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Патент USA US2124600

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July 26, 1938.
R, H_ WORRALL
'
2,124,609
ELECTRICAL‘ AMPLIFYING DEVICEE
Filed Dec. 11, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
F URTHEIP
HMPL IFICH TIUN
FURTHER
?MPLIF/C/IT/ON
INVENTOR
Robe/'1 H W0 rra {7
BY
Aha/aw
ATTORNEY
July 26, .1938“
R. H. WORRALL
2,124,600
ELECTRICAL AMPLIFYINGE DEVICEE
Filed Dec. 11, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
__
"
FURTHER
AMPL/F/cATm/v
INVENTOR
ROZJEH‘ H. Worrall _
ATTORNEY
Patented July 26, 1938
' 2,124,000
.uni'iréao STATES PATENT OFFICE
.
.
2,124,000
ntscrmcanmurrmc navrca
I Robert 11. war-mu, Washington, D. 0.
Application December 11, 1935, Serial No. 53,930
.
a
‘
~
~
15 Claims..- (01. 250-415)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
,
amended Apr-i130, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
My invention relates broadly to electrical am-L. vacuum tube, or other electrical device, in the‘
plifying devices and more particularly to methods
of and means for varying a direct current po
tential derived from a circuit including a light
5 sensitive cell so that effectively alternating po
tentials may be impressed upon input terminals
of an alternating current amplifying device.
One object of my invention is to provide a
method and means for amplifying the output
10 of a photo-electric cell circuit or other device
that furnishes as an output a direct current of
comparatively small magnitude, by using a
straight alternating current ampli?er.
Another object of my invention is the varia
tion of D. C. potentials so as to make them
effectively alternating in character.
Another object ofv my invention is to provide
a method and means for creating a controllable
alternating potential in a circuit which includes
a photo-electric cell, wherein the cell itself forms
20 no part of the oscillating circuit proper.
Another object of my invention is to provide
a means for amplifying the energy controlled
by a photo-electric cell directly through the
medium of an alternating current audio fre
quency ampli?er, instead, of' the direct current
ampli?er customarily used, to furnish a reliable,
simple, and inexpensive means for amplifying
such energy.
30
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will be apparent from the following description,
taken in connection with the accompanying
drawings, wherein the figures show several cir-i
cuit diagrams that illustrate some of the pre
ferred embodiments of my invention.
In Figs. 1 and 2. the magnitude of the im
pressed D. C. potential from a photo—electric
cell circuit is caused to vary by means of a period
ically varying capacity.
In Figs. 3, 4, and 5 an alternating E. M. F. ‘from
40 an external source is applied to vary the magni
ture of the impressed D. C. potential derived
from a light-sensitive cell circuit.
'
In Figs.‘ 6 and 7 the magnitude of the im
pressed D. C. potential from a light-sensitive
source is varied by means of iron cored coils,
connected in the circuit, and in?uenced by an
externally applied fluctuating magnetic ?eld.
A. light-sensitive cell which has radiation from
a light source impressed upon its sensitive sur
face sets up a source of direct current E. M. F.
same manner as though alternating potentials
were
impressed.
-
- \
I
In the figures, like numerals are used to desig
nate like parts throughout.
