meridian perpendicular to the corrected merid ian. This residual magni?cation is compensated by means of a No. 1 lens before the left eye, which lens has a compensating magni?cation in the me 75 0,124,401 ridian of the residual magni?cation and no mag ni?cation in the meridian perpendicular thereto. It is not necessary to have an auxiliary com pensating lens for each lens of the meridional sets, but one auxiliary lens can be used for a group of meridional test lenses.‘ Table II below Tun: III Overall magni?cation‘ '1 gives the characteristics of an auxiliary set suit- able for use with the trial set of Table I. Lens No. If desired, the power of the lenses of higher magni?cation can be compensated with'an aux- Min Min P Ii 33; a’; 25% $111. Ill-min 0.10m 2.5D 0.00 3;: . . 3131. . . ' _ .WN‘L cOmpe . f ‘7 , nsa m 20 12 1.50 enses . $13,920,, - dinmm, R‘mmm - 1 p compensated. ‘ . ' . _1. .. 1.331 332.313 00 03. 53 - . . . -. . 122 33 1.50 -0.00 . . - . — . 4.. 0 . . 3.30 . 1.50 22" 10.50 .30 . 2.00 -0.10 2.35 30.55 2.15- 2.50 2.334 332.313 330.203 4.111 332.313 330.203 5.113 - 1% - - 513.15 2” 11.51 2.25 330.203 22-“ . 2.50 4. 332. 313 0.00 2.01 0.00 0.00 ggg ;_ i: I??? 106153 . 2.25 (1).15ZZ-2.;(5}%-3.00%-3.15%_ .,-5.00%.- 0.25 8% - .25 10 ‘1:151:11 ' ~ . the powers listed. in Table I‘,1 preferably only for 15 . 13min ‘ iliary lens set comprising lens individuals having m" ‘mes ‘m N“ 1”“; . '... 0.50 ‘ 35" 35.11 6.50 -0.11- 2.34 40.21 30.20 -0.12 3.35 43.24 42.12 - - 31-91 35-96 30-" 34-46 -- - 2% "3'18 3'23 ‘12° 4- 20 330.203 25 so iii TABLI: IV Meridional lenses Lens No. 45 M in %.d m 155;": 0.25 3.51 533.13 0.50 0.15 305.13 v306.38 232.44 233.00 1.00 1.25 1.50 4.23 4.30 2.53 3.23 3.31 - 1.15 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.15 3.00 3.50 4.00 It will ‘now be evident that a lens set of this our invention is preferable. 65 This second example, graphically indicated in -0.020 ax 0lmag___ 0.25s 0.250 —0.03C axoimag---0.040 ax oimag-.. 0.31s 0.310 0.370 0.020 00.33 01.05 01.20 -0.050 ax oimag--. —-0.06Caxoimag___ -0.010 axoimag__. 0.253 0.253 0.313 0.150 1.000 1.120 4.52 00.00 01.40 -0.030 axoimag.-- 0.31s 1.310 2.41 3.10 3.10 4.43 2.44 3.34 5.25 41.66 41.03 52.51 50.40 23.00 31.01 45.41 42.47 43.11 53.10 51.04 23.33 30.10 41.10 —0.090 axoimag___ 4.100511011111111... -0.110 ax oimag... —-0.12Caxo(mag-__ -0.130 ax olmag___ -0.150 8}! ofmag--_0.130 ax ol‘mag__- 0.255 0.25s 0.31s 0.31s 0.253 0.310 0.503 1.500 1.150 1.310 2.120 2.250 2.020 40 3.000 ing designed for a distance of 40 mms. from nodal point to front lens surface, and the meridional lenses for a corresponding distance of 45 mms. When this set is employed, the clinician can use its individuals for tests at the visual distance of 600 cm. without consideration of any power e?ect. When performing near'vision tests, he takes into account even power values which may be listed in a table or marked on the lens handles. No compensating lenses are necessary with the meridional lenses when used for distance vision, whereas for near vision, a residual magni?cation may be compensated as explained above for the ?rst example. - affected by dioptric power effects, the ocular im spectively: ' 60 It should be understood that the present dis closure is for the purpose of illustration only and that this invention includes all modi?cations and equivalents which fall within the scope of tances, but where the magni?cations for both dis set of this type are given below in Tables III and IV, for spherical and cylindrical lens sets, re 35 ventional methods, the spherical individuals be the appended claims. We claim: zero for one distance and for the other distance stepped in even steps. The characteristics of a 30 00.00 00.00 00.00 Fig. 4 in a manner ‘quite similar to that used in Fig. 3, is a lens set where each lens is not de?ned as producing equal magni?cations at two dis 70 tances may vary in even steps, with the powers 76 534.22 1 These lens data have also been obtained by con type can well be used for evaluating magni?ca tions at two different distances, it being com paratively simple to take into account ‘the powers for magni?cations higher than approximately 2%, which magni?cations do not occur very fre quently, and to compensate meridional lenses as explained above. It will be understood that these power values and the auxiliary magni?ca tion lenses can be easily listed in simple tables for ready reference or indicated on the handles of the respective individuals. If, however, itis less desirable to have the same magni?cation at the two distances, but prefer 60 able to simplify the accounting for power and to have no residual magni?cation in the meridional set for one distance, the following embodiment of Dioptrie properties at 2.5D - l. A set of lenses for testing, substantially un age size properties of eyes for two object dis- - tances, one for near and one for distant vision, by placing before the respective eyes trial lenses in holders substantially determining the distances of said lenses from the respective eye, comprising a series of principal trial lens elements each hav ing a thickness, and surfaces with curvatures in 75 4- 2,124,457 one meridian to produce a lens eifecting' in said ‘having a thickness, and surfaces with curvatures meridian at said distances certain magni?cations in one meridian to, produce a lens effecting in and for certain object distances certain dloptric said meridian at said distances