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Патент USA US2124549

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July 26, 1938.
T. A. DlcKs
2,124,549
PROPELLER BLADE
Filed Jan. 17, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Qwucnboz
UNO/mm1
Patented July 26, 1938
2,124,549
UNITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE
2,124,549
raoPELLEa BLADE
Thomas A. Dicks, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Application January 17, 193s, serial No. 185,415
26 Claims. (Cl. 170-159)
The present invention relates to aircraft pro
additional improvements in the production of
pellers and particularly to reinforced hollow met
reinforced hollow metal propeller blades char
al blades for such propellers.
acterized by their increased strength, simplicity
Increased speeds and enlarged power plants in of construction and accordingly, low cost.
airplane designs practiced at present and in those
By the present construction, a reinforced sheet 5
planned for the future are imposing heretofore metal propeller blade is formed from a plurality
unknown demands upon the physical character
of sheets or plates of metal which are first shaped>
istics of all of the parts of such ships and espe
into blanks of suitable contour and taper, then
cially is this true of propeller constructions. Un
pressed or otherwise bent to desired shapes and
til fairly recently, solid “propeller blades have suitably joined together to constitute the com- 10
been utilized to a Ylarge extent, requiring frc
plete blade, including the reinforcing rib, the
quent modiflcation in size and number in an
root end, the pressure face, the camber face, the
effort to cope with the rapid developments in leading edge, the trailing edge and the tip. As
airplanes and their engines. Such solid blades in applicant’s prior Patent 1,713,500, granted
of adequate strength are inherently heavy, and May 14, 1929, the joints of the present construc- 15
already the efficient limits of size and number tion are formed by welding the plates together
thereof have been exceeded in current manu
in such a way that the joints will not inter
facture.
fere with the necessary aerodynamic design nor
Hollow metal blades have also been proposed impart weakness where strength is desired.
and manufactured to some extent, but their Moreover, at no point in the construction is it 20
general adoption has been retarded by certain necessary to bend the metal elements of the
deficiencies accompanying various modes of con
present construction upon such a small radius
struction. Without regard to the excessive that there is any danger of fracture or fatigue.
strains and fractures to which they subjected
One face of the blade proposed in accordance
the metalsl used, a number of prior inventors with the present construction is made up of a 25
have employed folded or lapped edges in their plurality of longitudinally extending sheets or
constructions, resulting in invariable failure un
plates welded at their meeting edges to form a
der the tests to which they are subjected in ac
joint or joints intermediate of the face. The out
cordance with requirements of tests now ac
ermost edges of these plates extend substantially
cepted as standard. Moreover, the higher speeds to the leading and trailing edges of the blade 3o
and greater vibrational effects set up a so-called where they are welded to the sheet metal ma
bellows action in hollow blade constructions even
teria! constituting the opposite face. It is con
tually causing them to become shattered under templated that the opposite falce be formed from
load.
a unitary sheet of metal, but in some cases a
Marked improvements in hollow blades have plurality of sheets may be welded together. A 35
resulted from the use of internal reinforcing ribs reinforcing rib is rigidly secured to both faces
extending between the pressure and camber of the blade and extends from the welded joint
faces, 'although many such constructions have intermediate one of the faces to the opposed face
still retained the objectionable sharp bending at and is welded to the latter as well. ‘This rein
the blade> edges.
forcing rib may be integral with one of the plates 40
Another trend in the production of reinforced aforesaid, or may in some cases be entirely sep-blades utilizes an internal rib which is secured to arate and attached solely by welding.
one or both, faces of the blade by spaced rivets,
In accordance with the preferred construction
in some cases formed by welding. Such con
.of the present invention, one of the faces of the
structions are inadequate however to stand up blade is defined by a unitary sheet or blank of 45
under the bellows effects produced at the higher metal which is also shaped to define the root
speeds, since there is a marked tendency for the end of the blade. The opposite face in this pre
rivets to fracture and the blade walls to become ferred form is constituted by two separate metal
loosened and ultimately pull away from the edges sheets or blanks which are joined together and
of the reinforcing ribs even though the rivets to the unitary sheet by welding. One of the two 50
have been relatively closely spaced.