~
Referring to Fig. 1, numeral l is an external
light source capable of radiating luminous energy
when lighted; 2 is a light-sensitive cell, either
photo-electric or photo-galvanic, having an anode
element 3 and a cathode element 4; 5 is a split,
rotary, or other type of variable condenser con-'
nected across the anode and cathode of the light
sensitive cell; and 6 is an electron tube which
may be of the three or more element type. For
purposes of illustration, a. three elemen?heater
type tube is shown, having a cathode ‘i, a- heater
element 8, energized from any conventional power
source, a control grid 9 and an anode it. A
grid leak or biasing resistor ii is connected from
control grid 9 to the negative side of a biasing
battery l2, whose positive terminal is connected
to the cathode ‘i. From the junction of biasing
resistor it with the negative terminal of biasing
battery 82, one cathode branch connection leads
directly to one side of condenser E, and on to 25
anode 3 of cell 2. From the cathode 6i oi’ said
cell a connection proceeds to the opposite side of
condenser 5, on through a ?xed condenser is,
whose presence in the circuit is optional, to the
opposite side of grid biasing resistor ii, and
thence to control grid 9. The position of ?xed
condenser it need not be exactly as shown but
may be between cathode ii and condenser E, or
elsewhere as desired to produce like results. An
other cathode branch connection ieads from
cathode ‘l, to the center tap of heater trans
former secondary it, which is connected across
heater element 8, and from said center tap to
negative “B” battery terminal l5. 'Ihe anode
it is connected to an external load circuit which, as.
for purposes of illustration, is shown here as a
condenser l8, connected across the primary of
an iron cored transformer ll. From the other
side of this load circuit, the anode lead proceeds
to the positive "3” battery terminal l8. It will as 5
be understood that any suitable form of output
circuit may be used in place of the one here
shown, but, as illustrated, the secondary of trans
former i7 is connected to further stages of am 50
This E. M. F., impressed directly upon the grid
pli?cation.
of a vacuum tube, can only be ampli?ed by a
Referring to Fig. 2, the circuit is identical
with that described in Fig. 1, except that variable
condenser 30, having characteristics similar to
condenser 5 previously described, is substituted 56
D. C. amplifying circuit. By the methods dis
closed in this invention, the said E. M. F. may
55 be varied so as to actuate the input circuit of a
.
’
'
2,124,600
in place of ?xed condenser l3, which is omitted
and variable condenser 5 is eliminated.
Fig. 3 is identical with Fig. 2, except that vari
able condenser 30 is removed from the circuit,
thus placing biasing resistance Ii directly across
the anode and cathode of the light-sensitive .cell
2, and an alternating E. M. F. from an external
source i9 is impressed across all or part of bias
ing resistance I l by means of an adjustable con
10
tact 29.
'
Fig. 4 is identical with Fig. 3, except that a
cathode resistor 2! is inserted in the circuit be-.
‘ tween cathode l and all other connections to
this cathode, and the alternating E. M. F. from
external source I9 is applied across all or part
of this cathode resistor 2| by means of adjust
able contact 22.
.
Fig. 5 is identical with Fig. 3, except that an
additional resistance 23 is inserted in series be
tween the anode 3 of the light-sensitive cell and
the biasing resistance II, and the alternating
E. M. F. from external source I9 is applied
through optional ?xed condensers in each branch,
25 and 25, across all or part of this resistance 23
25 by means of adjustable contact 26.
Fig. 6 is identical with Fig. 3, except that the
externally applied AJC. from source I9 is removed
and, between the biasing resistance I! and the
grid 9, iron cored coils 21 and 28 are connected
30 in series with each other and with the circuit.
Said coils are spaced in relation to each other and
between them is inserted a rotating permanent
magnet 29,-» which may be replaced by a stationary
iron core, energized from a separate A. C. source.
Fig. 7 is identical with Fig. 6, except that the
iron cored coils 21 and 28 and the rotating or
gins to ?ow in the external circuit will be a maxi
mum. At this instant the voltage impressed
across the condenser 5 will also be a maximum.
Now, as 5 begins to assume a charge, and current
begins to ?ow in the external circuit of the cell,
the current ?owing through the cell will vary in
accordance with its own IR drop and the back
E. M. F. developed by condenser 5 and the rest
of the circuit. Condenser 5 will continue to
charge until the voltage‘ across it equals the volt in
age impressed as a result of illuminating the cell
2. Therefore, during this transitory interval, the
potential developed across 5 varies from zero to
that of the impressed voltage.
.
