Патент USA US2124911код для вставки
July 26, 1938. R. DARNE 2,124,911 AUTOMATIC FIREARM Filed June 19, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Patented July 26, 193g 2,124,911 \ circo «STATES ïPATÈENT OFFICE ‘ 2,124,911 AUToMATIo FIREARM Regis Dai-ne, >`St. Etienne, France Application June 19, 1935,-.Serìal No. 27,435 In France June 29, 1934 5 Claims. _ _ The a; present invention relates to automatic firearms- and its object is to provide a firearm of this kind which is safer to operate, easier to take Preferred embodiments of the present inven tion will be hereinafter described with reference to pieces, and of higher precisionthan firearms by`wayof example, and in which: 5 of the same kind made up to this time. A first feature of the present invention con-- _sists in arranging the parts of the cartridge lift in_g conveyer in such manner that the cartridges cannot escape accidentally from said conveyer 10 under the effect of the vibrations due to the shock of the action carrier against the rear Vplate of the breech receiver. Furthermore, accord ing to the invention, this cartridge lifting con veyer is so arranged‘that, when it reaches its 15 higher position it can move down only when the cartridge is nearly wholly engaged into the cham benthus preventing any possible distortion of the cartridge when the latter is fed to the barrel. a a According to another‘feature of the present 2ï) invention, the member intended to limit the, dis placement of the action carrier toward the front is devised in such manner `as to further act as locking> means for the cartridge lifting conveyer and -also to be able to guide the movable breech 125 in perfectly axial relation with‘the barrel. Still another vfeature of the present invention consists in special means‘for fixing the feed cam on the action carrier andin the> provision of a servo-pawl device intended to render im "gjö possible the incident knownunder the name of “double feed”, this incident _consisting in a jam ming of the cartridges in the feed passage as a result either of a blunder of the person who uses _ _ the firearm or of an insufficiently long Astroke of the mechanism'when the firearm is in action. i VStill another feature of the present"` invention consists in the provision of a connecting rod stopping device adapted to act both ways, this _ (Cl. 89-2) device being intended on the one hand to limit a yielding manner the displacements of the feed connecting rods which are always brought at the optimum 'angle into contact with the feed cam, andlon the other hand to permit the as p sembling of the parts of the firearm whatever be’tlie position of the 'pawl carrying slider. ` ing a strong locking of the barrel, permits it to ex ` pand withoutiimpairing the precision of the arm _ ¿il or disturbing its working. " Finally, still another feature of the present invention consists in the 4provision of a device which serves to lock the guard in its slideway on _ the breech receiver and „also to yieldingly main, iîï? tain the safety member in either of its positions “firing”, and “safety”. Figs. 1 and 2 are' a'longitudinal sectional view and a transverse sectional View, respectively, il lustrating the structure and operation of the cartridge lifting _ conveyer; Fig. 3 is a.- longitudinal view, in section, of the device for fixing the feed cam to the action car rier; , Fig. 4 is `a transverse sectional View of the firearm showing the servo-pawl in operation, be fore the cartridge in position in the feed passage has been withdrawn from the band of cartridges; Fig. 5 is a longitudinal vertical sectional View corresponding to Fig. 4; 5 , _ _ Fig. 6,is a View similar to Fig. 4, showing the parts in the position they occupy when the car tridge `has been withdrawn from the band; N.) Eig. `'7 'is a general sectional View showing the whole ofthe firearm. The action carrier or frame I (Fig. l), which carries _breech block 2, is violently thrown to ward the rear by the gases. It ñrst strikes the buffer 3a and then the closure plate 3. Due to inertia, cartridge 4 has a tendency to slide in the jawsv 5% of conveyer 5 and to escape upwardly therefrom under the action of incline 6e which cooperates in `,disengaging _the cartridge from n saidV conveyer when said cartridge is engaged into 0 theuchamber ofthe barrel. Several devices were suggested, prior tothe present invention, for causing this part 6 to play the part of an ob turator. _ _ _ _ __ _ l _Breech receiver _1 is provided with .two projec- 35 tions l? and _11? andconveyer 5 is providedwith a heelhorzprojection 5c arranged in such manner that the rear end of the spring 8 of the conveyer engages said heelwhen the conveyer is in its upper position. _According1y,_conveyer 5 is pre- 40 vented from moving downwardly when the shock ofÁ carrier II on closure‘plate 3 occurs. On the other hand, the space _between projections 'la and ‘IP is suflicientfor permitting the jaws of the i Still another feature of the present invention consists in ‘providing means which, while ensur» v to 'the accompanying drawings, given merely conveyer, carrying a cartridge, to pass there- 45 betweenMbut the jaws cannot move apart from each other, so that cartridge 4 can neither slide toward `the rear `nor _escape upwardly, this being due 'also 4to _the fact that the jaws 5a and 5b of the conveyer ‘are engaged in the groove of the 50 cartridge Vand are of slightly enveloping shape. , However, Ait is necessary that the conveyer should be able to move downwardly _in the course of its forward movement, so as to be able to catch another cartridge in the feed passage. 