Патент USA US2124626код для вставки
July 26, 1938. 2,124,626 B. MISHELEVICH APPARATUS FOR THE CONTROL OF HIGHWAY CROSSING SIGNALS Filed July 29, 1936 ms Anomzy Patented July 26, 1938 2,124,626 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I 2,124,628 . APPARATUS FOR THE CONTROL OF HIGH WAY CROSSING SIGNALS Benjamin Mlsheleviohpl'ittsburgh, Pa., asslgnor to The Union Switch in Signal Company, Swissvale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application July 29, 1936, Serial No. 93,244 2 Claims. My invention relates to apparatus for the control of highway crossing signals, and particu larly to apparatus for controlling the signal lights of highway crossing signals of the flash ing light type. One object of my invention is the provision, in apparatus of the type described, of a relay for controlling the light circuits in which the only moving element is a conducting liquid, such for example, as mercury. In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia grammatic view illustrating one form of appa ratus embodying my invention: Fig. 2 is a view showing a modi?ed form of relay which may be 15 used in place of the relay FR shown. in Fig. 1. Fig. '3 is a view showing another form of relay which may' be used in place of the relay FR. shown in Fig. 1. Similar reference characters refer to similar 20 parts in all three views. Referring to the drawing, the reference char acters I and il designate the track rails of a 26 becomes deenergized, as when a train moving from left to right traverses sections A-B and 3-0, back contact 5' will become closed but back contact 5” will remain open, and that, if magnet 41’ becomes deenergized before magnet 8-, as when a train moves from right to left over sections B—C and A-B, back contact 5” will becomes closed but back contact 5‘ will remain open. 10 Associated with the signal S and relay L is a relay device FR. embodying my present inven tion, which relay device I will now describe. As here shown, the device FR comprises a container 8 of non-conducting material, such as glass, pro 15 vided with two chambers 6‘ and 6'1 connected to gether ‘at their lower ends by a connecting por tion 6°. The connecting portion 6° and the lower portions of the chambers Bland 6b contain a con ducting liquid 1, preferably mercury, which is v20 free .to ?ow from one chamber to the other through the connecting portion, while the upper stretch of railway track over which tra?lc nor portion of each chamber is filled with an inert mally moves in both directions, and which is in tersected by a highway H. Located adjacent the gas,'such for example, as hydrogen; Two 'con tact members 9 and iii are disposed in the cham— 25 her 6* in such manner that when the conducting liquid 1 is at its normal level in this chamber, as shown in ‘the drawing, these contact members will both project downwardly into the conducting liquid, and two other contact members II and 30. i2 are disposed in the chamber 6” in such man ner that when the conducting liquid is at its nor mal level in this chamber, these latter contact members, will be disposed above the level of the liquid, while a ?fth contact member 8 is dis 35 intersection of the railway-and the highway is a highway‘crossing signal S, the function of whichis to give a warning indication when a train is approaching the highway in either direc 30 tion. The signal 8 may be of any suitable type of ?ashing light signal, and, as here shown, com prises two electric lamps U1 and U' which are adapted to be alternately lighted when a warning is to‘be given. 35 (Cl. 200—122) magnet 4" becomes deenergized after magnet 4' , The track rails i and i' are divided, by means of. insulated Joints 2, to form'two track sections posed within the connecting portion 8° in such A—B;and B—C, the Junction of which is prefer manner that this latter contact member is con ably located at or near the highway H. Con nected; across the rails of each section at'the 40 end farthest away from the highway is a suitable source of current, here shown as a battery I, and connected across the rails of section AFB at the end nearest-the highway is one magnet 4 of an interlocking relay ‘L, the other magnet 4'' 45 of, which is connected across the rails of section B--C at the end nearest the highway. The in terlocking relay L may be of any of the ‘well stantly immersed. in the liquid. The chambers I‘ and 8° alsocontainheating elements‘ it and I5, respectively, which are connectedwith the 40 contact members l0 and II, respectively, and which serve,lwhen current is supplied to ,these elements, to heat the gas .in the associated chamber. - . . ‘ . . The operation of the relay FR is as follows: When the .heating elements I! and H are both deenergized, and the gas in the two chambers known types, such for example, as the relay illus I‘ and U“ is at the same temperaturaas will trated in Letters Patentof the United States No. normally be the case, the gas in both chambers 50 799,452, granted to -W. W; Coleman, on September will havethe same pressure, and the liquid ‘I so 12, 1905, and, as here-shown is provided with a will then have the same level in both chambers, back:contact 1 controlled by magnet II, and a as shown in the drawing. Under these condi back I“ controlled bylmagnet 4'. The contacts tions, the conducting liquid 1 will connect the I. and I" are interconnected by interlocking ap as paratus .