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Патент USA US2124462

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July 19, 1938.
'c. R. cuMMlNGs
Filed Aug. 18, 1937
2. Sheets-Sheet 1
\ s \E.
July 19, 1938.
c. R. CUMMINGs l
Filed Aug. 18, 1937
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented July ¿19, 193s '
Charles R. Cummings, Fernwood, Pa. I
>Application August 18, 1937; Serial N0. 159,762
¿a claims. (c1. «so-35.6)
This invention relates to rocket engines and 1ignition devices 'and electrical connections there
has for an object to provide a novel single piston
unit wherein the explosive impact of fuel gas is
exerted directly against the atmosphere thus
Referring now to the drawings in which like
characters of reference designate similar parts
5 utilizing the force to its fullest extent and per~
mitting the use of avery light structure.
in the various views, each unit of the engine is
shown to .comprise a cylinder I 0 which is closed
` A further object is to provide novel means for at the front end II and is reduced and open at
controlling the supply of explosive gas and airy the rear'end I2. The cylinder is provided with
so that maximum propulsion will be obtained longitudinal cooling ñns I3 extending through
l0 due to the reaction caused by the gases escaping out the length of the combustion chamber at 10
from the rocket.
the rearl end of the cylinder. A piston I4 is
A further object is Ato provide apparatus of slldably mounted in the cylinder and is provided
this type which will be formed of a few strong,
_ simple, and durable parts, which will be light and
L’ compact, which will be inexpensive to manufac
ture, and which will not easily get out oi order.
With the above and other objects in view the
invention consists of certain novel details of con
with a skirt I5 which forms a valve to control
admission of a~ combustible» mixture into the
cylinder 'from the mixing chamber I6. `_
The mixing chamber extends obliquely to the
axis ofthe cylinder and is provided with a port,
I'I through which thenmixture enters the cylinder
struction and combinations of parts hereinafter when a similar port |81> in the piston skirt I5 is
20 fully described and claimed, it being understood in registration therewith. The mixing chamber 20
that various modifications may be resorted to communicates with the atmosphere through an
Within the scope of the appended claims with
air port I6’ at the bottom.
out departing-from the spirit or sacrificing anyv
The cylinder I0 is mounted on a suitable sup
of the advantages of the invention.
v porting bracket -I9 which _may be of any suitable
In the accompanying‘drawings forming part of shape to dispose a plurality of the cylinders
either in a row or-in the form of -an annulus,A
Figure 1 is alongitudinal sectional view of a and in either parallel relationship or staggered
single cylinder of a rocket engine constructed in
A valve housing 20, best shown in Figure '7, is
accordance with the invention and Ashowing the '
:m parts in position to entrain combustible gas and provided with mounting ears 2| which-are bolted
as shown at 22 to the support I 9. A plunger
air into the cylinder.
Figure 2‘is a longitudinal sectional view of the type valve 23 is mounted in the housing 20. A
gas pipe 24 enters a valve seat 25 which is screwed
cylinder showing the parts in the position as
into the housing and a gland nut 26 is screwed on
sumed at the moment of the explosion.`
Figure 3 is a cross sectional view taken on to the seat-to' provide a leak-proof joint. The
this speciñcation,
the line 3-3 of Figure l showing -the primary free end of the pipe enters the mixing chamber
and secondary induction coil contacts of_ the> and is bentto extend along the axis of the cham
ignition switch.
Figure 4 is a front elevation of the movable
switch arm showing the primary and secondary
induction coil contacts.
Figure 5 is a sectional view of the switch arm
_showing the secondary contacts connected to
45 gether so that the explosion in each cylinder will
:dre the next succeeding cylinder.
Figure 6 is a cross sectional view taken on the
line 6_6 of Figure 1..
Figure '7 is a detail cross sectional view taken
5o on the line 'l-1 o1' Figure 1 showing the mount
ing of _the gas valve.
. '
Figure 8 is a cross sectional view taken on the
line 3-3 oi’ Figure 1 showing the valve and the
piston in rear elevation.
Figure 9 is a diagrammatic view showing the
, ber and provide a discharge nozzle 21.
` A gas supply pipe 23 is formed integral with
the housing and projects into the channel of the
support I9 where it is coupled to the gas line 29
~by a coupling 30. 'I‘he rod 3ly of the piston I4 is
-c_onnected by a rock -link 32 to the rod 33 oi
. the piston type va1ve23. A helical spring 34 is "
sleeved on the rod 33 and, as pressure of exploded
gas in the combustion chamber recedes the spring
opens the gas valve 23 and simultaneously pushes
the piston I4 back to open the ports I'l and I8
for supplying the combustion chamber with a
new charge.
In frontv oi' the piston rod 31| a stationary
in the35,
the lcylinder.
