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Патент USA US2124740

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July 26, 1933-
c. N. KIMBALL ET AL
2’ l 24,
ELECTRONIC INDICATING DEVICE
Filed Oct. 27, 1957
RESONANCE
. .
. .
INDICATOR
TUBE
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Patented July 26, 1938
2,124,740
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE‘
2,124,740
ELECTRONIC INDICATING DEVICE
Charles N. Kimball, East Orange, N. 1., and Ed
ward W. Wilby, Westerleigh, N. Y., assignors to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation
of Delaware
Application October 27, 1937, Serial No. 171,254
6 Claims. (Cl. 250—27.5)
Our invention relates to electron discharge de
with AVC voltages in excess of —8 volts,‘ the
vices, more particularly to such devices useful as change in shadow angle with grid bias is small at
visual indicators of voltage and having a ?uores
low AVC voltages.
'
cent electrode which is rendered ‘luminous and
A tube of this same type would be desirable as
5 has the appearance of a pattern of light which a balance indicator or as a comparison device for 5
changes in response to the change in the magni
comparing the voltage or current conditions in
tude of the applied voltages, a device of this two different circuits. Previous balance indi
character being particularly suitable for indi
cators have usually required the use of two sepa
cating resonance of apparatus responsive to radio rate meters or indicators connected in different
10 frequency currents and voltages. The present circuits requiring duplication of instruments and 10
application is a continuation in part of our appli
circuits.
cation, Serial No. 112,462, ?led November 24,
bulk of the measuring instruments, vision must
be shifted from one indicating device to another,
increasing the possibility of errors of comparison.
Accordingly, it is one of the principal objects 15
of this invention to provide an electron discharge
device of the type described capable of function
1936 and assigned to the Radio Corporation of
America.
15 There has been disclosed, and claimed, in U. S.
Patent 2,051,189 of H. M. Wagner, patented Aug
ust 18, 1936, an electron ray indicator tube con
Qventionally described as the 6E5 type. Brie?y,
such a tube comprises an envelope having with
20 in it a cathode provided with two emission sec
tions. One of the emission sections is surround
ed'by ampli?er electrodes comprising a grid and
anode and the other is surrounded by the tuning
indicator elements. The indicator elements com
25 prise a control electrode and a dish-shaped anode
coated on its inner surface with ?uorescent mate
rial. The control electrode is connected to the
ampli?er anode, and the ampli?er section input
electrode or grid is connected to a source of sig
30 rial-derived direct current voltage. When max
ing as a reliable indicator of a wide range of input
direct current voltages.
More speci?cally an object of the invention is 20
to improve electron discharge devices of the type
adapted to produce an electron shadow of vary
ing width as the magnitude of the direct current
voltage input varies; the improvement compris
ing independent high mu and low mu ampli?er 25
sections constructed and arranged to produce
opposed shadows on the target, and which
shadows successively become narrow as the input
voltage varies over ‘a wide range of values.
Another object of my invention is to provide an 30
imum signal is tuned in, the luminous portion
electron discharge device of the'type described
of the plate, or target, is of a maximum width.
With minimum, or no signal the electronic
shadow cast by the control electrode on the coat
which can function as a comparison device or
35 ed anode or target is a maximum.
In a receiv
ing system equipped with automatic volume con
trol (AVC) , the grid of the indicator tube ampli
?er section is connected to the AVG voltage
source.
40
In such an arrangement, due to the
Such a 6E5 type tube is satisfactory when used
in signalling systems producing direct current
voltages for the indicator tube input grid which
are not in excess of —8 volts. This is due to the
sharp cut-off characteristic of the ampli?er sec
45 tion of the indicator tube, the ampli?er section
having a high mu.
Hence, when the value of the
balance indicator for indicating variations of cur
rent or voltage in two circuits to be compared,
the improvement comprising independent elec- 3;,
trode structures arranged to produce opposed
shadows on the target, the di?erence in the
shadows or the absence or presence of shadows
indicating balance or unbalance of the circuits
being compared.
