Патент USA US2124629код для вставки
July 26, 1938. _ ~ B. E. O'HAGAN ' 2,124,529 “RAILWAY TRACK CIRCUIT'APPARATUS ' Filed oct. 30. 1957 2 Fig? 1. 22 24 Signal 28 ' Control ' ———'\29 2 1 52 2 7 L 19 21 S ’ INVENTOR v j_:___( . Benxardz O'Iizgan ‘ B 98 . . I HIS ATTORNEY 2,124,629 Patented July 26, 1938 . ‘UNITED ' STATES PATENT’ ‘owner. 2,124,629 ' RAILWAY TRACK} CIRCUIT APPARATUS Bernard E.'0’Hagan, Swissvale, Pa., assignor to The ‘Union Switch & Signal Company, Swiss- ‘ vale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application October 30, ' 15 Claims. My invention relates to railway track circuit apparatus, and has for an object the provision of a novel- track relayarrangement having a high degree of shunting sensitivity when a train 5 occupies the track circuit with which it is as ' sociated. ' (01. 246-41) ing, engage ?xed contacts 20 and 2|, respec tively. . The secondary relay S receives operating en ergy from a suitable source of current having the terminals B—C, over the front contact I9— 2‘! of relay R. Relay S controls, over its back I I shall describe two forms oftrack circuit ap paratus embodying my invention, and shall then point out the novel features thereof in claims. 10 1937, Serial No. 171,928 contact 22—23, the short-circuiting of , winding M, and over its back contacts 24-25 and 26-21, the closing of the pick-up circuit for relay R. In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia Relay S is preferably designed to» have a slightly 1 T) grammatic view illustrating one form of track circuit apparatus embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view showing a modified retarded pick-up so that a momentary closure of \ contact l9l—2l will notgcau'se relay S to pick up‘, thus avoiding undesired signal ?ashes due to form of the apparatus‘ of Fig. 1, also embody- ' opening of' contact 28-29 and closing of co'n-_ tact 28-40,- which ‘might otherwise result ‘dur A 15 ing my invention. ‘ . ' Similar reference characters refer to similar i-ng a momentary loss of shunt. Having described the various elements of Fig. parts in each of the two views. 1 comprising the apparatus embodying my 'in Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawing, the ref erence characters I and 2 designate the track 20 rails of a section of railway track de?ned by insulated'rail joints 3 at each end of the section. Connected across the rails at one end of the track section is asource of current 4, here shown as a- battery, which supplies current to the track 25 circuit over a current limiting resistor 5. vention, I shall now describe the operation of this apparatus- ' . When the track section is unoccupied, the ap paratus will be in the condition in which it is illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawing. That is, relay Rv will’ be maintained energized over a hold ing‘ circuit which may be tracedfrom theleft The reference character'R. designates‘a track hand terminal of battery 4', limiting resistor 5, relay comprising three parallel cores 6, ‘I, and 8,. rail 2, winding II, wire-3|, resistor 32, upper two ofhwhich, 6 and v8, are connected at. their portion'of‘ winding I2, wire 33, front contact upper ends by abackstrap 9." The remaining 30 core 1 is spacedfrom the backstrap by an air gap Ill. The cores 6- and 8 are provideduwith operating windings I I and I2, respectively, which receive energy from the rails of the section over circuits which will be traced in detail herein35 after. Accordingly, two magneticcircuits are provided,~one of which includes core 6 and the other ‘of which includes core 8, with the core 1 common to both magneticcircuits. The wind ings II and I2 are so disposed ‘that the ?uxes 40. due to these windings aid one another in the common core ‘I. Core 6 is equipped with a short circuited retarding winding I3, and core 8 is equipped with a similar winding l4, but the lat ter winding is normally an open circuit and 45 becomes short-circuited only when the second ary relay S is released. _A tractive armature I5 is pivotally supported at bearing I6 for swinging movement toward and away from the cores 1 and 8, and a similar 50 tractive armature I1 is similarly supported for movement with respect to cores 6 and ‘I. The armatures I5 and H are biased by gravity to an open position away from the respective cores and carry. contact?ngers l8 and I9 which, in the closed armature position shown in the draw I'8‘—-20, wires 34' and 35, and rail I, to‘ the right hand terminal of the battery. The secondary relay contact S 'will I9—2l be maintained of relay R, energized and so the overappro front priate signal circuit will be closed