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Патент USA US2124973

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i=- 3 1 3 _ 2 5 2
July 26, 1938.
caoss REFERENCE
SEARCH 3002.1
J. |.. FEARING
~
‘2,124,973
"AVE TRANSLATING METHOD AND CIRCUI'i'S
Filed NOV. 13, 1935
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Patented July 26,‘ 1938
' 2,124,913‘
‘UNITED ‘ STATES PATENT ' OFFICE
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Application Hovemher 18. 10st. Serial No. 11am
“Ola-lull. (Oi. 250-86)
segments arranged and connected in
This invention relates to methods of translat ' commutator
such relation to the path that the discharge cur
ing electrical energy‘ into impulses or alternating
current and to apparatus and circuitsemployed
in connection with these methods. The inven
5 tion makes use of space discharge apparatus of
the type employing a defiectabie beam of electric
rent may be simultaneously commutated at more
than one frequency. The cyclic de?ection of the
beam may be maintained by waves derived from 5
the resulting impulses or from an independent
source.
carriers.
7
Oscillators of the space discharge W99 com
monly have the limitation that only a relatively
_ 10 small range of frequencies can be produced while
using a given frequency determining standard.
such as a resonant circuit. When frequencies
above that range are to be produced, it is neces
. sary to substitute a different frequency deter
15 mining standard in the circuit or to resort to cas
cade harmonic producers. A cascade harmonic
producer ordinarily requires one or more tuned
circuits in addition to that for the fundamental
‘
20
‘
»
.
According to another feature. the beam may
trace a cyciicpathin which lessthanallof one -
set of alternate‘ segments are connected to one 10
output circuit for the production of current of
the frequency which maintains the cyclic de?ec
tion of the beam while the-beam is at the same I
time commuta'ting current at a different fre
quency for another output circuit.
"
According to another aspect of the present in
vention, the beam is de?ected over any one of a
plurality of rows of commutator segments to con
trol the distribution of current impulses in the
frequency. It also sli?ers the limitation that ' output circuit connections of the segments. The m ’
when a sine wave of frequency, 1. is subjected to number of segments in any row may be sufficient
a single harmonic producing operation, the har
to make the commutation frequency many times
monic components of frequencies 2], 3)‘. and that of the de?ection frequency. Di?erent rows
higher frequency, are of much smaller amplitude
than that of the fundamental frequency I. Fur
23 thermore, the harmonic components of progres
may contain di?erent numbers of segments. and
provision is made for selecting a de?ection path 25
over any desired rowto determine the output cir
sively higher frequency‘ are of successively smaller ' cult over which impulses are to be transmitted.
amplitude._
'.
,
'
' or to determine the frequency of the impulses.
An object of the present invention is to simpli
the beam has a given de?ection frequency.
fy the production of impulses and alternating when
any
one
of a plurality of different output fre-_ w
3o currents of constant fundamental and harmonic quencies may be produced, the output frequentsr
frequency over a wide range of frequencies and to in any case depending upon the de?ection fre
improve the efiiciency of production of such im
quency and upon the effective number of seg
pulses and currents.
‘
ments fnthe row‘over which the beamis de
another object is to generate impulses or alter
g5 nating currents over a wide range of frequencies
under the control of a single frequency deter
mining standard. and to produce very high fre
quency impulses and currents under the control of u
40'
~
a frequency standard of lower frequency.
Another object is to utilize a periodically de
ilected. l'l'iiqucncies in the range between‘ the 35 -
frequencies produced by different rows may be
obtained by selecting harmonics produced within _
this range while the de?ection frequency remains
unchanged, or by adiusting the deflection fro' quency to produce commutation or ‘harmonics at
?eeting beam of electric carriers to commutate ' the‘desil‘ed frequency.
electric current in a ‘single operation at a ‘fre
_ quency equal to or higher than that of the posi
tive and negativepeaks in a wave controlling the
45 de?ection of the beam. and'to derive-the control’
wave fromthe de?ecting beam.
Otherohiects'aretorestricttheproduotionof
and'the am" tude of undesired harmonics. to
.
These and other features of the invention will '
be understood from the following detailed de
scriptionin connection with the acoompcn?nl
drawing illustrating speci?c a piications of the ‘5
invention.
*
- “
iis'adiagramof
oneform
ofs'pace discharge device and the‘ circuit-thereof
forproducingel trical impulses and alternating ‘
currents of fundamental and harmonic frequeu- so
ci'es.
‘
.
i
.
rla?is aqiagrammlticradiaifaceviewofthe
commutator ‘of Fig. l. j
‘ .
l'lg.8is a-radiaifaoeviewofasupportingdisl:
for the commutator.
CROSS REFERENCE
SEARCH ROOM
arose-rs
Fig.4isafragmentaryviewofanaxialsection
of thecommutatorendof thespaoedischarge
device of Fig. 1, showing in detail the arrange
ment for supporting the commutator and an axial
sectionof the Pig. 8 disk, taken on the line 4-4
of Fig. 3.
Fig; 5 is a diagram of circuit connections for
the commutator of Figs. 1 and 2.
Figures 8 to 10 are diagrams of modi?ed forms
of commutators and output connections.
Referring to Fig. i, the space discharge device
I, consisting of a highly evacuated tube, pref
erably of transparent glass. contains the heater
2 for the cathode 3 which in turn is adapted
15 when the tube is suitablyenergized to discharge
an electron stream through the axial apertures.
that one set of alternate rings consisting of the
rim of dish II, It. ring II, II, and ring Ii, 28,
Fig. 6 are divided by gaps II into sections, while.
the intervening rings I‘! and Il, constituting the
other:s'et of alternate rings, are closed without
gaps
.
6
Each of the adjacent edges of any two adja
cent rings has teeth-like segments fl projecting
radially into the space between these edges. The
segments 26 have such dimensions and locations 10
that those on one edge of a ring nest with uni
form spacings between those on the adjacent
edge of the adjacent ring, thus forming a single
circular row of segments between each pair of
adiacent rings and coaxial with the tube axis.
One set of alternate segments in any one row
of the annular control electrode 4 and the an
,connects with one ring and the other set of al
nuiar anode 5, thereby producing a beam of
electrons which discharges through the space
ternate segments connects with the adjacent
ring. The edges of each ring and its segments
are spaced sumciently from the edges of the ad 20
iacent ring and its segments to insulate the rings
between the beam de?ecting electrodes 6, ‘I, l, I.
The commutator ll serves as a target for receiv
ing the electron beam, and is supported from
theinsulatingdisk ll whichinturnissupported
from the end wall II of the neck It having the
?are ll Joined with the main wall of the tube
l, the elements i2, it, It forming a reentrant
end for the tube.
One pair of de?ecting electrodes I, ‘I are dis
posed face to face with each other on opposite
sides of the tube axis, on a diameter of the tube
at right angles to the diameter on which the
de?ecting electrodes I, 8 are disposed face to
face with each other on opposite sides of the tube
axis. Electrodes 8, I may be spaced slightly fur
ther along the tube axis from the cathode I than
from each other.
In order to obtain uniform frequency of com
mutation, the segments in any one row are as
nearly as possible of precisely equal width meas
ured in a direction along an arc coaxial with
the rings. and the spacings measured between
adjacent segments along any such are are made
as nearly as possible precisely equal to each
other. Each, row preferably contains a di?erent
number of segments from that of other rows.
The number of segments in any row is preferably
greater than that of a row of smaller diameter
and less than that of a row of greater diameter.
The commutator III is supported from a disk
electrodes I. ‘I.
ll Figs. 1, 3, 4, of highly refractory porcelain.