If, prior to illuminating the cell, the condenser
5 is steadily rotated so as to vary continuously its
capacity, the potential of the grid 9 will not be
aifected,.but if the cell be illuminated While the
capacity of 5 is thus continuously varying, the
potential across and the charge upon 5 will be
varied, and this variation will be transmitted to
and impressed upon the grid 9 of the tube 6. This
voltage impressed upon the grid will vary in syn
chronisni with the capacity variation of condens
er 5. The voltage variation thus impressed upon
the grid will cause a synchronous variation of
the current‘ ?owing in the output or plate circuit
of tube 6. If this plate current variation is at
audio frequency, it may be ampli?ed to any de
sired extent through conventional transformer
type audio frequency ampli?ers, one of which is
indicated in the ?gure for purposes of illustration.
No limitation, however, is implied as to the fre
quency range over which the grid voltage may
be varied to produce the results described above.
In Fig. 2, the functions of the circuit are es
alternating member 29, described under the lat
sentially the same as described in connection
ter ?gure, are removed from the grid circuit and
with Fig. 1. The only change here is that the
condenser 30, which is similar to 5 and performs
similarly in the circuit, is connected between the
grid 9 and the light-sensitive cell 2, instead of
similar members 3!, 32, and 98 are connected,
40 in the same mutual relation as before, in the
plate circuit, between the output or load circuit
and the positive “B” battery terminal ‘18.
Referring to Fig. 1,'the method of operation is
across the cell.
41]
'
In Fig. 3, an alternating'E. M..F. from an ex
as follows: When light from the source l is ternal source i9 is impressed upon the grid 9 in
such a manner that, with the cell 5 darkened,
caused to strike the light-sensitive cell 2, a dif
ference of potential is set up-across the anode 3 the grid potential resulting from the combina
and the cathode 4, causing a current to ?ow in re , tion of biasing potential I! and, the alternating
sistor ii, if optional condenser I3 is omitted. If E. M. F. from source l9 will swing from such a
condenser i3 is inserted, a voltage will be im
50 pressed across it.
This effect will, of course, be
greatly magni?ed if the cell 2 is properly biased
by a direct current potential from a suitable
source. This E. M. F., through the medium of
either arrangement will, in turn, be impressed
upon the grid 9 of electron tube 6. Under these
conditions, since no continuous variation is tak
ing place in this impressed grid voltage, the out
put current from tube 6 will assume and maintain
a steady value. The aforesaid potential which
60
is impressed upon the entire circuit only when the
cell 2 is illuminated, will also be impressed upon
condenser 5, which we will assume happens to
be set for a maximum capacity. This condenser
65. will then take on a charge in accordance with
neutral or negative value to such a ‘further nega
tive value that no current, or relatively little cur
rent, will flow in the output circuit of tube 6.
When the cell 2 is illuminated, however, an addi
tional D. C. potential of a steady value is im
pressed upon the grid 9. The alternating E. M. F.
from I9 will, during one-half cycle, augment, and 55
during the next half cycle, oppose this D. C. po
tential, with the result that during some part of
each complete cycle of the source I9, the poten
tial of grid 9 will swing sufficiently in a positive
direction to permit a relatively large plate cur 60
rent to ?ow in the output circuit of tube 6. Thus
the cell operated D. C. voltage will control the
average value of the total potential impressed
upon the grid 9, and the grid potential will be
varied at the frequency of the external source 65
of alternating potential IS. The over-all result
will be a pulsating componentvof plate current
in the output circuit of tube 6. This pulsating
current will ?ow only when cell 2 is illuminated,
and it will attain successive maxima at the fre
70 or, ignoring the time factor, such a charge Q will
be a function of the capacity C of condenser 5
and the potential E which is impressed as a result
of illuminating the cell 2. Since the cell 2 has
current amplifying means.
high inherent resistance, the potential of the'cell
76 at the instant of illumination before current be
The principle of operation of the circuit shown
in Fig. 4 is the same asdescribed for Fig. 3. The
quency of the source l9.
Such a current is
easily ampli?ed by any well known alternating
.