sheetsl constituting the second face is 'suitably
Applicant has already made substantial ad
folded or pressed to deñne the rib forming ele
vances over the prior art in his copending ap
ment extending substantially perpendicular
plication Serial No. 155,770 nled July 26, 1937, thereto. During assembly this rib is welded to
55 and in the present application sets forth certain
the internal wall of the unitary blank constitut- 55
2,124,549
2
ing the first face. -In accordance with this same
preferred construction, one of the faces of the
blade will contain no welded joints externally
thereof and the opposite face will contain three
welded joints. two of which are near the edges
and the third intermediate of the face.
The blanks from which the ribs and faces are
formed are preferably tapered from the root end
of the blade towards the tip in accordance with
applicant’s prior disclosures herein referred to.
A more detailed understanding of the present
invention and its objects will be possible by re
ferring to the accompanying drawings.
Fig. l is a plan view of the propeller blade
15 wherein the camber face is formed from a sin
gle blank and the welded joints are formed in
the pressure face;
Figs. 2 to 12 are sections taken along lines 2-2
20
to I2-I2 respectively of Fig. 1;
Figs. 13, 14 and 15 are sections corresponding
respectively to Figs. 4, 5 and 6 of a modification;
Figs. 16, 17 and 18 are sections also corre
sponding generally to Figs. 4, 5 and 6 of a fur
ther modification;
Fig. 19 is a plan view of a propeller blade
25
wherein the pressure face is formed from a uni
tary blank and the welded joints are formed in
the camber face;
Figs. 20 to 30 are sections taken along lines
30 20--20 to Sli-3B respectively of Fig. 19;
Figs. 31, 32 and 33 are sections corresponding
generally to Figs. 22, 23- and 24 of a modifica
tion; and
Figs. 34, 35 and 36 are sections likewise corre
35 sponding generally to Figs. 22, 23 and 24 of a
modification.
The hollow sheet metal propeller blade depict
ed by Fig. l of the drawings comprises a root end
40, a leading edge 42, a trailing edge M, a tip
40 46, a camber or suction face 48 as shown in the
sectional views, and a pressure or working face 50.
As will appear from the sectional views shown
in Figs. 2 to 12, the blade is provided with an
internal reinforcing rib il which extends the full
45 length of the working portion of the blade, name
ly from the rounded or otherwise conformed por
tion of the root end of the bladeto the tip there
of. In these sections the reinforcing rib is in
tegral with one of the blanks utilized in forming
50 a face of the blade and has its edge welded to
the internal wall of the other of the 'blade faces.
The blade conforming to the modification of
Figs. 1 to 12 is constructed from three blanks
or sheets. .A blank 54 is suitably pressed or
55 otherwise formed to define the camber face of
the blade, the root end thereof, and essentially,
the leading and trailing edges. Where the radii
of the leading and trailing edges of the blade
are relatively large as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, the
blank 54 is bent sufficiently to define these edges
entirely. As the radii or angularity of the edges
decrease however, the edges of the blank 5l
undergo progressively. reduced bending as will
appear from the sectional views of' Figs. 6 to 12.
65 The pressure face 50 of the blade in this em
bodiment is made up of a pair of blanks or
plates 5B and 58 whose outer edges extend to
points adjacent the trailing and leading edges
of the blade respectively and contiguous to
70 the edges of the unitary blank of the camber face.
At these outer edge portions, the plates are
uhited by means of welded joints 60 and 62 re
spectively to the contiguous edges of the unitary
blank 5l defining the camber face.