- switch arm 3B is pivoted in the cylinder betweenV
the stationary switch member 35 and the end of 55
the piston rod 3l. The switch arm will be
struck by the piston rod, and moved to closed cir
cuit position, when the piston is driven forwardly
about ?; of an inch by the force of the explo
sion. A _spring 31 is -secured to the switch arm
and bears against the stationary switch member
to return the switch arm to open circuit position
after each actuation.
Y The combustible charge is exploded by a con
pushes the piston I4 to initial position ready for
the next cycle.'
From the above description it is thought that
the construction and operation of the invention
i¿willi be fully understood without further explana
What is claimed is:
l. In a rocket` engine, a plurality of cylinders
forming combustion chambers open to the atmos
phere,'a mixing chamber connected to each cyl 10
ventional spark plug 38 which projects into the inder, a valve for controlling fuel supply to the
combustion chamber. The cylinders may be fired mixing chamber, a piston in the cylinder, a spark
in any desired order but in the present embodi
plug connected to each cylinder, a switch in each
ment of the invention a number of cylinders A are f cylinder, a connection between the piston and the
' fired in predetermined order and the i'lring o! valve arranged in such manner that movement of 15
these cylinders is adapted to fire the next succeed
' ing number of cylinders B in predetermined order
through the electrical connections of the switch
members, as shown diagrammatically in Figure 9.
The stationary switch member 36 of each cylin
20 der is provided with a pair- of switch contacts 3S
and with a single switch contact 40. One of the
switch contacts 39 is connected to the spark plug
38 of the next succeeding cylinder by conductor
wire 4l. The other contact of the pair is con
25 nected by a wire I2 to one end of the secondary
winding I3 of a vibrator type induction coil M.
the piston under impulse of the explosion simul
taneously‘eifects closing of the'switch and the
seating of the valve, and means connecting the
spark plug of each cylinder with the switch of the
preceding cylinder and arranged in such‘manner 20
that closing of theswitch in one cylinder ñres the
next succeeding cylinder.
2. In a rocket engine, a cylinder closed at its
front end and having its rear end reduced and
open, a piston slidably _mounted in the cylinder, 25
a spark plug extending into the cylinder. a mixer.
communicating with the cylinder rearwardly of
. The single switch contact Il is connected by a
the piston, a switch mounted in the vcylinder for
wire 45 to'one end or the primarycwmdmg As or , wardly of the piston, and including a fixed con
the induction c'oil.
tact and a movable contact, forward movement of 30
The movable vswitch arm u is also provided . the piston under impulse of the explosion moving
with a pair of switch contacts I1 which are con
the movable contact to circuit closing position,v
nected together by a metal plate It, as best shown an ignition switch controlled by the switch for
in Figure 5, so that when the switch arm is in cir
energizing the spark plug, a fuel controlled valve
cuit closing position the high tension ignition cir _connected to the mixer, and a connection between 3.5 l
35 cuit isiclosed to ñre the spark plug of the‘next the piston and the valve -arrangedin such manner
adjacent cylinder. . The switch arm is also pro
that forward movement of the piston under im- « .
vided with a single switch’ contact 49 which is pulse of the explosion simultaneously eiïects clos
grounded by a wire 50, to the cylinder. Thus the ing of the _switch and the seating of the valve. '
primary circuit of the induction coil will be closed
3. In a vrocket engine, a plurality of juxta 40
when the switch arm is in circuit _closing position . posed cylinders forming explosion chambers closed
to cause the vibrator type coil to operate and fire
the next succeeding cylinder when the explosion
at the front end and open at the rear end, pistons
in the cylinders, a mixer connected to ,each cyl- `
in a particular cylinder has moved the respec-, linder communicating with the cylinder in rear of
tive piston to mòve'the respective switch arm to the piston, a skirt on the piston sealing the mixer 45
during the explosion and unsealing the mixer
45 circuit closing position.
In operation, gas or vaporlzed fuel of any de
for supplying fuel
sired type enters the combustion chamber of the
' cylinder, under pressure? vThe jet of -gas draws
atmospheric air through the air port It'
mixing chamber I6 from which the explosive mix
ture escapes into the cylinder. The gas mixture
is ñred by the next preceding cylinder. 'I'he
explosion moves the piston Il forwardly so that
the switch arm 3G is moved to circuit closing po
sition to immediately fire th`e next succeeding
As pressure of spent gasesvinthe com>bustion chamberV recedes, the valve spring 34
-in normal position, means
to the mixer, ignition means for each cylinder,
ignition circuits for the cylinders, a switch in each
cylinder controlling the ignition' circuit of the
next succeeding cylinder,- a rod on each piston
adapted to close the respective switch when the
piston is‘moved forwardly under impulse of the
explosion, and a pivoted rock link connected to
the piston rod and to the valve'and adapted to
seat the valve when the piston is moved forwardly.
' cylinder.
-simultaneously opens the gas control valve 23 and
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