(not shown) in such manner that 1! two contact members a and ill with thelcontact member}, but the two contact members Ii and 66 2 2,124,826 [2 will be disconnected from the contact mem her 8. When it is desired to operate the relay, the heating element It is connected in a control circuit which is completed through the two con tact members it and 8 and the conducting liquid, and the heating element I4 is connectedin a similar control circuit which is completed through two contact members l2 and 8 and the conducting liquid. By virtue of the control cir cuit for the heating element l8, current will flow through this heating element, and the heat which is generated in this heating element will expand winding of the usual electromagnetic relay, the gas in the chamber 6* and will thus cause contact member 8 to the other terminal of bat the level of the liquid in chamber 6. to become lowered, and the level of the liquid in chamber in a similar control circuit which passes from one 6b to rise. The gas will continue to expand un til the level of the liquid in chamber 8* moves downwardly to the point 'where the contact formed by the two contact members iii and 8 and the conducting liquid becomes broken, at which time the heating element I! will become deenergized. The parts are so proportioned that when the liquid in the chamber 6‘ is at the level at which the contact formed by the contact mem 26 bers l0 and 8 and the conducting liquid 1 be while the contacts formed by the contact mem" bers 8 and 8 and the liquid, and the contact members 8 and ii and the liquid, correspond to the control contacts of the usual electromagnetic relay. The heating element I! of relay FR is in cluded in a control circuit which passes from one terminal of a suitable source of current, here shown as a battery B, through the contacts 5‘ and 5'’ of relay L connected in multiple, heating ' element l8, contact l0, conducting liquid 1, and tery B, while the heating element It is included terminal of battery 13' through the contacts 5“ and 5b of relay L connected in multiple, heat is ing element“, contact member l2, conducting liquid 1, and contact member 8 to the other terminal of battery B. 20 The lamp U1 of signal S is provided with an energizing circuit which passes from battery B through the contacts 8- and 8b of relay L in multiple, the filament of lamp U‘, contact mem ber 8, conducting liquid 1, and contact member 25 8 back to battery B. The lamp U" of signal S is provided with a similar energizing circuit ing liquid, the contact formed by the contact which passes from battery B through the con members 8 and I2 and the conducting'liquid, tacts 5' and 8b of relay L in multiple, the fila 30 and the contact formed by the contact mem _ ment of lamp I)‘, contact member ll, conduct 30 bers 8 and II and the conducting liquid will ing liquid ‘I, and contact member 8 back to bat all be open, but that a slight additional rise in tery B. The operation of the apparatus as a whole is the level of the liquid in the chamber 8'’ will as follows: When contacts 5- and 8b of relay L cause the contact formed by the contact mem bers 8 and i2 and the conducting liquid 1, the are both open, as is the case when sections A-B 35 contact formed by the contact membersl and and B_-—C are both unoccupied, the circuits for comes broken, the contact formed by the contact members 8 and 8 and the conduct- ii and the conducting liquid to both become closed. It will be apparent that when the heat ing element II becomes deenerg‘lzed, it will not ~10 immediately cool, and it follows, therefore, that after the circuit for the heating element il be comes broken, the level of the liquid in chamber 6" will continue to rise a sufficient amount to complete the contacts formed by the members 8 and i2 and the liquid and the members 8 and Ii and the liquid. As soon as the contact formed by the members 8 an I! and the liquid becomes closed, the heating element M will become ener gized and will cause'the gas in the chamber 8b 50 to start to expand. The gas in the chamber 8‘ will be simultaneously cooling, and. as a re sult after a time interval sumcient liquid will flow from chamber 8h into chamber 8' to reestablish the contacts formed by the members 8 and 8 and the liquid and the members 8 and I8 and the liquid, and to break the contacts formed by the members 8 and I2 and the liquid and the members 8 and II and the liquid. As soon as the contact formed by the contact 60 members 8 and I2 and the liquid becomes broken,‘ the heating element It will start to cool, and as soon. as the contacts formed by the con tact members 8 and I! and the liquid become made, the element II will again start to heat, thus