75
tegral with the blank 58 which may be termed
the leading edge blank of the pressure face. The
rib is formed by suitably pressing or folding on
a reasonably large radius to avoid fractures and
extends at substantially right angles from the
face forming portion of the blank. The rib is
secured to the internal wall of the camber face
by means of a welded joint 64 extending con
tinuously from the root end of the blade to the
tip thereof as clearly depicted by broken lines
in Fig. 1. The two plates 56 and 58 constitut
ing the pressure face are connected intermediate
of this face by a welded joint 66, which merges
into the welds 60 and 62 near the root end of
the blade and again near the tip thereofA The 15
free edges of the blank 54 forming the root
of the blade are also united by a welded joint 61.
The modification of this construction shown
in Figs. 13, 14 and 15 contemplates the rib 52
-as integral with the trailing edge plate 5B of the 20
pressure face instead of the leading edge plate
52. This modification is otherwise similar to.
the construction already described.
The modification appearing in Figs. 16, 17 and
18 employs an entirely separate element to serve 25
as the rib 52 which is joined to not only the
camber face by its welded joint S4 but likewise
to the pressure face plates 56 and 58 by the
welded joint B6 which~ unites these two plates as
well, as in the previously described construction. 30
As will be noted by observation of Figs. 2 to 12
inclusive, the metal constituting the blanks is
tapered from the root end of the blade towards
the tip thereof in order to obtain a balanced
construction of adequate strength. If desired, 35
the root end itself may be of uniform thickness
in order to possess suilìcient strength for attach,
ment to the hub of the propeller. 'I‘he elements
of this construction are first produced in sheet
form of desired thickness and taper. whereupon 40
they are bent or folded to substantially their
final shape. The rib 52 is preferably iirst welded ,
to the unitary blank at 64 while holding the re
spective parts in position by suitable collapsible
mandrels.
After this operation has been com« 45
pleted the blanks defining the faces of the blade
are mutually welded together to form the joints
6l), 62 and 66 while still supporting the parts by
collapsible mandrels. After removal of the man
drels, the welding may be completed at the tip 50
and at the root end of the blade whereupon the
assembly is ready for its finishing operations.
The modification of the invention shown in
Figs. 19 to 30 inclusive contemplates a unitary
plate 68 for the pressure face 50 of the" blade 55
and a plurality of plates defining the camber
face 48 thereof. In this instance the reinforcing
rib 52 is integral with one of the plates defining
the camber face 4B. Specifically, the rib is inte
gral wlth and substantially perpendicular to the
leading edge plate 1I) of the camber face which
is united by the weld 6B to the trailing edge plate
1_2 of the camber face. In view of the Vfact that
all of the‘welds in this modification occur in the
camber face. they have been indicated by dotted
lines in Fig. 19.
The modification in Figs. 31, 32 and 33 varies
from the form in Figs. 19 to 30 inclusive only in
the provision of the reinforcing rib 52 as inte
gral with the trailing edge plate 12 of the cam 70
ber face as distinguished from its integral rela
tionship with respect to the leading edge plate
10 of the preceding figures.
'
In Figs. 34, 35 and 36, the reinforcing rib 52
The rib 52 in this form of the invention is in- ' has been depicted as a separate element joined
2,124,549
to the camber face plates ‘lil and 'if by a com
mon welded joint 66 and to the internal wall of
the pressure face by the welded joint 6I.
The manner of assembly of the elements con
stituting the blade shown in the modiñcatlon
of Figs. 19 to 36 is analogous to the method de
scribed with reference to Figs. i to i8 inclusive.
The modifications of the invention which have
been described are by no means exhaustive of
the constructions possible in accordance with the
present invention and are therefore intended to
serve by way of illustration and not . by way
of limitation. Accordingly, this invention should
not be restricted beyond the scope of the ap
pended claims.
_
`
I claim:
i. A propeller blade comprising one face sub
stantially defined by a unitary blank, an opposed
face substantially defined by a plurality of
20 blanks, welded joints connecting said blanks and
a reinforcing rib extending from said opposed
face to said unitary blank.