,
only difference between these two embodiments
,of the basic invention is that, in Fig. 4 the alter
.
3
ducing, a magnetic field which will interact with
the magnetic field set up by armature 28. ,The
1 nating ‘potential from external source I! is ap- - result ofthis interaction will be to cause the po
plied across an ‘additional resistor connected di
rectly in the cathode circuit of the tube 6, and
this may require the use of a higher initial grid
' bias from biasing potential "in order to ac‘comé
plish the same results as described forFlg. 3.
The circuit of Fig. 5_ illustrates another modi
10 ?cation of the'basic principle employed in Figs. 3
and 4. Here the alternating potential from ex
ternal source is is impressed across an additional
resistor between one of the electrodes of cell 2 and
biasing resistance |l,.and optional fixed conden
16 sers 24 and 25 may be inserted in the leads from
said source. otherwise the circuit is identical with
Fig. 3. When the circuit is employed in the man
vner described for Fig. 3, the grid of the tube is
biased so that no current, or relatively little cur
20 rent, will‘flow in the plate circuit thereof when
tential of grid 8 to swing sufficiently in a positive
direction during some part of the cycle of the
?uctuating magnetic field about 29, to permit a
relatively large component of plate current to
flow in~the output circuit of the vacuum tube.
This current will be pulsating in character and
will‘ipass through successive maxima at the fre 10
quency of the fluctuating magnetic field. Such
a current may easily be ampli?ed to any desired
extent by conventional alternating current am
plifying means, such as the transformer coupled E
ampli?er indicated in the figure.
16
In the‘circuitof Fig. 7, the function of the
various elements is the same as described for
Fig. 6, the only difference in the two circuits be
ing in the location of the armature and the iron
cored coils. In this’circuit, coils 3i and 32, and 20
armature 88, which have similar characteristics
biasing potential i2 and external source l9 alone
are acting. When the tube is illuminated, an -in all respects to elements 21, 28, and 29, de
additional D. C. potential is impressed ‘upon the scribed in connection with Fig. 6, are included
grid of the tube and this is successively opposed directly in the plate circuit of the vacuum tube,
25 and augmented by the alternating potential from between the connection to the transformer pri~=
i9, so that during some part of each cycle of it, mary and-the positive 13 battery terminal. In
the combined potentials acting on the grid will operation‘, the grid of the tube is biased so that
cause it to swing sufficiently in a positive direc~ no plate current, or relatively little plate current,
tion to permit a relatively large pulse of current will flow when the tube is darir. When the tube
30 to flow in the output circuit of the tube. The
is illuminated, an additional D. 0. potential is 30’
characteristics of this current are the same as applied to the grid of the tube, su?lcient to cause
described for Fig. 3.
‘b
\ The circuit shown in Fig. 5 possesses the ad»
ditional characteristic of beingable to function
a continuous, relatively large plate current to
?ow in \the output circuit of said tube. This
current will ?ow through the coils 8i and 82,
setting up a magnetic ?eld which will interact 35
relaxation circuit proper comprises the source of with the magnetic ?eld set up about armature
biasing potential i2, biasing resistance ii, and the 3d. The result of this interaction will be a
total impedance, as measured from grid to cath- - pulsating current in the plate circuit of the vacu
ode, of the vacuum tube 6 and its associated out
urn tube, which will pass through successive max
35 as a relaxation circuit.
In this incarnation, the
4,0 put circuit. The characteristics of this relaxa
tion circuit are controlled by the values assigned
to resistance ii, battery i2, or both. When the
cell 2 is dark and no alternating potential is be
ing supplied from 69, relaxation oscillations will '
occur in the circuit l2, 6 l, and 8. Should the cell‘
2 now be illuminated, the additional D. 0. po
tential impressed‘thereby will upset the condi
tions of bias ln'the grid circuit of the tube which
served to maintain the relaxation oscillations,
‘and these oscillations will cease. Thus, darken
ing and illuminating the cell 2 will control the
starting and stopping of relaxation oscillations in
the relaxation circuit described. The effect of
these relaxation oscillations in the grid circuit of
the tube will be to cause an otherwise direct plate
current of a steady value to pulsate. Such a
pulsating current may then be ampli?ed by the
usual type of transformer coupled ampli?er, as
shown.