Electrodes 3 to I are constructed and arranged
as in well known cathode ray oscillographs. It is
glass, or other material of suitably high me-'
chanical and dielectric strength to serve as ‘a
support while heated moderately and while sub
,iected to bombardment by an electric discharge. 40
Fig. 4 shows details of one of the supporting
elements It for the ring section II of the com
mutator. similar'supports Iii are provided at
to be understood, however, that the electrodes
40 and other parts of the tube may be varied in
- design in accordance with the well known tech
nique of high frequency tubes when very high
frequencies are to be utilized and in accordance
, with that of high power tubes when a larger
45
amountoipoweristobeutiliaedthanwithan
other points along the ring II, II and on the
othenrings at the places indicated by the small
ordinary oscillograph tube.
circles on the rings in Fig. 2.
The commutator electrode ll, Fig. 2, is made
up of a plurality of separate electrodes II", II.
circles 8|, II. 33 on disk ll, Fig. 3, designate
II, II, If. Theseetored dish Ii, it, the_ring
disk II, I‘, the ring if, and the ring II, II,
l1 and the ring II, II have their electron re
ceiving surfaces and their circular rims coaxial
with the tube axis. The electron receiving sur
face of the commutator ll may be in a radial
plane of the tube, or may be of slight curvature.
not shown.asinthecase'oftheusual oscillo
graph tube screen. The commutator may be‘
made of nickel, m'olybdenum. tungsten, or other
respectively are supported. In order to simplify
the drawing, the segments 28 of Fig. 2 are omit
ted from the ring section II in Fig. 4.
The support it consists of a wire parallel to
the tube axis and ?rmly secured at one end to
suitable refractory metal. The disk Ii, ll and
the ring it. II are divided into sections by the
insulating radial gaps 28 which are on the same
diameter in the Fig. 2 commutator.
.
While Fig. 2 shows the dish II. I. and two
rings l1 and II, II. it will be understood that
in its simplest form. the commutator may uti
line only two rings l1 and I8, is wlthoutthe disk
ormayutiliseonlyonsring i'landthedisk II,
it without the other ring II. II. or may utilize
only theldisk ll. ll. ‘Furthermore. the com
mutator it may include additional rings around
70 those shown in Fig. 2.‘ as shown diagrammati
cally in Fig. 6, for example, in which the added
rings II and ii, 22 are provided. Starting with
the rim of the sectored disk ll, it which for con
venience of description may be referred to as a
ring, and going radially outward, it will be noted
The concentric
45
the center lines of the holes M from which the
the ring- it by passing through a hole therein and
having its outer end preferably welded or riv
eted to the ring. The wire 30 passes freely
through the tubular metal spacer 8S and the hole
34 in the disk ll. At the end of the hole 30 re
mote from ring", the wire as is given a sum
ciently sharp bend or offset 38 to hold the ring
it securely in place in ?xed relation with the
disk II and to prevent objectionable looseness of
the spacer 38 between the ring and disk.
-
Thedisk ll.asshowninFigs.3and4,issup
ported by four equally spaced stiif wires 81 par
alleltothetubeaxis. Oneendofeachwire?
passes freely through a hole ll near the edge
of the disk. The other end is sealed into the end 0
wall I! of the neck It and may be employed as
a lead-in wire. The short wires a, II, welded or
otherwise ?rmly secured to the lead 81 at oppo
site sides ofthe dish ll. provide stops for limit
lug movement of the dish axially of the tube and 75
3
9, 194,978
for holding the disk in its proper space relation
with the end wall I2 of the tube.
Wires 33, 39 are preferably separated more than
the thickness of the disk II at the hole 28, so
that one or both of the outer ends of the wires
may be bent axially of the tube into contact with
the edges of the disk to adjust the position of
the disk and to hold it securely in place without
causing excessive stresses therein. This arrange
ment provides a simple and rugged form of an
chorage for the disk I I, and is particularly adapt
ed to yield to stresses originating from thermal
and other causes.
Each ring and ring section, such as section It,
15 Fig. 4, is electrically connected with one of the
lead-in supports 31 or with a separate lead-in
wire III by a tie-wire 4|. Various different con
nections between rings and sections thereof may
be made, depending upon the kind of output cir
cuits to be employed or upon the kind of output
current desired.
Several speci?c arrangements
of output circuit connections for the commutator
Ill are shown in Figs. 5 to 10. The direct con
nections between the rings may obviously be com
pleted within the tube by tie-wires II, Fig. 4, or
may be outside of the tube.
The front surface of the commutator exposed
to bombardment by the electron beam is prefer
ably, but not necessarily, treated to reveal mo
mentarily for visual observation, the area or path
on the surface over which the beam travels. One
such method is to deposit on the front surface of
the disk I5, l6 and the rings l1, IS, IS, etc., a thin
layer of condensed vapor of a refractory metal,
35 such as molybdenum, in an atmosphere of low
pressure inert gas, such as argon, to produce a
?nely divided metal ?lm on the surface of the
commutator. Another method is to coat the front
surface of the commutator with a thin ?lm of zinc
orthosilicate, commonly known as synthetic wil
lemite.
When assembling the commutator Ill and
mounting it within the tube I, the disk I5, I6 and
rings I1, I8, I9, Fig. 2, are first assembled on
45 the disk II.
A tie-wire II is attached to one
support wire 3|) for each commutator element.
The neck I3 and ?are it are as yet unattached
to the main wall of the tube. The four support
wires 31 and the desired number of lead-in wires
50 ‘40 are sealed into the end wall II of the neck
I3. The disk II, carrying the commutator ele
also connects with the battery 53 or other steady
source of direct current energy having the ad
justable voltage terminals 54, 55, 66, 51, 53, 59, Bil.
Terminal 55 is in the direct connection of the
battery with ground 52. Terminal 56, connecting
with the anode 5, is adjusted relatively to terminal
55 to provide a suitably high positive potential
relatively to ground and to the cathode 3 to at
tract a stream of electrons toward anode 5. Ter
mine] 54, connecting with the control electrode .10
4, is adjusted to a lower potential than anode 5
and may be either positive or negative relative
to cathode 3, depending upon the adjustments of
the potentials of the other electrodes and the
characteristics of the tube. Terminals 54 and 56 15
are adjusted relatively to each other to control
the concentration of the beam and cross-sectional
area of the beam where it strikes the com
mutator III.
The resistance elements 6| may be included in 20
the leads of electrodes 4, 5, 6,1, 8, 9 to prevent
undesirably large currents from ?owing to these
electrodes.
'
'
The transformer 65, 66 has the upper and lower
terminals of its secondary coil 66 connected, re 25
spectively with the de?ecting electrodes 9 and 6.
The de?ecting electrodes 1, 8 connect, respec
tively, through the condensers B1 and 68 of negli
gibly low impedance, with the mid-point 59 of the
impedance ‘Ill shunting the coil 66. The imped 30
ance 10 includes the branched circuit ‘II, ‘I2 in
series with the branched circuit ‘l3, 14. The cir
cuit ‘II, 12 consists of the variable resistance ‘II
in parallel with the variable condenser 12, and
the circuit ‘I3, 14 consists of the variable resist 35
ance ‘I3 in parallel with the variable induc
tance ‘I4.
The combined impedance of elements ‘II, 12 is
adjusted to be equal to that of elements ‘I3, 14,
while the ratio of the combined reactance to re
40
sistance of elements ‘II, ‘I! is adjusted relatively
to the ratio of reactance to resistance of elements
13, 14, so that the phase angle between the volt
age across the impedance ‘II, ‘II and the voltage
across the impedance ‘I3, 14 is 90 degrees. The
single phase voltage from the transformer 65, 66
is thus converted into a two phase voltage. The
phase across elements ‘I I, 12, is impressed on the
de?ectors 6, ‘I, while the phase across elements
‘I3, 14, is impressed on de?ectors 8, 9, thereby de
?ecting the forward end of the beam of electrons
ments assembled therewith, is then mounted on
so that it rotates periodically through a circular
the supporting wires 31, the wires 38, 39 being
55 be located coaxially of the tube, the free ends of
path.
