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Патент USA US2124626

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July 26, 1938.
2,124,626
B. MISHELEVICH
APPARATUS FOR THE CONTROL OF HIGHWAY CROSSING SIGNALS
Filed July 29, 1936
ms
Anomzy
Patented July 26, 1938
2,124,626
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
I
2,124,628
.
APPARATUS FOR THE CONTROL OF HIGH
WAY CROSSING SIGNALS
Benjamin Mlsheleviohpl'ittsburgh, Pa., asslgnor
to The Union Switch in Signal Company,
Swissvale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application July 29, 1936, Serial No. 93,244
2 Claims.
My invention relates to apparatus for the
control of highway crossing signals, and particu
larly to apparatus for controlling the signal
lights of highway crossing signals of the flash
ing light type.
One object of my invention is the provision, in
apparatus of the type described, of a relay for
controlling the light circuits in which the only
moving element is a conducting liquid, such for
example, as mercury.
In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia
grammatic view illustrating one form of appa
ratus embodying my invention: Fig. 2 is a view
showing a modi?ed form of relay which may be
15 used in place of the relay FR shown. in Fig. 1.
Fig. '3 is a view showing another form of relay
which may' be used in place of the relay FR.
shown in Fig. 1.
Similar reference characters refer to similar
20 parts in all three views.
Referring to the drawing, the reference char
acters I and il designate the track rails of a
26
becomes deenergized, as when a train moving
from left to right traverses sections A-B and
3-0, back contact 5' will become closed but
back contact 5” will remain open, and that, if
magnet 41’ becomes deenergized before magnet
8-, as when a train moves from right to left
over sections B—C and A-B, back contact 5” will
becomes closed but back contact 5‘ will remain
open.
10
Associated with the signal S and relay L is
a relay device FR. embodying my present inven
tion, which relay device I will now describe. As
here shown, the device FR comprises a container
8 of non-conducting material, such as glass, pro 15
vided with two chambers 6‘ and 6'1 connected to
gether ‘at their lower ends by a connecting por
tion 6°. The connecting portion 6° and the lower
portions of the chambers Bland 6b contain a con
ducting liquid 1, preferably mercury, which is v20
free .to ?ow from one chamber to the other
through the connecting portion, while the upper
stretch of railway track over which tra?lc nor
portion of each chamber is filled with an inert
mally moves in both directions, and which is in
tersected by a highway H. Located adjacent the
gas,'such for example, as hydrogen; Two 'con
tact members 9 and iii are disposed in the cham— 25
her 6* in such manner that when the conducting
liquid 1 is at its normal level in this chamber,
as shown in ‘the drawing, these contact members
will both project downwardly into the conducting
liquid, and two other contact members II and 30.
i2 are disposed in the chamber 6” in such man
ner that when the conducting liquid is at its nor
mal level in this chamber, these latter contact
members, will be disposed above the level of the
liquid, while a ?fth contact member 8 is dis 35
intersection of the railway-and the highway is
a highway‘crossing signal S, the function of
whichis to give a warning indication when a
train is approaching the highway in either direc
30 tion. The signal 8 may be of any suitable type
of ?ashing light signal, and, as here shown, com
prises two electric lamps U1 and U' which are
adapted to be alternately lighted when a warning
is to‘be given.
35
(Cl. 200—122)
magnet 4" becomes deenergized after magnet 4'
,
The track rails i and i' are divided, by means
of. insulated Joints 2, to form'two track sections
posed within the connecting portion 8° in such
A—B;and B—C, the Junction of which is prefer
manner that this latter contact member is con
ably located at or near the highway H. Con
nected; across the rails of each section at'the
40 end farthest away from the highway is a suitable
source of current, here shown as a battery I, and
connected across the rails of section AFB at
the end nearest-the highway is one magnet 4
of an interlocking relay ‘L, the other magnet 4''
45 of, which is connected across the rails of section
B--C at the end nearest the highway. The in
terlocking relay L may be of any of the ‘well
stantly immersed. in the liquid. The chambers
I‘ and 8° alsocontainheating elements‘ it and
I5, respectively, which are connectedwith the 40
contact members l0 and II, respectively, and
which serve,lwhen current is supplied to ,these
elements, to heat the gas .in the associated
chamber.
-
.
.
‘
.
.