Y00
‘
ima at the frequency of the ?uctuating magnetic
?eld set up about armature til, and which may
be ampli?ed to any desired extent by ordinary
alternating current amplifying means.
The invention described herein may be menu»
iactured arid,used by or for the Government of d5
the United States of America for governmental
purposes without the payment of any royalties
thereon or therefor.
I claim:
1. In an electrical circuit which includes a
light-sensitive source of direct current potential,
said source producing an uninterrupted direct
current due to the incidence of substantially con
stant illumination upon the light-sensitive por
tion thereof, the method of imparting alternat
ing characteristics to the output of said source
which comprises cyclically varyingthe capacitive
reactance of said circuit.
'
2. In an electrical circuit which includes a
light-sensitive source of direct current potential,
said source producing an uninterrupted direct
current due to the incidence of substantially con
stant illumination upon the light-sensitive por
tion thereof, the method of amplifying the out
The relaxation oscillations described may be
caused to start instead of stop when the cell 2 is
,-illuminated, by merely changing the bias on the
photocell, or on the tube. or on both, which
methods are well known to the art.
65
The embodiment of the invention illustrated by put of said source which comprises, imparting al
the circuit of Fig. 6 operates as follows: When ternating characteristics thereto by cyclically 65
the cell 2 is dark and the iron cored coils 2i and varying the capacitive'reactance of said circuit,
28 are being acted upon by a fluctuating magnetic and amplifying the resultant energy by alter
?eld set up about the armature 29,'the grid 9 of nating current amplifying means.
the vacuum tube is so biased by means of i2 that
3.1m an electrical circuit which includes a 70/
no current, or relatively little current, will flow light-sensitive source of direct current potential,
in the plate circuit of the tube. If the cell 2 is said source producing an uninterrupted direct
now illuminated, an additional D.-C. potential will current due to the incidence of substantially con
be impressed on the grid 9. This will cause a stant illumination upon the light-sensitive por
75 current to flow through the coils 21 and 28, in
tion thereof, the method of amplifying the output 75
4
2,124,600
of said source which comprises, imparting alter
nating characteristics thereto by cyclically vary
ing the capacitive reactance of said circuit, ap
plying the resultant energy to the grid of a ther
8. In an electrical circuit which includes a light
sensitive source of direct current potential, said
source producing an' uninterrupted direct current
due to the incidence of substantially constant
mionic tube to cause. a component of current to
illumination upon the light sensitive portion
thereof, in combination, a continuously varying
flow in the plate circuit of said tube during part
of each cycle of said reactance variation as are , capacity incircuit with'said source, a thermionic
Jsult of the application of said energy to’said ‘ tube with appropriate power supply, grid leak,
grid, and amplifying by alternating current
10 means the pulsating current thus produced in
said plate circuit.
'- r
4. In ‘an electrical circuit which includes a
light-sensitive source of direct current potential,
said source producing an uninterrupted direct
15 current due- to the incidence of substantially con=
stant illumination upon the light-sensitive por
tion thereof, the method of amplifying the out
put of said source which comprises, applying said"
output to the grid of a thermionic tube to control
20 the potential of said grid in accordance with said
output and an ‘alternating potentialof aysteady
average value applied to said grid from a,source
external to said circuit, causingv a component of
current to ?ow in the plate circuit of said tube
25 during part of each cycle of said alternating
and biasing potential, so connected that the out-,
put of said source, after being operated upon by 10
said capacity, will be impressed upon the grid
of said tube to cause variations in the potential
of said grid, and an alternating current amplify
»ing device in the‘ output circuit of said tube,
whereby alternating characteristics are imparted 15
to the direct current output from said source and
said output may be ampli?ed by said alternating
current amplifying device.