55 2 2,124,911 For this purpose, when bent member 9, which serves chieñy to guide the front part of the car tridge toward the chamber, cornes into- contact with the lowering pin I0, this lever is compelled to pivot about its axis 921. The heel 9b of this member 9 then compresses spring 8 downwardly and disengages it from heel 5C, thus releasing conveyer 5, which can then move downwardly. This arrangement prevents any possibility of the cartridges being distorted when they enter the chamber, since the respective positions of mem bers 5 and I@ are so determined that the disen gagement of the cartridge from the conveyer and its insertion into the chamber take place before the conveyer can move down. Piece II, when it strikes the lowering pin III, serves to limit the stroke of the action carrier toward the front. This piece is connected to tongue I2 through a stirrup I3, and this arrange 20 ment enables it to undergo without damage the vibrations and shocks to which it is subjected for each stroke of the action carrier. VAs a mat ter of fact, piece II bears constantly against the action carrier, at IIa and IIb, without spindle I2 25 undergoing any stress, owing to the fact that stirrup I3 permits it to slide with respect thereto until it reaches its optimum position. Further more, the movable breech block, which bears against the action carrier, at la, in the rearward 30 direction, and against piece II, in the frontward direction, is consequently guided in a satisfac tory manner in the axial direction with respect to the barrel. Finally, when bolt 2 is removed, it suffices to pivot the whole of the system II» 35 IZ-Iä about spindle I2@ into a position at right angles to the axis of the action carrier in order to easily remove conveyer 5, and also pieces 24 and 5, which are normally attached thereto. Feed cam i5 (Fig. 3) is ñxed on the action 40 carrier I by means of two pins I'b and Id which limit its position toward the rear, toward the top and toward the bottom. A stop piece I5, pivoted at IC, prevents the cam from moving toward the front when the nose I5à of said piece I5 is en 45 gaged in a notch I@a of piece I4. This piece I5 is provided with a notch I5b in which is engaged the nose 8a of the spring 8 of the conveyer. When, by means of any tool, introduced through a slot provided in piece I5, the nose I5a of piece 50 I5 is depressed out from notch Ma, cam I4 is free to move toward the front and can thus easily be removed. After the removal of piece I4, piece I5, under the action of spring 8, pivots upwardly about axis IC until its heel I5c comes into contact 55 with pin Id. Spring 3 then escapes from notch I5b. The remounting is effected in the reverse order. It suffices to insert the end 8a of spring 8 into notch I5lo and then to compress said spring through piece I5, which is depressed by cam I4, 60 the latter being caused to slide toward the rear until the nose i5a ofzstop piece I5 engaged notch Iëla. A bent pin, introduced into holes Ie and If acts as a’ safety member which can be placed in position only when cam I ll is well fitted in posi 65 tion. One of the branches of this pin further prevents piston i5 from turning about itself. A hole, provided at Ig, makes it possible to verify that spring 8 is properly engaged in notch I5b. As shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 6, cartridges 50, 50a, 70 55h, etc., mounted in links 5I, Sla, 5Ib, etc., are fed successively into position in line with the axis of the machine gun, so as to be ready to be caught by the conveyer, the feed movement being imparted to the band of cartridges by pawl 55, 75 pivotally mounted on slider 56, itself controlled by connecting rods interconnected with the ac tion carrier. It will be readily understood that, if, for some reason, and especially due to an in suñiciency of the stroke, the conveyer does not catch the cartridge, it would be impossible to rearm the machine gun if pawl 55 were capable of bringing cartridge 5I)a into the position occu pied by cartridge 50 while the latter has not yet been extracted from the band by the conveyer. In order to avoid this incident, commonly 10 called “double feed”, the action of the pawl is controlled by a member 5T or “servo-pawl”. As long as cartridge 55 has not been removed from the band of cartridges, and from the feed pas sage, by the conveyer, it keeps servo-pawl 5l, 15 pivoted at 51a to slider 56 in lowered position. The nose 5'!b of said pawl 51 acts on pawl 55, itself pivoted at 55a and keeps it in inoperative position. It should be noted that, in Fig. 5, cartridge 5I! is suspended in the feed passage between the upper stop member 52 and the lower stop mem ber 53, on the one hand, and fork 54, on the other hand. Cartridge 5B depresses servo-pawl 5l through link 5I . 