The operation of the relay FR is as follows:
When the .heating elements I! and H are both
deenergized, and the gas in the two chambers
known types, such for example, as the relay illus
I‘ and U“ is at the same temperaturaas will
trated in Letters Patentof the United States No. normally be the case, the gas in both chambers
50 799,452, granted to -W. W; Coleman, on September will havethe same pressure, and the liquid ‘I so
12, 1905, and, as here-shown is provided with a will then have the same level in both chambers,
back:contact 1 controlled by magnet II, and a as shown in the drawing. Under these condi
back I“ controlled bylmagnet 4'. The contacts tions, the conducting liquid 1 will connect the
I. and I" are interconnected by interlocking ap
as paratus .(not shown) in such manner that 1!
two contact members a and ill with thelcontact
member}, but the two contact members Ii and 66
2
2,124,826
[2 will be disconnected from the contact mem
her 8. When it is desired to operate the relay,
the heating element It is connected in a control
circuit which is completed through the two con
tact members it and 8 and the conducting liquid,
and the heating element I4 is connectedin a
similar control circuit which is completed
through two contact members l2 and 8 and the
conducting liquid. By virtue of the control cir
cuit for the heating element l8, current will flow
through this heating element, and the heat which
is generated in this heating element will expand
winding of the usual electromagnetic relay,
the gas in the chamber 6* and will thus cause
contact member 8 to the other terminal of bat
the level of the liquid in chamber 6. to become
lowered, and the level of the liquid in chamber
in a similar control circuit which passes from one
6b to rise. The gas will continue to expand un
til the level of the liquid in chamber 8* moves
downwardly to the point 'where the contact
formed by the two contact members iii and 8
and the conducting liquid becomes broken, at
which time the heating element I! will become
deenergized. The parts are so proportioned that
when the liquid in the chamber 6‘ is at the level
at which the contact formed by the contact mem
26
bers l0 and 8 and the conducting liquid 1 be
while the contacts formed by the contact mem"
bers 8 and 8 and the liquid, and the contact
members 8 and ii and the liquid, correspond to
the control contacts of the usual electromagnetic
relay.
The heating element I! of relay FR is in
cluded in a control circuit which passes from
one terminal of a suitable source of current, here
shown as a battery B, through the contacts 5‘
and 5'’ of relay L connected in multiple, heating '
element l8, contact l0, conducting liquid 1, and
tery B, while the heating element It is included
terminal of battery 13' through the contacts 5“
and 5b of relay L connected in multiple, heat
is
ing element“, contact member l2, conducting
liquid 1, and contact member 8 to the other
terminal of battery B.
20
The lamp U1 of signal S is provided with an
energizing circuit which passes from battery B
through the contacts 8- and 8b of relay L in
multiple, the filament of lamp U‘, contact mem
ber 8, conducting liquid 1, and contact member 25
8 back to battery B. The lamp U" of signal S
is provided with a similar energizing circuit
ing liquid, the contact formed by the contact which passes from battery B through the con
members 8 and I2 and the conducting'liquid, tacts 5' and 8b of relay L in multiple, the fila
30 and the contact formed by the contact mem _ ment of lamp I)‘, contact member ll, conduct 30
bers 8 and II and the conducting liquid will ing liquid ‘I, and contact member 8 back to bat
all be open, but that a slight additional rise in tery B.
The operation of the apparatus as a whole is
the level of the liquid in the chamber 8'’ will
as follows: When contacts 5- and 8b of relay L
cause the contact formed by the contact mem
bers 8 and i2 and the conducting liquid 1, the are both open, as is the case when sections A-B 35
contact formed by the contact membersl and and B_-—C are both unoccupied, the circuits for
comes broken, the contact formed by the
contact members 8 and 8 and the conduct-
ii and the conducting liquid to both become
closed. It will be apparent that when the heat
ing element II becomes deenerg‘lzed, it will not
~10
immediately cool, and it follows, therefore, that
after the circuit for the heating element il be
comes broken, the level of the liquid in chamber
6" will continue to rise a sufficient amount to
complete the contacts formed by the members
8 and i2 and the liquid and the members 8 and
Ii and the liquid. As soon as the contact formed
by the members 8 an I! and the liquid becomes
closed, the heating element M will become ener
gized and will cause'the gas in the chamber 8b
50 to start to expand. The gas in the chamber
8‘ will be simultaneously cooling, and. as a re
sult after a time interval sumcient liquid will
flow from chamber 8h into chamber 8' to
reestablish the contacts formed by the members
8 and 8 and the liquid and the members 8 and
I8 and the liquid, and to break the contacts
formed by the members 8 and I2 and the liquid
and the members 8 and II and the liquid. As
soon as the contact formed by the contact
60
members 8 and I2 and the liquid becomes broken,‘
the heating element It will start to cool, and
as soon. as the contacts formed by the con
tact members 8 and I! and the liquid become
made, the element II will again start to heat,
thus causing the cycle to repeat itself. It will
be apparent, therefore, that the relay‘ may be
made to alternately make and break the con
tacts formed by the members 8 and 8 and the
liquid and the members 8 and II and the liquid
at a measured time interval which depends up
on the .proportioning of the parts, and that
by varying the proportioning of the parts this
time interval may be adjusted to different values.