Adjustment of the terminals 51, 53, 59 oflthe
battery 53, control the static potentials of the
de?ectors 6, ‘I, B, 9 relatively to the anode 5 and
the cathode 3, the potentials being so adjusted
tube I to form a reentrant end therefor, care
60 being taken to locate the commutator and its
that the beam passes by the de?ectors without
being objectlonably attracted or repelled by their
static potentials. A path for the static potential 60
of de?ector 6 may be traced from the terminal 51,
through the resistance ‘II in parallel with another
secured in position so that the commutator may
the tie-wires ‘I being connected with the proper
lead-in wires 31 and “I. The neck I3 is then
sealed at the ?are It to the main wall of the
front surface coaxially to the tube. Degasing of
the elements within the tube, assembly of the
other parts of the tube, and the other procedures
‘of the usual type necessary for producing a high
vacuum tube, are well understood by those skilled
in the art. and need not be referred to in detail.
While one speci?c method of supporting the com
mutator It has been described by way of illustra
tion, it will be understood that various other
70 forms of support may be employed.
‘The circuit connections for the tube I, Fig. 1
will now be described. A source of alternating
current enemy I0 is provided for the heater 2 of
the cathode 3. A conductor It extends from the
' 15 ‘heater 2 and cathode : to ground at I! which
55
path through elements 13, ‘I4 and ‘coil 66. A path
for the static potential of de?ector 9 may be
traced from the terminal 51 through elements 65
13, ‘It in parallel with another path through the
resistance ‘II and coil 66. Adjustment of terminal
53 controls the steady potential diii'erence be
tween de?ectors i, ‘I, so that the circular path
traced by the beam may be properly centered in 70
avertical direction. In a similar manner, adjust
ment of terminal 58 controls the potential differ
ence between de?ectors 3, 9 and permits of cen
tering the circular path in a horizontal direction.
'I'heclrcularpath ofthebeammaythusbead
4
2,124,073
justed to a position coaxial with the tube and
with the disk I3, II and the rings I‘I, I3, I9, and
so on, of the commutator I0. The position of the
path at any instant may be observed by watch
ing the luminous path traced by the beam on the
surface of the commutator, or by observing the
current passing through the respective leads or
circuits connecting with the different parts of
the commutator.
10
.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 5, the output circuit 80,
82 of the tube connects the commutator ring II
with the adjustable positive potential terminal
60 of the battery 53, and includes the output
coupling ll, 02, consisting of the variable tuning
15 condenser II in parallel with the inductance 02.
conductor It“, the upper contact 01' the switch
I02, and the rheostat I03 in series, to the upper
end of the potentiometer I04. The lower termi
nal of the coil 09 connects through the conductor
I05 and the upper contact of the switch I06 with
the lower end of the potentiometer I04. Two or
more sliding contacts IN on the potentiometer
I04, each connecting,respective1y, through one of
the variable phase shifting reactances I00 and
with one of the contacts of the sliding switch I00, 10
provide a connection between the potentiometer
I04 and the upper end of the primary coil 60.
The lower end of the potentiometer connects di
rectly with the lower end of the coil 65.
The repeater or ampli?er IIO, labelled A, and 15
adapted to repeat in the direction indicated by
the arrow, has its input terminals II I, II2 con
The coupling ll, 82 may be tuned to resonance
with the frequency of the desired output wave.
Coupled with the inductance 32, is the inductance
nected across the conductors IOI, I05, and its out
03, connected with the utilization circuit 04,
put terminals Ill, Ill connected respectively,
with the lower contacts of the two-pole switch 20
I02, I05. The ampli?er A may be of any well
The output conductor 05 connects with the
right hand sector l8 of the disk IS, IS, and the ' known type, adapted faithfully to reproduce at
right hand sector I! of the ring III, I! and extends its output terminals, the wave impressed upon
by way of the lower contact of the switch blade its input terminals, without introducing distor
tion.
'
06, when the two pole switch 06, 81 is in its low
25
The form of ampli?er shown in the drawing is
er position, to the cathode 09 of the current lim
20 labelled U0.
iting device 90, having the anode 0| from which ‘ of the well known resistance-capacity coupled
the path of the output current may be traced to
the resonant‘frequency determining circuit 02,
93, consisting of the inductance coil 82 in parallel
with the variable tuning condenser 03, and
through the lower contact of switch blade 81.
type, in which the low impedance blocking con
denser IIG in series with the potentiometer re
sistance H6, is connected across the input termi
nals II I, II2, the sliding contact III for varying
the ampli?cation, being connected with the grid
of the triode repeater or ampli?er tube I I0. The
to conductor 05 and 62 to the battery 53.
The current limiter 00 may be a recti?er of the usual direct current source “8 is provided to
well known thermionic diode type, having its polarize the grid negatively with respect to the
cathode for the purpose of reducing distortion.
cathode heated to such a temperature by cur
rent from the battery 48 controlled by the variable The anode-cathode circuit includes the resistance
I20 in series with the source of space current I2I,
resistance 30 that the space current increases
rapidly with increase of the positive potential of and transmits output waves through the low im
the anode relatively to the cathode of the rectifier, pedance blocking condenser I22 to the output
but the space current quickly reaches a sub , terminals H3, III which are connected with the
stantially constant predetermined strength or lower contacts of the switch I02, I06, in such
value which does not increase appreciably when phase as to provide the same instantaneous
polarity for the potentiometer I04 as the upper
the anode-cathode voltage of the rectifier in
contacts
of the switch I02, I06. The amplifier A
creases
further
to
considerably
greater
values
45
may obviously consist of more than the one stage
corresponding with the maximum working volt
ages applied thereto. In other words the recti?er shown.
The repeater or ampli?er I25, having its input
90 becomes saturated at a voltage which is low
compared with the usual maximum instantaneous terminals connected in parallel with ‘those of the
repeater I I0, serves as unilateral transmission de
50 operating voltages applied thereto. The recti?er
00 thus prevents the amplitude of the current vice to transmit waves of the frequency selected
supplied to the frequency determining circuit 92, by the tuned circuit 92, 93 to .the, utilization cir
cuit I2‘ and to prevent reaction of the circuit I26
03 from departing from a predetermined value.
on the tuned circuit 92, 93.
The resonant circuit 92, 03 is preferably of low
The independent source of waves I30, is con
loss construction and is preferably sharply tuned.
The circuit is also preferably arranged in well nected across the upper contacts of the switch
08, 81, so that when the switch is in its upper
known manner to maintain its constants un
changed when the temperature in the vicinity position, impulses are transmitted from the source
thereof changes. Adjustment of the tuning is I30, through the recti?er 90 to the resonant cir
cuit 92, 03, in place of impulses transmitted over
therefore primarily under the control of the var
conductors 05, 05 from the commutator I0. In
iable condenser 03.
The left hand sector II of the disk II, It and this case the circuit 02, 93 is preferably tuned to
the frequency of the source I30, but may be tuned
the left hand sector I0 oi the ring II, I9 are con
I
nected together with the conductor 06, in series to a harmonic thereof.