40
Other objects of the invention are to improve
generally the ei?ciency and utility of electron dis
charge devices of the type described.
The novel fwtures which we believe to be char
acteristic of our invention are set forth in par- 45
ticularity in the appended claims; the invention
AVG bias applied to the input grid of a 6E5 tube ‘ itself, however, as to both its organization and
is in excess of —8 volts, the shadow angle on the method of operation will best be understood by
target remains closed. There is no further indi
reference to the following description taken in
50 cation of approach to the desired resonance con
connection with the drawing in-which we have 50
dition of the receiver. To solve this problem the indicated diagrammatically a circuit organization
6G5 type tube was provided. This tube differs whereby our invention may be carried into e?ect.
from the 6E5 type only in that it is provided with
In the drawing:
_
a remote cut-o? input grid. However, while per
Figure l is a circuit'diagram of a portion of a
55 mitting the tube to be used in receiving circuits receiving circuit and schematic diagram of an 55
2
2,124,740
electron discharge device embodying the inven
tion.
'
Figures 2a, b, c and 11 show the successive ap
pearance of the indicator face of the target as
the AVG voltage varies in magnitude.
Figure 3 is a schematic section of a modi?ica
tion of an electron discharge device made in ac
cordance with my invention, and
Figures 4a, b and 0 show the appearance of the
10 indicator face of the target under di?erent con
ditions when used as a balance indicator or com
parison device.
,
In the circuit shown in Figure 1 a diode de
tector, or recti?er, i has its anode 2 and
15 cathode 3 connected to opposite sides of the sec
ondary winding 65 of the double tuned transformer
5.
The primary circuit 6, as well as the sec
ondary circuit 15, is tuned to the operating I. F.,
assuming the detector is used in a superhetero
dyne receiver.
The usual networks are employed
in the latter, 1. e., a tunable radio ampli?er, a
tunable ?rst detector, a tunable local oscillator
and one, or more, I. F. ampli?ers. The custo
mary uni-control tuning adjusting means will
be used for varying the rotors of‘ the variable
tuning condensers, and the circuit 6 is to be un
derstood as being in the plate circuit of the last
I. F. ampli?er tube. These networks are not
shown since those skilled in the art are fully
aware of the construction thereof.
The diode circuit includes resistor ‘I, shunted
by I. F. bypass condenser 8. The grounded cath
_ ode 3 is connected to the low alternating poten
tial side of input circuit Q through the resistor ‘i.
The audio voltage component of detected 1. F.
current is impressed on one, or more, audio am
pli?ers by means of the adjustable tap 9 and
audio coupling condenser ID. A reproducer of
any desired type follows the last audio ampli?er.
40 The direct current voltage component of detected
I. F. current is employed for automatic volume
control (AVC) of the pre-second detector stages.
as, for example, the radio and I. F. ampli?ers.
The AVC lead is connected to the anode side of
45 resistor ‘i through ?lter resistor H, and bypass
condenser l2 to ground._ The network H—l2 is
given the proper time constant to permit the
AVG circuit to compensate for carrier fading
e?ects.
50
'
.
In the embodiment of my invention shown in
Figure 1, the tuning indicator tube comprises an
envelope 13 within which are disposed the elec
trodes of the indicator section, and the high and
low mu direct current ampli?er sections. The
tube is schematically represented since its de
tailed constructional features are shown in the
Wagner patent referred to above. Those skilled
in the art will readily be able to construct a tube
embodying the present invention by modifying
60 the tube of said Wagner patent in the light of the
present teachings.
indirectly-heated,
mu to that section of the grid.
equipotential
type; a grid It is concentric, and almost co-ex
tensive, with and surrounds the cathode. A pair
of anodes l5 and I6, of the same diameter, are
co-axially arranged in spaced relation and sur~
round the grid Hi. The anodes I5 and I6 are
Hence, it will be
seen that a pair of triode sections are provided,
one having a higher 'mu than the other.