’
9. In an electrical circuit which includes a .
light-sensitive source of uninterrupted direct 20
current potential, said source producing said po
tential only when the light ‘sensitive portion
thereof is continuously illuminated, in combina
tion, a thermionic tube with appropriate power
supply, grid leak, and biasing potential, an alter 25
potential as a result of the application of said out- _ nating potential from an external source ap
80
put to said grid, and amplifying by alternating
current means the pulsating current ‘thus pro-_
duced in said plate circuit.
plied directly across a resistance in the input
circuit of said tube so as to vary the potential of
5. In ‘an electrical circuit which includes‘ a
light-sensitive source of direct current potential,
said source producing an uninterrupted direct
current due to the’ incidence of substantially con
stant illumination upon the light-sensitive por
no current, or relatively little current, will ?ow 30
in the plate circuit of said tube while said alter
35 tion thereof, the method of imparting alternating
characteristics to the output of said source which
comprises, cyclically varying the inductive react
ance ofsaid'circuit by electromagnetic interac
tion between a magnetic ?eld set up by said out
put within said circuit and a ?uctuating magnetic
?eld set up outside said circuit. .
1
6. In an electrical circuit which includes a
light-sensitive source of direct current potential,
the grid thereof, said grid being so biased that
nating potential alone is acting upon said grid,
means for applying the output of said source to
raise the potential of said grid to the point where
a component of current will ?ow in- the plate
circuit of said tube' during part of each cycle of
said alternating potential as a result of the appli
cation of said output to said grid, and an alter
nating current amplifying device in the output
circuit of said tube, whereby the direct current
from said source maybe ampli?ed by said alter;
40
‘nating current amplifying device.
10. In an electrical circuit which includes a
said source producing an uninterrupted direct light-sensitive source of uninterrupted direct
45 current due to the incidence of substantially con current potential, said source prodiicing said po
stant illumination upon the light-sensitive por
tential only when the light-sensitive portion
tion thereof, the method of amplifying the output
of said sourée which comprises, imparting alter
nating characteristics thereto by cyclically vary
60 ing the inductive reactance of said circuit by elec
tromagnetic interaction between a magnetic ?eld
set up by said output within said circuit and a
‘?uctuating magnetic ?eld set up outside said
circuit, and amplifying the resultant energy by
55 alternating current amplifying means.
thereof is continuously illuminated, in combina
tion, a thermionic tube with'appropriate power
supply, grid leak, and biasing potentiaL'm'eans
vwithin said circuit for setting up a magnetic ?eld P
with power from said source, means for applying.
a fluctuating magnetic ?eld from an external
source to interact with ?rst said magnetic ?eld,
means for impressing the energy from said source
after being operated upon by‘ said ?uctuating
'7. In an electrical circuit which includes a ~ magnetic ?eld upon‘ the grid of said tube to
light-sensitive source of direct current potential, cause variations in the potential of said grid
said source producing an uninterrupted direct with corresponding variations in the current ?ow
current due to the incidence of substantially con
in the output circuit of said tube, and an alter
60 stant illumination upon the light-sensitive por
tion thereof, the method of amplifying the out
put of said source which comprises, imparting
alternating characteristics thereto by cyclically
varying the inductive reactance of said circuit by
65 electromagnetic interaction between a magnetic
?eld set up by said output within said circuit and
a ?uctuating magnetic ?eld set up outside said
circuit, applying the resultant energy to the grid
of athermionic tube to cause a component of
nating current amplifying device in said output 60
circuit, whereby the direct current output from
said source may be ampli?ed by said alternating
‘current amplifying device.
.