When operating the tube I, the adjustable ter
with the variable resistance 31, the choke coil 00,
minal 60 of the battery 53 is adjusted to such a
and the conductor 02, connecting with the posi
tive terminal 33 of the battery I3. Resistance 01 positive potential relatively to the cathode 3 that
the beam of electrons discharges on the commu
is adjusted to prevent an undesirably large cur
rent through the conductor 30. The choke coil 00 tator I0. The focus of the beam may be adjusted
70 is of high impedance to alternating current of the by varying the potentials of‘ electrodes 4, I. The
static potentials of the de?ectors 6, ‘I, I, 0 are
de?ection frequency or higher.
a
The inductance coil 00, variably coupled as a adjusted. by terminals 01, 58, 09, as already re
transformer secondary with the inductance coil ferred to, so that the beam is suitably centered
02, has its upper terminal connected through the relatively to the commutator axis.
The current in the beam, builds up almost in76 adjustable phase controlling reactance I00, the
30
35
45
50
55
65
75
dividing its
becauseofthebeambeingdirectedwhollyor
pcrtupcmsector iineartheoenterofthedisk
II, is, an im
of direct current derived from
the battery II by way of cathode I. discharges
10 through the conductor 8!, the current limiter O0
and the resonant circuit 92, ll, back through the
conductor OI to battery 68. Waves oi resonant
to
number, n of segments of the ring I‘! in the
ii. ll, it, multiplied by the. de?ection frequency.
1. or an impulse frequency of at.
frequency are thus set up and stored in the ire
quency determining circuit or, 98. and are trans
current abruptly,
15 mitted from the secondary coil 89 of the cou
pling II, 00. through conductors III, III. switch
III, I" to the potentiometer ill. from which
'
g
Eé
beam on the segments.
E 3' 5 5 s 5a8 R gEs
the waves are transmitted through the trans
former 6!, It and to the de?ectors l. ‘I. 8. I, caus
ingthebeamtobede?ectedcyclicaily over acir
cular path which quickly increases in diameter to
a ?xed steady state value of constant frequency
as impulses are supplied to the circuit l2, it in
successive cycles.
~
'
For the production of the highest frequencies,
the‘ switch m is‘ placed in its highest position
with the highest slider lll'i near to but somewhat
short or itshighest possible position. The resist-‘
ance Ill is then adjusted until the control wave
applied to the de?ectors l, ‘I, I, I. has su?icient
amplitude to cause the beam to trace a path over
the outermost row ofsegments I1, “.19. Figs. 2
- and 5. The uppermost phase shifting reactance
multiple thereof may be selected by
on
to the utilization circuit N, to the exclusion of
wave energy of other frequencies. By making the
on characteristic of the elements ll,
82, ll sumciently broad, several different fre
quencies may be transmitted to the circuit ll
without changing the impedance adjustment or
these elements. when the range of output fre
quencies is very wide. it is preferable to substitute 30
appropriate reactance and coupling elements
II. or, II for different portions or the frequency
range.
,
\
'
The coupling 9!, as is preferably made loose
enough' to insure stability of _ ‘operation or the‘ 85
resonant circuit O2, 98 at the one desired free
ill may then be adjusted to establish the opti
mum output of waves oi’ the de?ection frequency,
so that‘ the beam strikes and removes from the
ring section I! at such instants of time that suc
cessive impulses oi the de?ection frequency pro—
duce the desired additive effect in the circuit 0!,
'quency,‘ and to insure the desired constancy of
sary‘ while adjusting the phase shitting reactance
Ill. in order to. maintain the control‘wave at its
ondary coil II to the de?ectors b, ‘I, l. I, is in
su?icient to maintain the desired diameter of
the output frequency.
when .the uppermost
slider llll is near the upper end of the resistance
4.“ It. or provide the ‘desired stability of operation. .llll and the resistance "3'18 adjusted to a mini 40
mum. and the energy supplied through the sec
Adjustment of the resistance in may be neces
proper amplitude, so that the beam maybe kept ‘ circular path of the beam. some increase in‘ energy
traveling over the Proper row i1, II, II.- One
may be obtained by the expedient of increasing 45
half of one set of alternateseg'ments, namely - the coupling 82. $9, or by raising the saturation
those on the edge of the sector I‘. collect direct limit of recti?er ill. or by both at these expedi
current during every other half cycle of the de-. ents. However. when these expedients are in
?ection wave. At the beginning of one half cycle, adequate or ‘are not desired, use may be made
the beam passes from ring section ll to section of the ampli?er III by connecting the switch
I9, and for that‘ half cycle the resonant circuit I02, I" in its'lower position, and adjusting the
_ s2, 9! is supplied with a series of direct current
impulses corresponding with the number of seg
ments over which the ‘beam passes. These im
pulses are integrated on the condenser ll, pro
ducing an eil'ect on the circuit I2, 83 similar to
that of a single direct current impulse of a dura
tion of one half a cycle oi’ the de?ection wave.
a At the end of this ?rst half cycle, the beam passes
from the ring section I! to section ll andtrans
mits direct current to the section II during the
second half cycle without transmitting any cur
slider II‘I until the ampli?er ill provides the
desired amount of amplification.
,
_
The second and third contacts from the top
in the switch m, in the order named, provide
voltages of successive'lower strength or value for
the de?ectors I, ‘I, U, I from the second and third
sliders ill, respectively of the potentiometer llll.
‘from
When the
the top,
switch
the‘II!
associated
is in itsorsecond
second slider 60
It‘! is adjusted to make the beam trace its path
over the row", is, H to produce in the output
rent to the circuit 82; as. Succeeding cycles re
peat the periormance of the ?rst cycle. The
beam thus commutates direct current at the de
?ection irequency and thereby supplies the neces
circuit so. impulses and waves of a frequency
sary control current to maintain the cyclic de?ec
tion of the beam. The electrostatic charge col
lected by the ring section I8. discharges through
the high frequencychoke coil It, and the resist
thirdslider lll‘lisadjustedtomakethebeam
ai'ieev .1 to the battery ll.
'
‘
At the same time that the beam current is
being commutated fat the de?ection frequency
through one set of ‘alternate segments, namely
75 those of the ring II, I! in the row l‘l, ll, ll,
equal to the‘de?ectiou frequency multiplied by
one-half the number of ‘segments in the row.
When the switch III is in its third position. the
travel wholly over the sectors II, is. which serve
as a two segment commutator to produce waves
of the deflection frequency in the utilisation cir 70
cult i2! and on the de?ectors ‘I. ‘I, 40, I; By
transferring the switch ill from second to third
positionJtwiIIbeseenthatoutputcm-rentenergy
ceases to be transmitted to the output circuit II.
For each position of the switch II. and- of
CROSS VKLrtKtNUI:
6
‘
WSEARCH BOOM
2,124.9"
the associated slider ill. the associated phase
shifting reactance Ill is_adJusted-to give the
de?ector control circuit as a whole, the desired
phase angle. as described above in connection
eachofthethreeormorepositiousoftheswitch
Ill, the wave transmittedtothe utilisation‘ cir
cult I20 remains at the de?ection frequency.
ifitbeassumedthattherearemsegmen
withthe adiustmentofthe?rstorumlcrmoet intherow i‘l, II, llinaparticularcase.the
reactance Ill. During the adjustment of the
circuits of the second and third contacts of switch
ring I‘! would have 100 segments in that row and“
the beam current would be commutated atja
I", the resistance"; remains unchanged. It
frequency at or 100 I, thereby producing direct
isnowpossibletoshiftthepathoftheheam
10 quickly from one row of segments to another
15
and thus select by the switch Ill, .any one of
several di?'erent frequencies for production with
out changing the tuning of the resonant fre
frequency of would have a frequency of 1000 I
lntheassumedcase. Ifitbefurtherassumed
that the de?ection frequency determining cir
quency determining circuit II, 88.
frequency of commutation. the tuning thereof
cuit 02, I! is made resonant to an audio fre
quency wave of 1000 cycles, the current would be 15
commutated at a frequency of 100,000 cycles and
need not be as critical as that of the circuit 0!,
the tenth harmonic would be 1,000,000 cycles.