The cathode i3 is extended upwardly and pro- '
vided with a second emitting section H. A sec
ond separate cathode unit could be used. A pair
of similar control electrodes I8 ‘and it’ are dis
posed on opposite sides of emission section ii.
The electrodes iii-48' may be rods, or vane
shaped sheet material placed edgewise to the
cathode H’. Surrounding and concentric with
the emission section H is an anode i9 shaped like
a dishpanv having a coating 2t on its inner in
clined face; the coating material being ?uorescent
under electron bombardment. An aperture is
\provided in the base of the anode or target 89 to
permit the emission section I‘! and electrodes 20
l8—|8' to be positioned at the axis of the anode.
The electrode [8 is connected by lead 2! to
plate l5, while electrode It’ is connected to plate
46 by lead 22. Electrons emitted from section
II, and striking coating 26 with su?icient velocity,
cause it to ?uoresce.
A cap (not shown) is
usually provided over the top end of cathode sec
tion I‘! to con?ne electron action, and to act as
'an electrostatic shield against stray charges on
the glass envelope. The electrons travel radiall
outwardly from the cathode I‘! to the coating 20
in a wide beam.
The extent of the anode surface
reached by the beam is determined by the direct
current voltages on control electrodes Ill-I8’.
Two separate luminescent portions will be ob
tuned to resonance.
The control electrodes l8—l8' are at positive
potentials with respect to cathode II. This is
accomplished by connecting plates l5 and Hi to a
source of positive direct current voltage; re
sistor 23 connecting plate IE to the positive ter
minal of the voltage source, and resistor 26 con
45
necting plate IE to the said terminal. The cath
odes l3 and I‘! are at ground potential, and
?uorescent anode i9 is connected to the positive
terminal of,the direct current voltage source.
A direct current connection establishes control
grid l4 at the potential of the anode side of
resistor ‘I. Thus, the AVG bias varies the po
tential control grid I 4, and hence the potentials
of control electrodes l8--l8'.
In the absence of received signals there is no
AVC bias produced, since the detector I does
not produce detected signal currents. In that’
case, the control grid 14 will be substantially at
the potential of cathode l3, and the current flow
through the high and low mu sections will be a 60
This means that the voltage drops
across resistors 23 and 24 will be a maximum,
and, therefore, control electrodes l8 and I8’ will‘
be at minimum positive potential with respect
to grounded cathode Ii. As a result of this low 65
positive bias on both control electrodes, electrons
will be repelled from the latter, and the pattern
shown in Figure 2a will be formed on the coat
substantially co-extensive with the cathode H3.
The portion of grid It lying between cathode l3
ing 20.
and anode l6 has at least one turn less than the
luminous areas, while the blank areas denote
grid portion between anode l5 and cathode l3.
shadows.
By way of illustration it will be seen that there
are ?ve grid turns between anode l5 and cathode
“high mu shadow” since this electrode varies in
bias with space current variation in the high mu
75 i3, whereas only four grid turns are provided he
35
tained when the receiver is oil tune. The pat
tern of light will extend around the entire cir
cumference of anode l9 when the receiver is
mw‘mum.
The tube is provided with a cathode l3 of the
conventional,
tween cathode i3 and anode it. The control
grid it is wound with a continuous pitch, turns
being removed from one end to impart a lower
The shaded areas in Figure 2a represent the 70
Electrode l8 produces the so-called
triode section of the tube; electrode it’ produces 75
2,194,740
3
the "low mu shadow” since it responds in bias
to the space current change in the low mu triode
tion of a tube made according to my invention is
to a course indicator for airplanes. This can be
section. Figure 2a, further, shows the appear
done by means of a signal, the strengthoi which
is proportional to the amount by which the plane
ance of anode I! when viewed from the right
side oi.’ the tube in Figure 1. The dark, or shadow,
spaces are depended upon to indicate resonance
conditions of the receiver.