2. A propeller blade comprising one face sub25
stantially defined by a unitary blank, an opposed
face substantially defined by a plurality of blanks,
welded joints connecting said blanks and a rein
forcing rib integral with a blank of said plurality
of blanks extending from said opposed face to
said unitary blank.
30
3. A propeller blade comprising one face sub
stantially defined by a unitary blank, an opposed
face substantially defined by a plurality of blanks,
welded joints connecting said blanks and a rein
forcing rib extending from said opposed face to
35 said unitary blank, said rib being welded to
blanks of both of said faces.
.
4. A propeller blade having a pressure face, a
camber face, a leading edge and a trailing edge,
a unitary blank defining one of said faces, the
40 other of said faces being deñned by a pair of
blanks extending from a portion intermediate
thereof substantially to said edges and a rein»
forcing rib extending from said intermediate por
tion to the opposite face.
45
5. A propeller blade having a pressure face, a
camber face, a leading edge and a trailing edge,
a unitary blank defining one of said faces, the
3
fined by a pair of blanks joined intermediate the
face and a reinforcing rib extending from the
intermediate portion of said pressure face to said
camber face.
9. A propeller blade comprising a camber face
defined by a unitary blank, a pressure face de
fined by a pair of’ blanks joined intermediate
JI
the face and a reinforcing rib integral with one
blank of said pair extending from the interme
diate portion of said pressure face to said camber
face.
i0. A propeller blade comprising a pressure
face defined by a unitary blank, a camber face
defined by a pair of blanks joined intermediate
the face and a reinforcing rib extending from
the intermediate portion of said camber face to
said pressure face.
1 1. A propeller blade comprising a camber face,
a pressure face, a leading edge and a trailing
edge, a unitary blank substantially defining said 20
camber face, a blank extending from said leading
edge partially defining said pressure face, a blank
extending from said trailing edge completing
said pressure face and a reinforcing rib extend
ing between said faces.
v
25
12. A propeller blade comprising a camber face,
a. pressure face, a leading edge and a trailing
edge, a unitary blank substantially defining said
camber face, a blank extending from said lead
ing_edge partially defining said pressure face, a 30
blank extending from said trailing edge com
pleting said pressure face and a reinforcing rib
integral with one of the pressure face blanks ex
tending between said faces.
13. A propeller blade comprising a camber face, 35
a pressure face, a leading edge and a trailing
edge, a unitary blank substantially defining said
camber face, a blank extending from said leading
edge partially defining said pressure face, a blank
extending from said trailing edge completing said
pressure face and a reinforcing rib integral with
the first of said pressure face blanks extending
between said faces.
i4. A propeller blade comprising a. camberl face,
a pressure face, a leading edge and a trailing 45
edge, a unitary blank substantially defining said
camber face, a blank extending from said lead
other of said faces being defined by a pair of - ing edge partially defining said pressure face, a
blanks extending from a portion intermediate
50 thereof substantially to said edges and a rein
forcing rib integral with one blank of said pair
. extending from said intermediate portion to the
opposite face.
6. A propeller blade having a pressure face, a
55 camber face, a leading edge and a trailing edge,
a unitary blank defining'A one of said faces. the
other of said faces being deiinedby a pair of
blanks extending from a portion intermediate
thereof substantially to said edges and a rein
forcing rib integral with the blank of said pair
which extends towards the leading edge, ex
tending from said intermediate portion to the
opposite face.
"I. A propeller blade having a pressure face, a
' camber face, a leading edge and a trailing edge,
a unitary blank defining one of said faces, the
other of said faces being deñned by a pair of
blanks extending from a portion intermediate
thereof substantially to said edges anda rein
70 forcing rib integral with the blank of said pair
blank extending from said trailing edge com
pleting said pressure face and a reinforcing rib
integral with the second of said pressure face
blanks extending between said faces.