causing the cycle to repeat itself. It will be apparent, therefore, that the relay‘ may be made to alternately make and break the con tacts formed by the members 8 and 8 and the liquid and the members 8 and II and the liquid at a measured time interval which depends up on the .proportioning of the parts, and that by varying the proportioning of the parts this time interval may be adjusted to different values. It will also be apparent that the heating ele ments l8 and H correspond to the operating the heating elements I! and ll of relay FR, and the circuits for the lamps U1 and U2 will all be open at these contacts, and the heating ele ments will, therefore, be deenergized and the 40 lamps will be extinguished. When, however, either one of these contacts becomes closed, the circuit for heating element i3 will become closed, and will thus start the relay FR operating in a manner which will be readily understood from 45 an inspection of the drawing and from the fore going description, thereby causing the contact formed by the contact members 8 ‘and 8 and the conducting liquid, and the contact formed by the contact members 8 and II and the conducting 60 liquid, to become alternately opened and closed, and, hence, the lights I]1 and U‘ to alternately ?ash as long as either contact 8' or 8" remains closed. Assuming, for example, that the opera tion of the apparatus was started by a train en tering section A-B from the left and causing contact 8‘ to become closed, it is obvious that the operation of the apparatus will stop as soon as the rear end of the train passes point B and permits contact 8- to again open. Likewise, if 00 the operation of the apparatus had been started by a train entering-section 3-0 from the right and causing contact 8" to become closed, the operation of the apparatus under these condi tions will be terminated as soon as the rear end 05 of the train passes point B. Referring now, to Fig. 2, l have here shown a modified form of relay FR! which-may be used in place of the relay FR shown in Fig. l. The relay FR‘ differs from the relay FR in that the shapes‘ of the chambers 8‘ and I" have been changed to form two wells 8‘ and 8°. respectively, both of which wells are constantly filled with conducting liquid. The well 8'1 is disposed at a slightly lower level than the well 8' so that when 2,124,990 the gas pressure is the same in the two chambers I‘ and 8b, the conducting ?uid in the connecting portion 6° will make contact with that in the well 8“ but not with that in the well C‘. whereas when the gas pressure is higher in the chamber 6- than in the well 8", the conducting liquid in the connecting portion will then make contact with that in the well 8°, but not with that in the well 6“. Furthermore, the contact members l and to are so disposed that these members con stantly make contact with the ?uid in the well 6d, and the contact members II and I! are so disposed that these contact members constantly 16 make contact with the ?uid in the well 0'. The operation oi the relay FR1 is similar in all respects to that oi the relay FR with the ex ception that the making and breaking of the circuits in which the various contacts are in 3 M will cause the liquid, in the two connecting portions to return to the levels shown. The operation 01 the relay ll'l'ta will be readily under stood irom the foregoing description and from an inspection‘ of the drawing without- further description. When the relay shown in Fig. 8 is used in place of the relay FR shown in Fig. l, the relay will be connected with the remainder of the apparatus in the same manner that the relay FR is con 10' nected with the apparatus with the exception that the wire which leads from battery B to the contact member 8 in Fig. 1 will be connected with both contact members 6' and 8b of the relay in the manner indicated in Fig. 3. The opera 16 tion oi’ the apparatus as a whole when provided with the relay FRa is similar in all respects to that of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1. cluded is e?ected by the ?uid in the connecting Although I have herein shown and described 20 portion moving into or out of contact with that only three forms of apparatus embodying my in 20 in the wells rather than through the ?uid making . vention, it is understood that various changes and breaking contact directly with the contact and modi?cations may be made therein within members 8 and I0 and the contact members ll the scope of the appended claims without depart ' and i2, respectively. This is important since the ' ing from the spirit and scope of my invention. contact openings in this type or relay will usually Having thus described my invention, what I 25 be relatively small. claim is: The operation oi the apparatus as a whole so when the relay FBI is used in place of the relay FR is identical with that previously described, and will be understood from the foregoing de scription without further detailed description. vReferring now to Fig. 3, I have here shown still another form of relay which may