Assume, now. that weak signals are received,
and a small amount of AVG bias is generated.
10 The space current ?owing through the high mu
section of grid will be reduced immediately. The
shadow angle of the high mu shadow on anode
l9 begins to close. At some low bias (-5 to —8
volts) determined by the pitch of the high mu
15 grid, the shadow angle becomes zero.
This con
is oil‘ the beam along which the plane ?ies. The
signal may be recti?ed and presented~~as bias in
the proper polarity to the grids of the tube. Thus, ‘
when the plane is on the course no shadow ap- ,
pears. This condition is shown in Figure 4a. If
the planedrifts to the left a shadow appears as 10
indicated in 4b on the left hand side of 'the tar
get, and if it drifts to the right a shadow ap
pears on the right hand side of the target as
indicated in lo, the size of the shadow being
proportional to the amount the plane is off its 15
dition is shown in Figure 2b. Up to this point
only a small change in the angle of the low mu 7
course.
shadow has" taken place.
tern for carrying our invention into effect, it
.
While we have indicated and described a sys
Further increase in AVC bias causes the
20 shadow angle of the low mu section to close.
will be apparent to one skilled in the art that
our invention is by no means limited to the par 20
Figure 2c shows the appearance of the anode
l9 when the low mu shadow is near cut-off. The
bias at which the low mu shadow angle is zero
can be made equal to -30 to -40 volts depend
25 ing upon the maximum AVC voltage available.
Figure 2d shows the latter condition. Accord
ingly, it will be seen that the indicator tube of
the present invention is capable of responding to
a relatively wide range of AVG voltages,-and that
30 this is done with a single tube construction.
By proper choice of the structural dimensions
of the tube and triode section plate loads, con
ticular organization shown and described, but
that many modi?cations may be made without
departing from the scope of our invention, as set
forth in the appended claims.
What we claim as new is:
velope, a cathode within said envelope for supply
ing electrons, a dish-shaped anode surrounding"
the cathode and having its interior surface coated
with a ?uorescent material for receiving electrons
from the cathode to produce a luminous annular
shaped pattern on the anode, a plurality of con
ditions can be adjusted so as to cause the two
trol electrodes positioned between the anode and
shadows to respond to any reasonable AVC volt
the cathode to determine the area of the ?uores
cent surface of the anode reached by the elec
trons, a second cathode in said envelope, a plu
35 age ranges. Of course, Figure 2a shows the ap
pearance of the tube when o? tune, or when
very weak carrier is being received. Figure 2d,
on the other hand, shows the tuning indicators
appearance when the receiver is exactly tuned
40 to a strong incoming carrier. Intermediate con
ditions are shown by Figures 2b and 20.
In Figure 3 the electron discharge device is
provided with the two-section cathode i3 sur
rounded by anodes I5 and i6 axially displaced
45 along one emitting section of the cathode and
connected to the control electrodes l8’ and I8
positioned between the other section of the oath
ode l3 and the ?uorescent target or anode IS.
The indicator and ampli?er sections could be
50 made as separate units each having its own cath
ode.
In accordance with my invention each
of the anodes l5 and it has positioned between
it and the cathode a separate control grid 25 and
26. Di?erence in potential between the control
55 electrodes i8 and i8’ and the ?uorescent anode
is produced in the same manner as in the device
shown in Figure 1 by means of the drop in the
resistors 23 and“. The grids 25 and 26 may
25
1. An electron discharge device having an en
rality of plates surrounding said second cathode,
said plates being axially spaced along said sec-~
ond cathode, and control means between the sec
ond cathode and said plates and a conductor con 40
nected between each of the control electrodes and
a different one of said plates.