It will also be apparent that the heating ele
ments l8 and H correspond to the operating
the heating elements I! and ll of relay FR, and
the circuits for the lamps U1 and U2 will all
be open at these contacts, and the heating ele
ments will, therefore, be deenergized and the 40
lamps will be extinguished. When, however,
either one of these contacts becomes closed, the
circuit for heating element i3 will become closed,
and will thus start the relay FR operating in a
manner which will be readily understood from 45
an inspection of the drawing and from the fore
going description, thereby causing the contact
formed by the contact members 8 ‘and 8 and the
conducting liquid, and the contact formed by the
contact members 8 and II and the conducting 60
liquid, to become alternately opened and closed,
and, hence, the lights I]1 and U‘ to alternately
?ash as long as either contact 8' or 8" remains
closed. Assuming, for example, that the opera
tion of the apparatus was started by a train en
tering section A-B from the left and causing
contact 8‘ to become closed, it is obvious that
the operation of the apparatus will stop as soon
as the rear end of the train passes point B and
permits contact 8- to again open. Likewise, if 00
the operation of the apparatus had been started
by a train entering-section 3-0 from the right
and causing contact 8" to become closed, the
operation of the apparatus under these condi
tions will be terminated as soon as the rear end 05
of the train passes point B.
Referring now, to Fig. 2, l have here shown a
modified form of relay FR! which-may be used
in place of the relay FR shown in Fig. l. The
relay FR‘ differs from the relay FR in that the
shapes‘ of the chambers 8‘ and I" have been
changed to form two wells 8‘ and 8°. respectively,
both of which wells are constantly filled with
conducting liquid. The well 8'1 is disposed at a
slightly lower level than the well 8' so that when
2,124,990
the gas pressure is the same in the two chambers
I‘ and 8b, the conducting ?uid in the connecting
portion 6° will make contact with that in the
well 8“ but not with that in the well C‘. whereas
when the gas pressure is higher in the chamber
6- than in the well 8", the conducting liquid in
the connecting portion will then make contact
with that in the well 8°, but not with that in the
well 6“.
Furthermore, the contact members l
and to are so disposed that these members con
stantly make contact with the ?uid in the well
6d, and the contact members II and I! are so
disposed that these contact members constantly
16
make contact with the ?uid in the well 0'.
The operation oi the relay FR1 is similar in
all respects to that oi the relay FR with the ex
ception that the making and breaking of the
circuits in which the various contacts are in
3
M will cause the liquid, in the two connecting
portions to return to the levels shown. The
operation 01 the relay ll'l'ta will be readily under
stood irom the foregoing description and from
an inspection‘ of the drawing without- further
description.
When the relay shown in Fig. 8 is used in place
of the relay FR shown in Fig. l, the relay will be
connected with the remainder of the apparatus
in the same manner that the relay FR is con
10'
nected with the apparatus with the exception
that the wire which leads from battery B to
the contact member 8 in Fig. 1 will be connected
with both contact members 6' and 8b of the relay
in the manner indicated in Fig. 3. The opera 16
tion oi’ the apparatus as a whole when provided
with the relay FRa is similar in all respects to that
of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1.
cluded is e?ected by the ?uid in the connecting
Although I have herein shown and described
20 portion moving into or out of contact with that
only three forms of apparatus embodying my in 20
in the wells rather than through the ?uid making . vention, it is understood that various changes
and breaking contact directly with the contact and modi?cations may be made therein within
members 8 and I0 and the contact members ll
the scope of the appended claims without depart
' and i2, respectively. This is important since the ' ing from the spirit and scope of my invention.
contact openings in this type or relay will usually
Having thus described my invention, what I 25
be relatively small.
claim is:
The operation oi the apparatus as a whole
so
when the relay FBI is used in place of the relay
FR is identical with that previously described,
and will be understood from the foregoing de
scription without further detailed description.