_
Since the circuit ii, I! does not control the
I]. and the circuit Ii, I! may therefore be of
relatively low cost construction for its particu
20 lar frequency range.
.
In order to obtain an output frequency in the
range between two adjacent communication fre
quencies, one of the commutation frequencies. be
low that of the upper of these two adjacent fre
25
current impulses and waves of a frequency of
100 I. The tenth harmonic of the fundamental 10
quencies. may be employed to produce a harmonic
havingthedesiredfrequency,orthedesiredfre
Itwillbeunderstoodthat thenumberofsec
mentsinanyonerowmaybegreaterorlessthan
200 and that the frequency, is at which circuit
II, II is resonant may be subaudihle, or may be a
g iEE
s a
be made to commutate, not only at very low fre
quencies, but aho at extremely high frequencies.
and toproduce directcurrentimpulsesorwaves
when the number of lec
mentsisconsiderablyless than200in-onerow,
tion frequency su?iciently to produce the desired
commutation or harmonic
.
veryhighfrequenciesmayheproducedbyemr
oyingahighdeilectionfrequency.
isnecessarytousegreatcarelnavoid
changing the tuning of the circuit 0!. 08, any
tendencyof'thepathofthebeamtobecomenom,
'
veryhighi'requenciaaretohepro-_
when
5:
5 E E E
85%‘gE%E5E2
,2
aminimumJndtheimpedancesatthecow
Fate
nandatthecircuitterminaticnsshmiidbe
tched for emeient operation. Balanced cir
ts,
owndiagrammaticallyinmmoandmand
45
quency of the circuit 02, II maybemadesuf-‘
?cientb wide,withres'pecttothenmnbers of
segmentsinthediifereritrowaastopermitof
50
65
the production, by commutation or briber
monics, of any desired wave frequency between
commutation frequency to a frequency many
times that of the highest commutation frequency.
Because of the fact that the frequency range of
theswitch Illinthiscasehas?vecontsctposi
tions, one for each row of segments, so the beam
maybede?ected'overanydesiredoneof the
adjustment of the circuit 02, It may ordinarily ' five rows to produce any one of the ?ve diil'erent
60
bequitelimitedandinsomecasesresonancemay
commutation frequencies for a given tuning of
be permanently ?xed ata single frequency. the
the circuit 02. II.
control circuit elements including the trans
former elements ‘I, it and II, ‘I. and the im
pedance elements 10, are adapted for-use without
replacement while the output frequency is varied
from its lower to its upper limit.
4
More than three contact positions may obvi
ously be provided for the switch I00, together
with the associated elements I01, ill, when more
70 than three rows of commutator segments are pro
vided. as in Fig. 6. When rows of successively
larger diameter contain respectively larger num
bers of segments, the successively higher posi
tions of the switch I" select successively higher
commutation frequencies -for production. but in
-
Rings i‘iandilareconnectedwiththeupper
contact of the blade "I of the two-pole two-'
position switch ill, ill.‘ Sectors- II. II and II
are connected with the lower contact of the
switch blade I“ and with the upper contact of
the switch blade ill. Sectors I0, I! and 22 are
connected with the de?ection control circuit con
ductor 85. The switch blade ill provides an
output circuit path through the variable non
inductive resistance coupling element I" to the
positive conductor 02 of the battery II. The low
impedance blocking condensers m, I“ are con
nected to transmit impulses, representing the
potentialdiiferenceacroaresistanoellhtothe
7
9,191,078
utilization circuit, UC, Ill, by way of the upper
contact of the switch. Ill. The conductor Ill.
commutator,asin1"ig.6. l'nadditiontotbe
output circuit II, If, connected with the ring I‘l,
extending from condenser Ill to circuit Ill is
Pig. 5, there is provided in
grounded at ill.
output coupling III, an, included in the output
‘
An ampli?er A, Ill. has its input connected
between the condensers Ill, Ill, and its output
connected at one terminal to the lower contact
of the switch I48 and at the other terminal to
conductor Il‘l'. When switch Ill is in its lower
10 position, the ampli?er Ill is inserted between
coupling “2 and circuit Ilt to supply ampli?ed
impulses to circuit Ill and to isolate circuits
connected with the amplifier output from the
coupling circuit "2. Condensers Ill and Ill in
15 conjunction with the ground Ill isolate and
safeguard the utilization circuit ll! from static
or non-impulsive potentials from the battery 63.
The switch blade Ill, when in its upper posi
tion, connects the output circuit resistance Ill
20 with the closed rings II and II, so that when
the beam is de?ected over any desired one ofthe
four rows of segments connected with rings I1
and 20, impulses of the corresponding commuta
tion frequency with harmonics thereof are trans
25 mitted ‘to the utilization circuit I". It is thus
possible to select any one of a plurality of out
put frequencies by the switch I”, Fig. 1 while
. ‘I, an output
cuit I". 02, connected with the ring fl.
beam is selected by the switch III, as already de 10
scribed, so that the beam is de?ected over the
desired row of segments.
It may be assumed that the row II, ll, l‘l
contains 211: segments and that the rows of suc
cessively larger diameter contain, respectively, 2n,
2p and 2:; segments. The output coupling II, I!
may then receive impulses having a commutation
frequency of either ml or a}, depending on
whether the beam traverses the inner or outer
row of segments of the ring II, the de?ection 20
frequency being represented by 1. Similarly,
when the beam travels over the inner or outer
row, respectively, of the ring IO. impulses having
a commutation frequency of p! or of. respective
ly, are transmitted to the output coupling III.
I62. Circuits-II, II and Ill, Ill are preferably
tuned, to the frequency of the desired waves,
'- using only a single frequency determining cir
which may be either a commutation frequency or
cult .2, SI, which may be tuned much lower,
30 than the output frequency and whose tuning
a harmonic thereof, but if desired these circuits
may be adjusted to have broad frequency trans
mission characteristics to permit of the simulta
may remain unchanged while the output wave is
shifted to any one of several different commutae
tion frequencies extending over a wide range.
If desired, the switch IIII may be closed to
35
connect the resonant circuit iii, m, including
theinductance III and the variable capacity Ill,
across the utilization circuit lli, so that some
one of the frequency components of the output
wave may 'beselected for transmission to the
40
circuit Illto the exclusion of all components of
different frequency.
‘
In its upper position, the switch blade Ill dis
charges direct current from the sectors Ii, II and
II of the commutator. and in its lower position
45 from rings l1 and III. The direct current path
from the blade Ili may be traced through the
variable resistance 01, the high impedance choke
50
channel Ill, Ill’, I", Ill, may be selected to
be energized by output‘ waves, or to be deener
gized. by merely operating the switch III to shift‘
the beam to the desired output channel while
the channel It, Ill remains energised, or chan
nels Bl and Ill may remain deenergiaed when 40
the switch III! is in its lowest position, to con
?ne the beam to a path over the sectors II, It
and to confine the transmission of waves to the ‘
output channel I5, I26. It will be understood
that the waves transmitted to the different chan
nels ll, Ill and I26 may each be of a different
frequency when their respective commutation
frequencies are‘di?erent, or may be of the same
mutator are connected with the output resistance
coupling Ill. Two different commutation fre
quencies are thus supplied simultaneously to the
Fig. 8 shows aeommutator Ill and connected
circuits adapted for substitution in Fig. l in
place of the Fig.‘ 5 arrangement. The Fig. 8 ar
When the switch blade llIl is in its lower po- . frequency when their respective commutation
frequencies are the same.
sition. the sectors I‘, I8 and 2! of the‘ com
and the other being at a higher frequency deter
.mined by the rate of travel of the beam over a
particular row. of segments. The frequency
range obtainable with this connection, therefore
extends from the lowest de?ection frequency to
the highest harmonic of the highest commutation
frequency. Furthermore, when the output cir
cuit has a broad frequency transmission charac
teristic, as when the, switch Iill remains open
and the utilization circuit Il! is not sharply se
65 lective, the resulting wave transmitted to the
utilization circuit consists of a band of compo
nents of different harmonic frequencies, includ
ing the fundamental. Since the direct current
impulses are cut off during one-half of each suc
70 cessive cycle of the de?ection frequency, while
the beam is impinging on one of the sectors It.