2. An electron discharge device having an en
velope, a cathode within said envelope for sup
plying electrons, a dish-shaped anode surround 45
ing the cathode and having its interior surface
coated with ?uorescent material for receiving
electrons from the cathode to produce a luminous
annular shaped pattern on the anode, a pair of
oppositely disposed control rods positioned be 50
tween the coated anode and the cathode to de
termine the area of the ?uorescent surface of the
anode reached by the electrons, a second cathode,
a pair of plates surrounding the second cathode
and axially spaced with respect to each other, 65
control means positioned between the plates and
the second cathode, each of said plates being con
nected to a di?‘erent one of said control rods.
3. An electron discharge tube having an en
have the same pitch, or, if desired, different pitch. .
60 The voltage sources to be compared are con
velope, a cathode within the envelope for sup 30
nected to the leads 21 and 28 connected to the
separate grids 25 and 26. The tube functions in
substantially the same way as that shown in
Figure 1. The difference in the circuits being
65 compared is indicated by a. difference in the
shadows formed on the ?uorescent target by the
control electrodes l8 and 18'.
The applications of a tube of this type are
numerous.
In use as a balance indicator. the
tube is'operated'with both grids biased to cut-o?
at balance. The whole‘ target under this con
dition ?uoresces. The change in bias on either
of the two grids and the formation and size of
plying electrons, a dish-shaped anode surround
ing the cathode and having its interior surface
coated with a ?uorescent material for receiving
electrons from the cathode to produce a luminous
annular shaped pattern on the anode, a control 85
electrode positioned between the anode and the
cathode to determine the area of the ?uorescent
surface of the anode reached by the electrons, a
second control electrode positioned on the op
posite side of the cathode, a second cathode, a 70
grid surrounding the second cathode, a pair of
plates surrounding the grid, the plates being of
the same diameter and being coaxially spaced, the
the resulting shadows indicate the direction in ' grid portion between one of the plates and the
second cathode having a lesser number of nuns 75
75 which the balance is off. One speci?c applica
2,124,740
current connections between the two control elec
of control rods-disposed on opposite sides of said
cathode and between said cathode and the anode
trodes and said plates.
to determine the area of the ?uorescent surface
than its other portion, and independent direct
_
4. An electron discharge device having an en
velope, a cathode within said envelope for sup
plying electrons, a dish-shaped anode surround
ing the cathode and having its interior surface
coated with ?uorescent material for receiving
electrons from the cathode to produce a luminous
annular shaped pattern on the anode, a plurality
of control electrodes positioned between the anode
and the cathode to determine the area of ?uores
cent surface of the anode reached by the elec
trons, a second cathode, a plurality of separate
15 grids axially spaced with respectto each other
and surrounding said second cathode, a plate
electrode surrounding each of said grids and in
dependent direct current connections between
each of the plates and a di?‘erent one of said
20 control electrodes.
5. An electron discharge device having an en
velope, a cathode within said envelope for sup
plying electrons, a dish-shaped anode surround
ing the cathode and having its interior surface
25 coated with ?uorescentlmaterial for receiving
electrons from the cathode to produce a lumi
nous annular shaped pattern on the anode, a pair
of the anode reached by the electrons, a pair of
grids surrounding said cathode and axially spaced
with respect to each other and said anode, a plate
surrounding each grid, each plate having a direct
current connection between a diiierent one of
said control rods.
,
10
6. An electron discharge device having an en
velope, a cathode within said envelope, a dish
shaped anode surrounding the cathode and hav
ing its interior surface coated with ?uorescent
material for receiving electrons from the cathode
to produce a luminous annular shaped pattern 15
on the anode, a plurality of control rods posi
tioned between the anode and the cathode and
parallel to the cathode to determine the area of
?uorescent surface of the anode reached by the’
electrons, a plurality of separate grids axially 20'
spaced with respect to each other and surround
ing said cathode, a plate electrode surrounding
each of said grids and independent direct current
connections between each of the plates and a dif
ferent one of said control rods. '
CHARLES N.
' EDWARD W.
.
ALL.
Y.
25
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