at front c'orl- ' tact 284.38 of this relay. The pick-up circuit for relay R and the circuit for the retarding 35 winding served by I4 resistor will both 32 included be open. in theThe. holding purpose cir cuit is to compensate either wholly or partly, as desired, for the resistance of those turns of ‘Wind' i-ng I2‘ which are excluded when the holding .cir cuit is effective. ' , When’ a train enters the section, the shunt formed by the wheels and axles of the train will considerably reduce the current which traverses winding II and the upper portion of. winding I2iin the holding circuit. Accordingly, the flux in‘ cores 6 and 8‘ will rapidly decrease, but due to the presence of the short-circuited winding l3, the decrease of ?ux in the magnetic circuit of cores 6 and ‘I will be less‘ rapid than in the 50 corresponding magnetic circuit of cores 8 and ‘I. ‘ There will, therefore, be present a magnetomo tive force due to the magnetic circuit of cores 6 and ‘I which‘will oppose the flux in the magnetic circuit of cores 8“ and ‘I, which magnetomotive 55 V 2,124,629 ' ‘force will drive the flux in the left-hand mag shunting conditionof ,the apparatus, in readi ’ net to a lower value than would occur merely ness for the entry of a succeeding train into the by virtue of the decrease in current of winding section. I l2. As a result, armature [5 of the left-hand ' Referring to Fig. 2, the apparatus‘shownin magnet will release at a higher value of train this ?gure is essentially the same as in ‘Fig. 1, shunt resistance than it would without the op with the exception that the circuit for the sec, posing effect of the?ux in the right-hand mag ondary relay S includes a front contact 39--40 net, and will thus provide a higher degreev of of the left-hand magnet of relay R. The~a_d— shunting’ sensitivityv than is provided in the 'vantage of this arrangement is that a quicker usual. and well-known , primary-secondary relay release of relay S will be obtained by virtue of It will be apparent that Winding w the fact that armature ‘I5 is ?rst to .releas'e,~so l3 has a discriminating effectvbetween a slow that the signals will respond more quickly to decrease in energization'of relay R such as oc the entry'of a train into the section. curs when the,‘ ballast resistance decreases, and In this?gure, the circuit for relay S mayor a relatively rapid decrease, in energization such may not be carried ‘over the contact I9—-2I of as occurs when a train enters the section. Ac the'right-hand magnet, as desired. If relay S is cordingly, winding I3 is effective in improving a standard relay which does not have slow pick the shunting sensitivity of relay R:by raising the up characteristics and if the retarding coil 14 is ' release value of armature I5 and inaccelerating not used, then it may be ‘desirable to include 20 the release of this armature only under the train both contacts 39-4!!! and l9—2l in the circuit. shunt condition, this winding being normally in for relay S, so asv to time-delay the pickup of ' 10. ‘ combination. active'during changes'in ballast resistance. the relay. As soon as armature l5 releases, front con V 15 20 In this manner, an operation equiva- _ lent to that of Fig. 1 with an inherently slow. tact. l8—~2l) will open and will interrupt the cir pick-up relay S may be obtained. By usinga 1 a 25 cuit for both windings II and I2, whereupon ' slow pick-up relay, however, the contact |,9-—2l armature ll’ of the right-hand magnet will quickly release. will open the The release > of armature I‘! circuit a for relay S _ at con tact l9—2l, releasing this relay and closing 30 the retarding winding 14 aswell as the pick-up circuitfor relay R. The'pick-up circuit may be may be completely eliminated, the pick-upcir cuit for relay S being then carried over contact’ ' 39—60 alone. - ' A further difference between Figs. 1 and 2 is that in the latter ?gure the wiring for the pick up and holding circuits is slightly rearranged traced from rail 2, winding ii, wire 35, back con so as to eliminate the extracontact 24—25 of tact 26-21 of relay S, wire 31, full winding l2, relay S. In all other respects, however, the pick wires 33 and 38, back contact 2,4—251of relay 8;. up and holding circuits for relayv R are/the same ‘and Wire‘ 35, to rail l. Preferably,’ the windings - as in Fig. 1, and will be obvious from the draw ii and I2 will each have the ,same number of ' ing without further explanation. 7. ~ " turns so that the right-hand and left-hand mag It will be apparent that" the improvement in nets .may be similarly or interchangeably de-‘ shunting sensitivity of relay R which I obtain signed. If desired, the windings 7H" and I2 may is .due to two factors, namely,'a higher release.’ of armature l5 by virtue of the opposing mag 40 be replaced by a, single windingipositionedon the common core‘ 7 and supplying the necessary netomotive force resulting from the unbalance ?uX to they two magnetic circuits. By suitably between the ‘right-hand and left-hand magnets tapping the single winding, aholding circuit of at the time the track‘ is shunted, and a higher a decreased number of turns,rsimilar to'that release of this armature due to the decreased ampere-turn magnetization of the relay when 45 .45 for the pair of windings II and I2 .may be ob tained. . w e The reason for equipping core ‘8 with a re-_ tarding winding [4 which‘ is similar to winding . IS on core 6 is to provide similar conditions dur ing pickup for both magnets so that at this time both cores 6 and 8 will havethe same number of short-circuited turns‘ as well as the same number of operating turns. ‘Accordingly, when , a train leaves the section, both armatures i5 55 and I1 will become attracted at about the same time, although this'condition is not essential from the standpoint of operativeness. That is, wind ing, I74. may be dispensed with, if desired, pro the’ holding circuit is effective. ,However, in order to realize the advantages of my‘invention it is not essential that the normal energizing circuit for relay R include a resistor and exclude a portion of the operating winding, or thatthe holding ampere-turns be decreased, so that the secondary‘ relay S may be dispensed with entire ly,,if desired. That is, the full turns of both windings I ll and I2 may be used not only at pick up, but also during the normal holding operation of the relay. One manner in which the effect of fewer holding ampere-turns-‘may be obtained without actually reducingthe number of turns - vided the apparatus is so proportioned that a is by making theenergized air gap at armature I5 greater than the energized airgap at arma 60 prior pickup of one armature IE or I‘! will not prevent the other armature from picking up.‘ ture H, the two air gaps at pickup being sub Under certain conditions; as Will'be explained stantially the same. ‘Accordingly, the pick-up more fully in connection withFig. 2, it may be ' ‘value for armature [5 can be made the same as advantageous to eliminate winding [4 in order in the arrangement using the secondary relay that armature l5 will be ?rst to pick up, thus 55 S. On account of the unequal’ air gaps at full delaying the'pickup ofarmature I1 and introduc stroke, however, the ?uxes in the right and left ing a corresponding delay in the pickup of , hand magnets will also'be unequal, the flux in relay S. . ' the right-hand magnet being the greater of, the When the section becomes unoccupied, relay two, so that armature I5 will have its release 70 R will pick up and the closing of contact I8—20 point substantially raised. By properly adjust will reestablish‘ the holding circuit previously ing this ?ux diiference, armature l5 may be traced. Also, the closing of contact l9—2l will brought as close to the release point whena given cause relay S to pick upwhich will, in turn, open shunt is applied to the track, as though a'hold 7.; the pick-up circuit for relay. R and the circuit ing circuit of decreased ampere-turns were used. is for winding I4, thereby restoring the sensitive Although I have herein shown andidescribed 66 3 2,124,629 only two forms-of railwaytrack circuit apparatus embodying my invention, it ‘is understood that various changes and modi?cations may be made therein within the scope of vthe appended claims sensitivity of a track circuit comprising, in come bination, two magnetic circuits for said ‘track re lay each including a common magnetic path and each adapted to be energized from the track, a without departing from ‘thespiri't and scope of control armature for said track relay associated my invention. with one of said magnetic. circuits, a short ‘ 1 I Having thus described ‘my invention, what I claim is: ' 1. In combination with a section of railway track and a source of current connected across the'rails of said section, a primary relay having a ?rst and a second magnetic circuit each in cluding a common magnetic path, means asso ciated with said ?rst magnetic circuit for retard 15 ing the flux decay therein when said track section circuited winding associated with the other of said magnetic circuits for retarding the, flux'decay therein when the track becomes shunted to there by accelerate the ?ux decay in said one magnetic circuit and so to accelerate the release of said armature. . " 10v ' 