It,’ 22, the output wave band is modulated at the
de?ection frequency.
re
of di?'erent frequency.
The output channel ll, ll. l2, ll, or the output
0011 It and conductor If to the battery It.
output circuit, one being the de?ection frequency
60
neous transmission of two or more components
_‘ '
-
The Fig. '! circuit shows how the Fig. 5 circuit
may be expanded by adding extra rings, to the
rangement is particularly adapted for producing
ultra-high frequency impulses and waves, al-.
though it may also be employed for producing
impulses of any lower frequency. The central
disk "I, I12 differs from the disk II, I‘, Fig. 5,
merely in having one sector I‘II larger in angu
lar measure than the other sector Ill. The
ring I1 surrounding the central disk, as in Fig.
6, has segments on its edge fitting between al
ternate segments on the circular rim of the disk
I'll, I12, as described in detail in connection with
the ring I‘! and disk I5, ll, Fig. 2. The small 65
sector I'll may have one or more segments on
its edge, depending upon the angular widths of
the sector and of the segments.
The balanced U-shaped coupling circuit I'll,
I'll, has one free end of the U connected with 70.
the ring I‘! and the other free end connected
with the larger sector I'll.
Length varying
means, such as the U-shaped slides I", are
provided in each- arm of the U-circuit I18, Ill
to adiust the wave length or tuning and the 75
iki >cR0ss REFERENCEi
SEARCH ROOM *
9,194,078
balance of the circuit at the desired commuta
mined path when ?uctuations of the at... m
tion or harmonic frequency. The middle point tentg‘ to make the beam depart from its desired
of the base of the U of the circuit I'll,‘ I", is
connected with the positive potential direct cur
The commutator I” has the central disk lift
rent. supply lead 6!. The smaller sector I12 and the coastal rings It! and I” having
5
connects with the de?ection controlconductor meals on their adjacent circular edges. as de
ll. Impulses of direct current, representing scribed with reference to the segments on the
commutation at the de?ection frequency, are circular edges of the disk "fit, the ring ii and
collected on the sector "I and transmitted over the ring it, ll, Fig. 2. The switch I". Fig. l,
the conductor 85 to the circuit 02, 91. Fig. l. is positioned to select the desired row of scg— 1o
The utilization circuit U0. I'll, is connected ments to be traversed by the beam. when the
through the low impedance blocking condensers row ill. m is selected and the switch ltll is in
III, III. with the variable coupling points III, its upper position, a continuous train of im
III, near the base of the U of the outputcou
pulses are transmitted to the two output con
15 pling I13. I14. Waves of the desired commuta
ductors Ill and the coupling circuit C which 15
tion or harmonic frequency. for which the cou
may be like the circuit C of either Fig. 8 or Fig.
pling I13, I'll is adiusted, are transmitted to 9. The resulting waves are transmitted from
the utilization circuit I".
the‘circuit C to the utilization circuit I'll. When
By reducing the angular width of the sector the row "I. II! is selected by the switch ill,
pa
'
.
"2 as much as possible, in terms of the number the switch I” is placed ‘in its lower positionvto
of segments thereon, the sector I'll‘ and the connect with the disk "I, so that the output
number of segments thereon may be made cor
conductors i" receive impulses from the seg
respondingly larger, so that the duration of ‘the .ments in the row ill, I“.
interruption of the train of, impulses while‘ the
Thetsofll'lgaihlandlilare
beam is on the segment or segments of the sec
similarinhavlns balancedcircuitsand inbeing
tor III, is correspondingly minimized.
Fig. 9 shows a_ commutator II and connected
circuits adapted for substitution in Fig. 1 in place
operablein push-pull relation in which on the
average more than one impulse is received dur
ing each commutation cycle or the output wave
above the de?ection frequency. whereas the ar
of the Fig. 5 arrangement The ring i‘l sur
80 rounds the equal sectors. II, it, as in Fig. 2. The
circuit is similar to that of'li‘lg. 8, except for
the portions of the coupling circuits within'the'
rectangle C. The portion of the coupling cirp
cult within the rectangle 0, includes in each
arm I13, I", a lumped variable tuning capacity
I" in parallel with a lumped inductance I“
which take the place of the distributed capacity I
and inductance .in the corresponding arms in,
I'll in Fig. 8. The junction oi’ the two seats of
elements III, I", Fig. 9, connects with the
positive direct current supply lead It. The in
ductance I81. coupled with the inductances I86,
I". connects with the utilization circuit UC,
I" and‘transmits waves of the selected output
frequency thereto.
'
'
Each circuit “I, I“ is preferably tuned to
the same desired output frequency which may
rangements of Figs. i5, 6, and ‘I are of simpler
construction without balancing of the kind used
in the arrangements of Figs. 8, 0, and i0, and
- the output circuits of Figs.‘ 5, e, and 1 receive
only one impulse during each commutation cycle
of the output wave above the deiiection fre
_
quency.
In the arrangement of any of the above de
scribed ?gures, the beam or electric carriers
may consist of‘carriers other thanelectrons per
se, since the desired relation of the focus to the 40
commutator, and the de?ection and commute‘
tion of the beam may be obtained wlthya' beam
of electric carriers other than simple electrons.
Furthermore, one or both of the two electrostatic
'?elds of the two sets of de?ecting electrodes
I, ‘I, and I, 9, may be replaced in well known
manner by ‘magnetic ?elds, adapted to produce
be either the commutation frequency or a har
monic thereof. The Fig. 9 clrcuitC is intended
more particularly for use at lower frequencies
than the Fig. 8- circuit C, but it is to be under
the cyclic de?ection of the beam.
stoodthat the circuitsC'ofml- Oandilmaybe
of rows ‘being preferable to a larger number of
rows when electrostatic capacity across the out
interchanged to adapt the Fig. 8
' gement
for the production of lower frmuencies or the
55 Fig. 9 arrangement for the production of higher
frequencies.
'
.
'
i
.
Any number of rows of segments may be pro
videdinthecommutatorofany oftheabovede
scribed ?gures. one row or the minimum number
putcircuitis tobeminimised, asinthecaseof
the production of very high frequencies.