'
11. In an electrical circuit which includes a
light-sensitive ‘source of uninterrupted direct
current potential, said source producing said po
tential only when the light-sensitive portion
thereof is continuously illuminated, in combina
tion, a thermionic tube with appropriate power
supply, grid leak, and biasing. potential, means 70
70 current to ?ow in the plate circuit of said tube
, during part of each cycle of said fluctuating mag
netic ?eld as a result of the application of said
energy to said grid, and amplifying by alternat
within said circuit for setting up a magnetic ?eld
with power controlled by a current ?ow from
said source, means for applying a ?uctuating
ing current means‘the pulsating current thus
75 produced in said plate circuit.
act with ?rst said magnetic ?eld to impart alter
magnetic ?eld from an external source to inter
75
2,124,000
nating characteristics to the energy ?owing
within said circuit, and an alternating current
amplifying device in the output circuit of said
tube, whereby the direct current output from
5 ‘said source may be ampli?ed by said alternating
current amplifying device.
12. In a circuit energized from a light-con
trolled direct current source of relatively low po
tential, having an anode and a cathode branch,
in combination, an electron tube having anode,
cathode, and grid elements with conventional
power supply, a source 01 grid biasing potential,
a grid leak, an output circuit which includes the
plate of said tube, and a continuously varying
15 capacity in the input circuit of said electron tube
_ior the purpose of cyclically varying the poten
tial impressed upon the grid thereof, whereby
the output of said tube is given a character suit
able i’or further ampli?cation by alternating
20 current means.
13. In a circuit energized from a light-con
trolled direct current source oi’ relatively low
potential, having an anode and a cathode branch,
in combination, an electron tube having anode,
cathode, and grid elements with conventional
power supply, a source of grid biasing potential,
a grid leak, an output circuit which includes the
plate of said tube, and an electro-magnetic as
sembly, consisting of inductive elements within
30 the ?eld of a magnetic element of ?uctuating
polarity, in circuit with the enumerated combi
nation for cyclically varying the output of said
tube so as to give it a character suitable for
further ampli?cation by alternating current
means.
a
14. In a light-sensitive relaxation oscillator
‘circuit, a thermionic tube having anode, cathode,
and grid elements with appropriate power sup
ply, a source or biasing potential, resistance ele
40 ments and capacity in the input circuit of said
tube, said capacity being supplied in whole or in
part by the inter-electrode capacities of said
tube, an output circuit connected to the anode oi.’
5
said tube, the circuit constants of the aforesaid
combination being so assigned that a change in
the bias on said grid may cause relaxation oscil
latlons to commence and continue to ?ow in
the input circuit of said tube, or, once ?owing,
to stop, depending upon the initial grid bias, and
a‘ light-sensitive source connected to impress a
controlling direct current potential upon the grid
of said tube when the light-sensitive element
thereof is illuminated, whereby current variations 10
in said output circuit will occur while relaxation
oscillations are>_?owing in the input circuit of
said tube, and said variations may be caused to
start or stop by illuminating or darkening the
light-sensitive element 01' said source.
15
15. In a light-sensitive relaxation oscillator
circuit, a thermionic tube having anode, cathode,
and grid elements with appropriate power sup—
ply, a source of biasing potential, resistance ele— -
ments andcapacity in the input circuit of said 20
tube, said capacity being supplied in whole or in
part by the inter-electrode capacities of said
tube, an output circuit connected to the anode
oi’ said tube, the circuit constants‘oi the afore
said combination being so assigned that a change 25
in the bias on said grid may cause relaxation
oscillations to commence and continue to ?ow
in the input circuit or said tube, or once ?owing,
to stop, depending upon the initial grid bias‘, a.
light-sensitive source connected to impress a 80
controlling direct current potential upon the grid
01' said tube when the light-sensitive element
thereof is illuminated, and alternating current
amplifying means in said output circuit, whereby
current variations in said output circuit will oc 35
cur while relaxation oscillations are ?owing in
the input circuit of said tube, and said variations
may be ampli?ed by said amplifying means, or
may be caused to start or stop by illuminating
or darkening the light-sensitive element of said
source.
-
ROBERT H. WORRALL.
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