certain magni? powers, the elements of said series having for cations‘and for certain object distances certain _,said two object distances, respectively, magni? dioptric powers, the elements of said series hav cations stepped in certain prescription magni? ing for said two object distances magni?cation cation values, having for at least one or said two '10 object distances comparatively small dioptric powers stepped in certain prescription power values, and all elements having for a certain ob ject distance zero, dioptric power, and a series of auxiliary trial power lens elements each having values equal for each element but stepped for different elements in certain prescription mag: nl?cation values, having for at least one of said two object distances comparatively small diop 10 tric' powers stepped in certain prescription power values, and all elements having for a certain ob a thickness and surfaces with curvatures in one v ject distance zero dioptric power; and a series of meridian to produce a lens effecting for one of auxiliary trial power lens elements each having said two object distances a dioptric power sub a thickness and surfaces‘ with curvatures in one stantially equal and opposite to the power of a meridian to produce a lens effecting for one oi’ corresponding element of said principal series, said di?erent object distances a dioptric power whereby an auxiliary element is to be placed in ' substantially equal and opposite to the power of said holders in alignment with a principal ele a corresponding element of said principal series, whereby an auxiliary element is to be placed in 20 said holders in alignment with a principal ele ment of equal but opposite power. ment of equal but opposite power. ' 2. A set of lenses for testing, substantially un affected by dioptric power effects, the ocular im age size properties of eyes for two object dis- ' 4. A set of lenses for testing, substantially un tances, one for near and one for distant vision, affected by dioptric power effects, the ocular image size properties of eyes ‘for two object dis by placing before the respective eyes trial lenses in holders substantially determining the distances _ tances, one for near and one for distant vision, by of said lenses from the respective eye, compris ing a series of principal trial lens elements each placing before the respective eyes trial lenses in holders substantially determining the distances having a thickness, and surfaces with curvatures , of said lenses from the respective eye, compris in one meridian and with different curvatures in ing a series of trial lens element each having a, 30 a meridian normal thereto, to produce a cylindri cal lens effecting in said ?rst meridian at said distances certain magni?cations and for certain object distances certain dioptric powers, the ele ments of said series having in said ?rst meridian for said two object distances magni?cations stepped in certain prescription magni?cation thickness, and surfaces with curvatures in one meridian to produce a lens effecting in said me ridian at said distances certain magni?cations, and for certain object distances certain dioptric powers, the elements of said series having for said two object‘distances magni?cations stepped in certain prescription magni?cation values, and having for one of said object distances zero diop values, and all elements having in said ?rst merid n ian for a certain object distance zero dioptric tric power. ' 5. A set of lenses for testing, substantially un 40 power, and effecting for at least one of said two object distances in said second meridian zero affected by dioptric power effects, the ocular im power and certain residual magni?cations; and age size properties of eyes for two object dis a series of auxiliary trial lens elements each hav »tances, one for near and one for distant vision, by placing before the respective eyes ‘trial lenses in ing a thickness and surfaces having in two nor mal meridians curvatures to produce a cylindrical holders substantially determining the distances of lens e?ecting in one meridian a magni?cation, , said lenses from the respective eye, comprising a substantially equal to said residual magni?cation series of trial lens elements each having a thick of a corresponding element of said principal se ries, and having in the other meridian substan tially zero magni?cation, whereby any one princi 50 . pal element is to be used before one eye with an auxiliary lens of equal residual magni?cation be fore the other eye. -_ 3. A set of lenses for testing, substantially un affected by dioptric power eifects, the ocular im age size- properties of eyes for two object dis tances, one for near and one for distant vision, by placing before the respective eyes trial lenses in holders substantially determining the distances of said lenses from the respective eye, compris ing a series of principal trial lens elements each ness, and surfaces'with curvatures in one merid ian to produce a lens effecting in said meridian at said distances certain magni?cations, and for certain object distances certain dioptric powers, the elements of said series having for said two object distances magni?cations stepped in certain prescription magni?cation values, having for one of said two object distances zero dioptric power, and for the other of said two object distances dioptric powers stepped in certain prescription power values. ADELBERT AMES, JR. GORDON H. GLIDDON.