‘
‘
55
Arcircular path of de?ection'of the beam has
Fig. 10 shows a commutator i” and its con
been described and is preferred. for many pur
nected circuits for substitution in Fig. 1 in place
of the Fig. 5 arrangement; While the arrange
poses, since it is easier to construct a commu
ments of Figs. 5, ,8, '1, 8 and 9 are adapted for
either self excitation or separate excitation by
the independent source I“. Fig. 1, the Fig. 10
the output frequency is less likely to be variable
when. the path is circular. Many of the features
of the invention may be employed, however, when
the cyclic path traced by the beam is of some
tator having sumciently accurate dimensions and
arrangement is adapted only for separate exci
tation. The switch It. II, is placed in its upper ' other shape than circular. It will be seen that
position, Fig. 1. so that wavesj'from the source the circular path is merely one species of an
ill supply a train of direct current impulses to ' ellipsoidal path, and that another species of the
the resonant circuit .2, ll. by recti?cation in ellipsoidal path is a linear path. In any case
the recti?er N, the circuit 02, 83 being tuned to where uniform frequency isdesired. any one seg
the frequency of the source I" or to a harmonic
70 thereof. The rectifier I. limits the amplitude
of the impulses and the excitation ofthe' cir
cuit l2, 03, thus maintaining‘ the amplitude of
the control waves. supplied to the de?ectors I.
‘I, I. I substantially constant. so that the deileee
TI tions of the. beam are kept in their predeter
mentinaglvenrowshouldbeofmchlength
‘along ‘the ‘path traced by the beam-relative to 70
the rate of movement of the beam when over that
segment, that the beam traverses that segment
in thesame lengthof time that is required to
traverse each other segment in the row at a given '
de?ection frequency.
75
2,124,073
The angular measure of the sectors II, it, or
II, IO, or 2|, 2! of Figs. 5,5, ‘7, and 9, may be
made unequal in the manner shown by the un
equal sectors ill. I12, Fig. 8, and may have any
other relative angular measure, provided there
is a diiference between the number of impulses
transmitted to the circuit 91. 98 in successive half
cycles of the de?ection control frequency to which
the circuit 92. 93 is tuned. Viewed from another
10 aspect. the de?ection frequency may be supplied
to the circuit 91, 91, if the impulses transmitted
thereto are derived from less than all of one set
of alternate segments in the row.
When the source of energy 53 is adjusted to
15 vary the output energy, or when the source 53 de
parts from its desired potential, or when certain
other changes such as load and impedance varia
tions occur in the circuit, the amplitude limiting
device 90 tends to stabilize the operation of the
system at the desired commutation frequency, so
that the beam is kept directed over the desired
row of segments.
‘
When commutating the beam current to pro
duce impulses of a desired frequency higher than
twice the de?ection frequency, the production of
impulses of unwanted lower frequencies is
avoided within the range between the de?ection
frequency andthe desired higher impulse fre
quency, in contrast with the production of such
lower frequency impulses in systems utilizing a
utilizing said lower frequency wave to produce
said periodic de?ections of the beam.
5. The method of transmitting waves to a pinrality of circuits, each selective to a different fre
quency, which ‘comprises producing a beam of_ 5
electric carriers. periodically de?ecting the beams} ‘
and utilizing the de?ecting beam to transmit cur-l‘
rent by commutation simultaneously to each of
said circuits at a frequency of commutation in
each respective circuit equal to the frequency for l0
which'the circuit is selective.
"
6. The method of transmitting waves to a plu
rality of circuits, each selective to a different fre
quency. which comprises producing a beam of
electric carriers, periodically de?ecting the beam. 15
utilizing the de?ecting beam to transmit current
by commutation simultaneously to each of said
circuits at a frequency of commutation in a first
of said circuits equal to the frequency for which
said circuit is selective and at a frequency of com 20
mutation in a second of said circuits which is a
submultiple of the frequency for which said sec
ond circuit is selective.
'1. The method of transmitting waves to a plu
rality of circuits, each selective to a di?erent fre
quency, which comprises producing a beam of
electric carriers, periodically de?ecting the beam.
utilizing the de?ecting beam to transmit current
by commutation simultaneously to each of said
circuits at a‘ frequency of commutation in each 30
respective circuit equal to the frequency for which
plurality of small harmonic producing stages- in
cascade. Losses incident to the production of - the circuit is selective. and utilizing the current
these intermediate frequencies may thus be commutated at one of said frequencies to- produce
avoided, and the impulses of desired frequency, the periodic de?ections of the beam.
8. The method which comprises producing a 85
produced in accordance with the present inven
space
discharge in the form of a beam of electric
tion, may. at the same time be of greater energy
for a given input energy than in such a cascade
system.
What is claimed is:
l. The method of producing electric impulses,
which comprises producing a space discharge in
the form of a beam of electric carriers, periodi
caily de?ecting said beam over any chosen one of
a plurality of predetermined paths. causing the
de?ecting beam to commutate electric current in
said chosen path at a predetermined frequency,
and utilizing the beam simultaneously to commu
tate current at a different predetermined fre
quency.
.2. The method which comprises producing a
space discharge in the form of a beam of electric
carriers, utilizing a control wave of predeter
mined frequency for periodically de?ecting the
beam, utilizing the de?ecting beam to’commutate
current at a frequency higher than that of the
positive and negative peaks of said control wave.
and deriving said control wave from said de?ect
ing beam.
3. The method which comprises producing a
space discharge in the form of a beam of electric
carriers, utilizing a control wave of predetermined
frequency for rotating one end of the beam over
a predetermined path. utilizing the rotating
beam to commutate current at a frequency
‘higher than that of the positive and negative
peaks of said control wave, and deriving said
control wave from said de?ecting beam.
4. The method which comprisesproducing a
70 space discharge in the form of a beam of electric
carriers, periodically de?ecting the beam. deriv
ing a series of electric impulses from the beam
during a portion of each cycle of de?ection of the
beam, the impulses in each series having a pre 40
determined frequency, converting said impulses
into a wave of frequency lower than said prede
termined frequency, and utilizing said lower fre
quency wave to periodically de?ect the beam.
9. In combination with a plurality of circuits,
each selective to a di?erent frequency, means
for producing a beam of electric carriers when
suitably energized, means responsive to an electric
wave for ‘periodically de?ecting the beam, and
means including a commutator for transmitting 50
current simultaneously to each of said circuits
from the de?ecting beam at a frequency of com
mutation in each respective circuit equal to the
frequency for which the circuit is selective.
10. In combination with a plurality of selective 65
circuits, means for producing a beam of electric
carriers when suitably energized, means respon
sive to an electric wave for periodically de?ecting
the beam, ‘means including a commutator for
transmitting current simultaneously to said cir 60
cuits from the de?ecting beam at di?'erent fre
quencies of cbmmutation, one of said circuits be
ing selective to current commutated at one of
said frequencies, and another of said circuits be
ing selective to a harmonic of one of said fre
quencies at which commutation takes place but
non-selective at all said commutation frequencies.
11. In combination, a space discharge device
having means for producing a beam of electric
carriers when suitably energized, an input circuit 70
for periodically de?ecting the beam in response to
current of predetermined frequency, an, output
circuit, means including a commutator whereby
said commutatedcurrent a wave of frequency , the de?ecting beam commutates current at a fre
75 lower than said predetermined frequency. and quency higher than that of the positive and nega
carriers, periodically de?ecting the beam, deriv
ing from the de?ecting beam a current commu
tated at a predetermined frequency, deriving from
csoss RtitRENCE
1O
angers
tive peaks of said de?ecting current and whereby
said commutated current is transmitted to said
output circuit, said output circuit being selective
to a component of said higher frequency current,
a frequency determining element selective to said
predetermined frequency and coupled with said
input circuit, and means for deriving impulses of
said predetermined frequency from said de?ect
ing beam and for transmitting said impulses to
said frequency determining element.
12. In combination. a space discharge device
having means for producing a beam of electric
carriers when suitably energized. means respon
sive to a periodic current for de?ecting the beam.
15 means including a commutator.for deriving from
the de?ecting beam a current commutated at pre
determined frequency. means for deriving from
said commutated current a current of frequency
lower than said predetermined frequency, and
20 means for transmitting said current of lower fre
quency to said de?ecting means.