6. A track relay for improving the shunting sensitivity of a track circuit comprising in com bination, a ?rst and a second‘magnetic circuit for 15 becomes shunted to thereby accelerate the ?ux said track relay each including a common mag decay in said second magnetic circuit, a secondary netic path and each adapted to be energized from relay, an energizing circuit for said secondary the track, a ?rst and second armature associated relay including a contact of said primary relay, a ' respectively with said ?rst and second magnetic pick-up circuit for said primary relay connected. circuits, means associated with said ?rst mag 20 across the rails of said section and including a ' netic circuit for-retarding the ?ux decay therein contact of said secondary relay as well as the full when the track becomes shunted'to accelerate the , ' operating winding of said primary relay, and a ?ux decayin said second magnetic circuit and holding circuit for said primary relay controlled 25 by a contact governed by said second magnetic ?rst armature‘releases, and signaling apparatus circuit and including only a portion of the op erating winding of said'primary relay. ' 2. In combination with a section of railway track and a ‘source of current connected across 30 the rails of said section, a primary relay having a ?rst and a second magnetic circuit each including a common magnetic path, means associated with said ?rst magnetic circuit for retarding the ?ux decay therein when said track section becomes shunted to thereby accelerate the ?ux decay in said second magnetic circuit, a secondary relay, so to release said secondarmature before said controlled by a said two armatures. '7. In combination’ with a section of railway track and a source of current connected across the rails of said section, a track relay having two magnetic circuits each including a common mag‘ netic path, a circuit including the rails of said section for energizing said two magnetic cir cuits, an armature associated with each of said magnetic circuits, and means associated with one of said magnetic circuits'e?ective when the a track section becomes shunted by a- train for accelerating the release of the armature .asso an energizing circuit for said secondary relay in cluding a contact of said primary relay, a pick-up ciated with the other of said magnetic circuits. v . 8. In combination with a section of railway circuit for said primary relay connected across 40 the rails of said section and including a contact } track and asource of current connected across 40 the rails of said section, a track relay having two' of said secondary relay as well as the full operat ing winding of said primary relay, a resistor, and magnetic circuits each including a common mag a holding circuit for said primary relay controlled netic path, a circuit including the rails of said by a contact governed by said second magnetic section for energizing said two magntic circuits, an armature associated with one of said magnetic 45 ,3 circuit and'including only a portion of the op erating winding of said primary relay and said circuits, and means associated with the other of said magnetic circuits effective when said track resistor. , 3. A track relay for improving the shunting section becomes shunted by a train for accelerat ing the release of said armature. . sensitivity of a track circuit comprising, in com 9. In combination with a section‘ of railway bination, two magnetic circuits for said track re lay each including a common magnetic path and track and a source of current connected across each adapted to be energized from the track, a the rails of said section, a track relay having two control armature for said track relay associated magnetic circuits each including a common mag with one of said magnetic circuits, and means netic path, a circuit including the rails of said section for energizing said two magnetic circuits, 55 in LA associated with the other of said magnetic cir cuits and discriminating between a relatively slow an armature associated with one of said mag decrease in energization of the track relay such netic circuits, and a short-circuited winding as as occurs due to a decrease in ballast resistance sociated with the other of said magnetic circuits and a relatively rapid decrease in energization effective when said track section becomes shunted of the track relay such as occurs due to a train by a train for retarding the ?ux decay in said 60 shunt for accelerating the release of said arma other magnetic circuit so as to accelerate the ?ux ture when said track relay becomes shunted. decay in said one magnetic circuit and expedite , , 4. A track relay for improving the shunting the release of said armature. V sensitivity of a track circuit comprising, in com 10. In combination with a section of railway bination, two magnetic circuits for said track track and a source of current connected across relay each including a common magnetic path and each adapted to be energized from the track, the rails of said section, a track’ relay having two a control armature for said track relay associated magnetic circuits each including a common mag with one of said magnetic circuits, and means netic path, a circuit including the rails of'said section for energizing said two magnetic circuits, 70 associated with the other of said magnetic cir cuits for retarding the ?ux decay therein when an armature associated with one of said magnetic the track becomes shunted to thereby accelerate circuits, means associated with the other of said the flux decay in said one magnetic circuit and so to accelerate the release of said armature. 75 5. A track relay for improving the shunting magnetic circuits e?ective when said track sec tion becomes shunted by a train for accelerating the release of said armature, and means con 75 4 2,124,629 trolled by said armature for improving the. shunt ‘netic path, means receiving energy from the rails ‘ r ing sensitivity of said track relay. of said section-for setting up, aiding fluxes in said two magnetic-circuits, an armature asso-_' _ ' 11. In combination with a section of railway track and a source of current connected across the‘rails of said section, a track relay havingtwo magnetic circuits each including a common mag ' netic path, a circuit including the rails of said’ section for‘energizing said two magnetic circuits, ters said section for aiding the release oflsaid an armature associated with each of said mag armature. '10 netic circuits, means associated with one of said magnetic circuits effectivewhen the track section becomes shunted by a train for acceleratingthe release of the armature associated ,Withthe other of said magnetic circuits, and means controlled by both said armatures for improving the shunt ing sensitivity of said track relay. , 12. In combination with a section of'railway track and a source of current connected across the rails of said section, a track relay having a. ?rst and a second magnetic circuit each including > a common magnetic. path, a circuit including the ;rails of said section for energizing said ?rst and said second magnetic'icircuits, a?rst and a second armature associated respectively with said ?rst and said second’ magnetic circuits, means asso ciated with said'second magnetic circuit for ac celerating the release of said ?rstarmature upon shunting of said track section, an auxiliary relay 7 controlled by said ?rst armature, and means con trolled by said auxiliary relay andreffective when 39 the shunt is removed from said track section for equalizing the pick-up time for said ?rst and second armatures. ,- v I . ' g . 13. In ccmbinationwith a section of railway .35 ciated Withone of said 3magnetic circuits, and . means associated with the other of said magnetic‘. circuits effective upon a rapid decrease of the energy received from said rails when, a trainen track and a source of current connected across the rails of said section, a track relay having two magnetic circuits each including a common mag \ . _ I. - ' t ' i 14. A track relay for railway signaling track ‘circuits comprising, in’ combination, twomag netic circuits for'said trackrelay eachincluding a common magnetic path, means for setting up aiding ?uxes in said two magnetic circuits,'and means associated with one of said magneticfcir 15 cuits effective upon a relatively rapid decrease ‘of - ?ux therein for acceleratingthe decrease of flux in the other of said magnetic circuitsto thereby improve the shunting ‘sensitivity of said track 20. I relay. v15; In combination, with a ‘section of railway track and a vsource offcurrentfconnected across the rails of said section, a track relay having ‘two magnetic circuits each ‘including 'a commonmag netic path, means receiving energy from the rails 25' . of said section for setting up aiding fluxes in said two magnetic circuits, an armature associated > with one of' said vmagnetic circuits, and means associated 'withthe other of 'said, magnetic: cir-. cuits and discriminating between a‘ rapid decrease in the energy received from said rails such as 30' occurs when a train‘enters the section and a slow - decrease in said‘energy due to a decrease in bale last resistance for, modifying the release value of said armature. ‘- , _ , BERNARD E. O’HAGAN.