25 In normal operation of the machine gun, car tridge 50 is withdrawn from the band. Conse quently, the link 5I in which said cartridge was carried can now move upwardly (Fig. 6) and ceases to depress servo-pawl 5l, which releases 30 pawl 55. The latter is thus in a position to bring a new cartridge 5E)ad into the place of the cartridge 50 removed from the conveyor. The gun shown is of the type actuated by gas. The bolting of the movable breech 2 between the 35 back of the gun and the breech receiver 'I in the specification 'Ia provided for that purpose as well as the unlocking of the breech 2 are pro duced by the movements of the carrier mecha nism I. The carrier mechanism is actuated in 40 the usual manner by admitting a portion of the combustion gases so as to act upon the piston I6 located in advance of the carrier mechanism and on the other hand by the reaction action of the spring a. The admission of a portion of the combustion gases is secured through the gas chamber ‘I6 which is in communication with the barrel 'I5 of the gun and with the tube 'I8 lo cated in front of the piston I5. When a shot is ñred the entire assembly of the carrier mechanism and the breech block is moved towards the rear under the action of the gas upon the piston I6. At the extreme end the carrier mechanism comes into contact with the element 3fL which is under the action of a spring. The spring a then acts to drive back the assem bly towards the front part while raising the car tridge G and introducing the- same into the cham ber of the barrel while at the same time closing the breech. The carrier mechanism I comprises a heavy portion b` which has the inclined sur faces c and c1 acting upon correspondingly in clined surfaces upon the breech block in order to cause a bolting thereof during its forward movement and an unlocking upon its rearward movement. While I have, in the above description, dis closed what I deem to be practical and efficient embodiments of the present invention, it should be well understood that I do not Wish to be limit ed thereto as there might be changes made in the arrangement, disposition and form of the 45 50 55 60 65 70 parts without departing from the principle of the present invention as comprehended within the scope of the appended claims. 75 2,124,911 What I claim is: 1. An automatic firearm comprising a breech block receiver, an action carrier movable in said breech receiver, a barrel fixed to said breech receiver, a barrel chamber for the cartridges, a feed passage, a device for conveying the car tridges from said passage to said chamber, said device comprising a cartridge lifting carrier hav ing pivoted thereto grippers and a cartridge sup 10 porting lever, said grippers having external plane surfaces and internal bosses on said re ceiver cooperating with said plane surfaces pre venting spreading of said grippers on the for ward stroke of said action carrier. 15 2. An automatic firearm comprising a breech - -block receiver, an action carrier movable in said breech receiver, a barrel fixed to said breech re ceiver, a barrel chamber for the cartridges, a feed passage, a device for conveying the car tridges from said passage to said chamber, said device comprising a cartridge lifting carrier hav ing pivoted thereto grippers and a cartridge sup porting lever, said cartridge lifting carrier hav ing a shoulder, a spring engaging said shoulder 25 preventing downward movement of said lifting carrier and means operative by said supporting lever disengaging said spring and permitting downward movement of said lifting carrier. 3. An automatic firearm comprising a breech 30 block receiver, an action carrier movable in said breech receiver, a barrel fixed to said breech receiver, a barrel chamber for the cartridges, a feed passage, a device for conveying the car tridges from said passage to said chamber, said 35 device comprising a cartridge lifting carrier hav 3 ing pivoted thereto grippers and a cartridge sup porting lever, said cartridge lifting carrier hav ing a shoulder, a spring engaging said shoulder preventing downward movement of said lifting carrier, a fixed abutment, a cam surface on said lever cooperating with said spring to dísengage the same from said shoulder upon contact of said lever with said abutment, whereby said lift ing carrier is disengaged from a cartridge and is 10 ready for a succeeding cartridge. 4. An automatic firearm comprising a breech block receiver, an action carrier movable in said breech receiver, a barrel fixed to said breech receiver, a barrel chamber for the cartridges, a feed passage, a device for conveying the car tridges fromV said Ypassage to said chamber, said ,Y device comprising a cartridge lifting carrier hav ing pivoted thereto grippers and a cartridge sup porting lever and a member pivoted to said lift ing carrier serving to take the forward shocks to 20 said action carrier and also to lock said lifting carrier in said breech receiver. 5. An automatic firearm comprising a breech block receiver, an action carrier movable in said breech receiver, a barrel ñxed to said breech re 25 ceiver, a barrel chamber for the cartridges, a feed passage, a device for conveying the cartridges from said passage to said chamber, said device comprising a cartridge lifting carrier having piv oted thereto grippers and a cartridge supporting 30 lever and a member pivoted and longitudinally slidable to said lifting carrier serving to take the forward shocks to said action carrier and also to lock said lifting carrier in said breech receiver. 35 REGIS DARNE.