13. In combination, a space discharge device
having means for producing a beam of electric
carriers when suitably energized. means respon
25 sive to an electric wavefor periodically de?ecting
the beam, means for deriving a series of electric
impulses from the beam during a portion of each
cycle of de?ection of the beam, the impulses in
each series having a predetermined frequency,
means for converting said impulses into a wave
of frequency lower than said predetermined fre
quency, and meansfor transmitting said lower
frequency wave to said de?ecting means.
14. In combination, a space discharge device
35 having means for producing a beam of electric
carriers when suitably energised, means respon
sive to an electric wave for periodically de?ecting
the beam, means for deriving electric impulses of
predetermined frequency from the de?ecting
beam and for utilizing said impulses, means for
65
SEARCH BOOM
control means adapted to be energised to periodi
cally de?ect the beam over a predetermined path,
a plurality of output couplings, a commutator
having segments disposed in the path of the de
?eeting beam. one of said output couplings being
connected with one set of alternate segments of
said commutator, another of said output cou
plings being connected with less than all of one
set of alternate segments of said commutator.
and means for transmitting current from said 10
last mentioned output coupling to said control
means for maintaining the periodic de?ection of
the beam.
'
18. In a wave producer; a space discharge de
vice having means for producing a beam of elec
tric carriers when suitably energized, a commu
15
tator having segments, a controller responsive to
alternating current for periodically de?ecting the
beam over said segments. a ?rst output circuit
connected with certain of said segments, means 20
for transmitting control impulses from said out
put circuit to said controller, and a second output
circuit differently connected with certain of said
segments for receiving impulses of a frequency
differing from the frequency of de?ection of said
beam
19. In a wave transmission system, a space dis
charge device having means for producing a beam
of electric carriers when suitably energized, a
commutator having a plurality of rows of seg 30
ments, control means adapted to be energized to
periodically de?ect the beam over any one of said
rows, output connections for said segments, means
for selectively determining the row of segments
over which the beam is to be de?ected, and means 35
responsive to energy to be transmitted to said
control means for maintaining the de?ections
of the beam over said selected'row when ?uctuai
tions of said energy tend to make the de?ections
depart from said selected row.
40
20. In a wave producer, a space discharge de
deriving another set of impulses of said frequency
from the beam during a portion of each cycle of ‘ vice having means for producing a beam of elec
de?ection of the beam, means for converting said tric carriers when suitably energized. said device
last mentioned impulses into a wave of frequency having a beam de?ecting circuit and having an
lower than said predetermined frequency. and
means for transmitting said lower frequency wave output circuit through which current from the 45
beam is periodically transmitted, said output cir
to said de?ecting means.
cuit having a coupling with said de?ecting circuit.
it. In a wave producer, a space discharge de
and means responsive to the beam current period
vice having means for producing a beam of elec
ically transmitted through said output circuit for
tric carriers when suitably energized, control preventing
the wave transmitted through said 60,
means adapted to be energised to periodically de
coupling to the de?ecting circuit from departing
?ect the beam over a predetermined path, an out
from a predetermined amplitude.
put circuit. means for periodically collecting a
21. In a wave transmission system, a space dis
component of energy from the beam at one fre
charge
device having means for producing a beam
quency and for transmitting said component to
said control means, and means for periodically of electric carriers when suitably energised, a
collecting another component of energy from the I commutator having a row of segments, control
beam at a higher frequency and for transmitting means adapted to be energized by a wave for
said higher frequency component to said output periodically de?ecting the beam over said row of
segments, and means responsive to the wave to
circuit.
be impressed on said control means for prevent
16. In a wave transmission system, a space dis
ing the amplitude of said wave from departing
charge device having means for producing a beam from a predetermined value.
of electric carriers when suitably energised, con
22. The method of translating electric waves
trol meanaadapted to be energized to periodically which comprises producing impulses, preventing
deflect the beam over a predetermined path, a said impulses from departing from a predeter-v
plurality of output couplings, a commutator hav
mined amplitude, storing said impulses by reso
ing segments disposed in the path of the de?ect
nance, controlling the de?ections of a beam of
ing beam, one of said output couplings being electric carriers in accordance with the resulting
connected with one set of alternate segments of resonant waves. and commutating direct current
said commutator, and another of said output cou
the control of the de?ections of the beam.
plings being connected with less than all of one under
23. The method which comprises producing a
set of alternate segments of said commutator.
space discharge current, periodically de?ecting
17. In a wave transmission system, a space dis
66
(i5
70
.
the space discharge current, storing energy in the
charge device having means for producing a , form
of waves under the control of said de?ected
current, preventing’ the amplitude of the current 75 ._
75 beam of electric carriers when suitablyenergized,
may):
11
charuedevleehevlnlmeeutorwoducincabeem
of electric curlers when n?tebl! energised. e
commutator having e row 01’ secmenm'outw
connectlonliorealdsecmentmmeensedaptedto
heenercisedbyanelec?'lccurrenttoeeuethe
'beemtobeperlodicallyde?ectedlnapredeter
minedpethcversaidmwotsegmenmsndmeam
for melntainin: the de?ections otthebeamwith
in said
ed path when ?uctuations oi‘
the mum: current tend to make the beam
traceadl?erentpeth.
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
Patent No. 2,12h,973.
JUS'I'IIILI'IARING.
_
July 26, 1958.
JUSTIN L . FEARING .
It ichereby certified that ‘error eppeare in the printed specification
of the above nmbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first
column‘, line 61, for‘Degasing“ reed Degaesing; page 5, second column, line
22, for the word "by" road for; page 6, first colmin, line 22, for “communi
cation" read comnutationg‘
second column, line 52, for "attention" read
attenuation; page 8, first column, line 39, for "seats rend sets; and that
the said Letters Patent should be’ read with this correction therein that
thevsame may confom to the‘ record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and. sealed an; 15th day of September, A. n. 1938.
Henry Van Aredale
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
_
11
charadevioehavlnameautor woducincabeam
2.10am
being stored from depart-inc man a predeter-
oielectrlccan'ienwhen n?tabl! mm‘
minedvamcandoontrollingaaidpenodicde?eetionsinaccm-daneewlthlaidstoredwavee.
having a row at
?i'i'hemethodotwoducmlelect?ewavee
dlecharle connectlonliorcaldsecmen
heenercisedhyanelecmocurrenttccauethe 5
5
currentperiodlcalb
.
of sald'currentinthe tormc?mmlsemwevent
heemtobeperledicallyde?ectedlnapredeter
minedpethcversaidmwotsegmenmandmeam
in: the amplitude 01 saidlmm?seetrom depth‘ for malntaininc the de?ections ottheheamwithin said predetermined path when ?uctuations oi‘
'
iolnrgm
“will!!!
valuesto
nun-0%.“
theenercmnccurrenttendtomaketheheamm
control traoeadl?erentpath.
JUS'I'III l5. FEAR-1N0.
thnproductlmotsaldnerlodiclmpullee .
25. mawavetrannnllllonmtemmspecedle
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
July 26', 1958.
Patent No. 2,12%973.
JUSTIN L- FEARING.
It iihereby certified that ‘error appears in the printed specification
of the above nmbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first
column‘, line 61, for‘Degasing“ read Degassing; page 5, second column, line
22, for the word "by" road for; page 6, first colmn, line 22, for “communi
cation" read commutation;
second column, line 52, for "attention" read
attenuation; page 8, first column, line 39, for "seats read sets; and that
the said Letters Patent should be’ read with this correction therein that
thevsame may confom to the‘ record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and. sealed an; 15th day of September, A. n. 1938.
Henry Van Aredale
'( Seal )
‘
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
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