be used in place of the relay FR shown in Fig. 1. This relay, which relay is designated as a whole by the refer ence character FR", is similar to the relay FR with the exception that the lower ends of the chem bers 6° and 6*’, instead of being connected by a straight connecting portion, are connected by two 40 U-shapcd connecting portions 8‘ and 6', one leg' of each of which communicates at its upper end with a. third chamber i5h in such manner that the two legs at the point where they are joined form a sharp ridge. The two U-shaped portions are 46 each partly ?lled with a conducting liquid 1, and disposed in the lower ends of these portions are two contact members 8* and 8b which are con 1. A relay comprising a container of non-con ducting material provided with two main cham bers connected together at their lower ends by two U-shaped connecting portions one leg of each 30 of which communicates with an auxiliary cham her. a conducting liquid in each connecting por tion, an inert gas in each chamber, a. contact member in each main chamber, the parts being so proportioned that when the temperature of the gas in both main chambers is the same the contact member in the one main chamber will make contact with the conducting liquid in the _ associated U-shaped connecting portion and the contact member in the other main chamber will be out of contact with the conducting liquid in the associated U-shaped connecting portion but that ii’ the temperature of the gas in the one main chamber is increased to the point where the conducting liquid in the associated U-shaped 45 connecting portion breaks contact with the asso ciated contact member su?lcient ?uid will ?ow into the other U-shaped connecting portion to cause the ?uid in this latter connecting portion to make contact with the contact member in the 60 other main chamber, a heating element in each stantly immersed in the conducting liquid con tamed in the associated U-shaped portion. The 50 auxiliary chamber 6'1 is filled with an inert gas, and the parts are so proportioned that when the pressures of the gases in the two chambers 8‘ _main chamber for controlling the temperature and 6b are equal, as will normally be the case of the gas in such chamber connected at one end when the heating elements i3 and H are both with the associated contact member, and other 65 deenergiz'd, the liquid in the connecting portion contact members constantly immersed in the c5. 8‘ will connect the contact members 8 and ill with liquid in the U-shaped connecting portions. the contact member 8', while the liquid in the 2. A relay comprising a container of non-con connecting portion 6' will be out of engagement ducting material provided with two main cham with the contact members ii and I2, so that the bers connected together at their lower _ends by contact members i l and II will be disconnected two U-shaped connecting portions one leg of each 60 from the contact 81’. The parts are further so of which communicates with an auxiliary cham proportioned that energization oi the heating ele her, a conducting liquid in each connecting por ment l3 will cause the gas in the chamber 6‘ to expand a su?icient amount to lower the level of 65 the liquid in the left-hand leg of the connecting‘ portion 6‘ to the point where the liquid breaks contact with the contact members 5 and I0, and that the lowering of the liquid to this point will cause suf’ilcicnt ?uid to ?ow out of the connect ing portion 6‘ and into the connecting portion 6' to raise the level of the liquid in this latter con necting portion to the point where it connects the contact members II and I! with the contact member 8”. The parts are still further so propor 75 tioned that energization of the heating element tion, an inert gas in each chamber, a contact member in each main chamber, the parts being so proportioned that when the temperature of 65 the gas in both main chambers is the same the contact member in the one main chamber will make contact with the conducting liquid in the associated _U-shaped connecting portion and the contact member in the other main chamber will 70 be out of contact with the conducting liquid in the ‘associated U-shaped connecting portion but that ii the temperature of the gas in the one main chamber is increased to the point where the con ducting liquld in the associated U-shaped con 75 4 ' . ' I 2,124,026 necting portion hreeh contectmith the neo cictcd- contact member eu?cient iluid will iiow into the other U-chcped connecting portion to with the mocicted contact member, other con cause the nuidinthislotterconnectinsportion to make contact with the contact member in the other contact members adapted to- make and break contact with the liquid in the two U-ehaped portions according to the level of the ?uid in main chamber for controlling the ternpenture of the m in men chamber connected at one end these portions. othermoinchcmbencheotingelementinecch tact members constantly immeraed in the liquid in the U-lhaped connecting portions, and still ,‘ BENJAMIN MISHELEVICH.