15. A propeller blade comprising one face sub
stantially defined bya unitary blank, an opposed
face substantially defined by a plurality of blanks, 55
welded joints connecting said blanks and a rein
forcing rib extending from said opposed face to
said unitary blank, one of said blanks also de'
iining the root end of the blade.
16. A propeller blade comprising a camber face 60
defined by a unitary blank, a pressure face de
fined by a pair of blanks joined intermediate the
face and a reinforcing rib extending from the
intermediate portion of said pressure face to said
camber facegand from the root end to the tip 65
of the blade.
`
17. A propeller blade comprising a pressure ,
face defined by a unitary blank, a camberA face
defined by a pair of blanks joined intermediate
the face and a reinforcing rib extending from
which extends towards the trailingedge, extend- . the intermediate portion of said camber face to 70
ing fromv said intermediate portion to the oppo
said pressure face and from the root end to .the
site
face.
`
'
'
8. A propeller blade comprising a camber face
75 defined by a unitary blank, a pressure face de~
tip of the blade.
A
i8. A' propeller blade comprising pressure and
camber faces denned by s plurality er blanks, 'rs
9,124,549
4
welded joints adjacent the leading and trailing
tending irom the weld intermediate said pressure
edges of the blade, an internal reinforcing rib
extending between said faces and secured in po
sition by welding, and a welded Joint extending
continuously along an intermediate portion ot
face to said camber (ace.
20. A propeller blade comprising a camber face
substantially defined by a single sheet of metal,
a pressure face partially defined by a second
sheet of metal and completed by a third sneet
one of said faces.
of metal, welded Joints between said sheets along
the leading and trailing edges and intermedi
»
19. A propeller blade comprising a camber face
substantially defined by a single sheet of metal,
a pressure face partially deñned by a. second
10 sheet of metal and completed by a third sheet
of metal, welded joints between said sheets along
the leading and trailing edges and intermedi
ate said pressure face. and a reinforcing rib ex
tending from the weld intermediate said pres- 10
sure face and welded to said camber tace.
ate said pressure face, and a reinforcing rib ex
THOMAS A. DICKS.
DISCLAIMER
Pat-ent dated
Pittsburgh, Pa. PROPELLER BLADE.
2,124,549.-Thomas A. Dicks,
July 26, 1938. Disclaimer filed January 17, 1940, by the inventor; the
assignee, Uu‘lted Aircraft Corporation, approving and consenting.
Hereby enters this disclaimer to Claims 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6, s, 9,11, 12, 13, 15, 16,
18, 19, and 20.
[Oficial Gazette February 13, 1.940.]
9,124,549
4
welded joints adjacent the leading and trailing
tending irom the weld intermediate said pressure
edges of the blade, an internal reinforcing rib
extending between said faces and secured in po
sition by welding, and a welded Joint extending
continuously along an intermediate portion ot
face to said camber (ace.
20. A propeller blade comprising a camber face
substantially defined by a single sheet of metal,
a pressure face partially defined by a second
sheet of metal and completed by a third sneet
one of said faces.
of metal, welded Joints between said sheets along
the leading and trailing edges and intermedi
»
19. A propeller blade comprising a camber face
substantially defined by a single sheet of metal,
a pressure face partially deñned by a. second
10 sheet of metal and completed by a third sheet
of metal, welded joints between said sheets along
the leading and trailing edges and intermedi
ate said pressure face. and a reinforcing rib ex
tending from the weld intermediate said pres- 10
sure face and welded to said camber tace.
ate said pressure face, and a reinforcing rib ex
THOMAS A. DICKS.
DISCLAIMER
Pat-ent dated
Pittsburgh, Pa. PROPELLER BLADE.
2,124,549.-Thomas A. Dicks,
July 26, 1938. Disclaimer filed January 17, 1940, by the inventor; the
assignee, Uu‘lted Aircraft Corporation, approving and consenting.
Hereby enters this disclaimer to Claims 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6, s, 9,11, 12, 13, 15, 16,
18, 19, and 20.
[Oficial Gazette February 13, 1.940.]
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