vReferring now to Fig. 3, I have here shown still
another form of relay which may be used in place
of the relay FR shown in Fig. 1. This relay,
which relay is designated as a whole by the refer
ence character FR", is similar to the relay FR with
the exception that the lower ends of the chem
bers 6° and 6*’, instead of being connected by a
straight connecting portion, are connected by two
40 U-shapcd connecting portions 8‘ and 6', one leg'
of each of which communicates at its upper end
with a. third chamber i5h in such manner that the
two legs at the point where they are joined form
a sharp ridge. The two U-shaped portions are
46 each partly ?lled with a conducting liquid 1, and
disposed in the lower ends of these portions are
two contact members 8* and 8b which are con
1. A relay comprising a container of non-con
ducting material provided with two main cham
bers connected together at their lower ends by
two U-shaped connecting portions one leg of each 30
of which communicates with an auxiliary cham
her. a conducting liquid in each connecting por
tion, an inert gas in each chamber, a. contact
member in each main chamber, the parts being
so proportioned that when the temperature of
the gas in both main chambers is the same the
contact member in the one main chamber will
make contact with the conducting liquid in the
_ associated U-shaped connecting portion and the
contact member in the other main chamber will
be out of contact with the conducting liquid in
the associated U-shaped connecting portion but
that ii’ the temperature of the gas in the one
main chamber is increased to the point where
the conducting liquid in the associated U-shaped 45
connecting portion breaks contact with the asso
ciated contact member su?lcient ?uid will ?ow
into the other U-shaped connecting portion to
cause the ?uid in this latter connecting portion
to make contact with the contact member in the 60
other main chamber, a heating element in each
stantly immersed in the conducting liquid con
tamed in the associated U-shaped portion. The
50 auxiliary chamber 6'1 is filled with an inert gas,
and the parts are so proportioned that when the
pressures of the gases in the two chambers 8‘ _main chamber for controlling the temperature
and 6b are equal, as will normally be the case of the gas in such chamber connected at one end
when the heating elements i3 and H are both with the associated contact member, and other
65 deenergiz'd, the liquid in the connecting portion
contact members constantly immersed in the
c5.
8‘ will connect the contact members 8 and ill with liquid in the U-shaped connecting portions.
the contact member 8', while the liquid in the
2. A relay comprising a container of non-con
connecting portion 6' will be out of engagement ducting material provided with two main cham
with the contact members ii and I2, so that the bers connected together at their lower _ends by
contact members i l and II will be disconnected two U-shaped connecting portions one leg of each 60
from the contact 81’. The parts are further so
of which communicates with an auxiliary cham
proportioned that energization oi the heating ele
her, a conducting liquid in each connecting por
ment l3 will cause the gas in the chamber 6‘ to
expand a su?icient amount to lower the level of
65
the liquid in the left-hand leg of the connecting‘
portion 6‘ to the point where the liquid breaks
contact with the contact members 5 and I0, and
that the lowering of the liquid to this point will
cause suf’ilcicnt ?uid to ?ow out of the connect
ing portion 6‘ and into the connecting portion 6'
to raise the level of the liquid in this latter con
necting portion to the point where it connects
the contact members II and I! with the contact
member 8”. The parts are still further so propor
75 tioned that energization of the heating element
tion, an inert gas in each chamber, a contact
member in each main chamber, the parts being
so proportioned that when the temperature of 65
the gas in both main chambers is the same the
contact member in the one main chamber will
make contact with the conducting liquid in the
associated _U-shaped connecting portion and the
contact member in the other main chamber will 70
be out of contact with the conducting liquid in
the ‘associated U-shaped connecting portion but
that ii the temperature of the gas in the one main
chamber is increased to the point where the con
ducting liquld in the associated U-shaped con 75
4
'
.
'
I 2,124,026
necting portion hreeh contectmith the neo
cictcd- contact member eu?cient iluid will iiow
into the other U-chcped connecting portion to
with the mocicted contact member, other con
cause the nuidinthislotterconnectinsportion
to make contact with the contact member in the
other contact members adapted to- make and
break contact with the liquid in the two U-ehaped
portions according to the level of the ?uid in
main chamber for controlling the ternpenture of
the m in men chamber connected at one end
these portions.
othermoinchcmbencheotingelementinecch
tact members constantly immeraed in the liquid
in the U-lhaped connecting portions, and still
,‘
BENJAMIN MISHELEVICH.
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