Патент USA US2124973код для вставки
i=- 3 1 3 _ 2 5 2 July 26, 1938. caoss REFERENCE SEARCH 3002.1 J. |.. FEARING ~ ‘2,124,973 "AVE TRANSLATING METHOD AND CIRCUI'i'S Filed NOV. 13, 1935 579A 2 4 50/35 10 /z13 /4 4 an 5 N 5/ / a 83 4/ 4 1a‘ l7 F195. Patented July 26,‘ 1938 ' 2,124,913‘ ‘UNITED ‘ STATES PATENT ' OFFICE ems-is ‘ ‘wave msnsmmo mnop m‘ . cmcms suun L Fearing. sea-mic; N. r. Application Hovemher 18. 10st. Serial No. 11am “Ola-lull. (Oi. 250-86) segments arranged and connected in This invention relates to methods of translat ' commutator such relation to the path that the discharge cur ing electrical energy‘ into impulses or alternating current and to apparatus and circuitsemployed in connection with these methods. The inven 5 tion makes use of space discharge apparatus of the type employing a defiectabie beam of electric rent may be simultaneously commutated at more than one frequency. The cyclic de?ection of the beam may be maintained by waves derived from 5 the resulting impulses or from an independent source. carriers. 7 Oscillators of the space discharge W99 com monly have the limitation that only a relatively _ 10 small range of frequencies can be produced while using a given frequency determining standard. such as a resonant circuit. When frequencies above that range are to be produced, it is neces . sary to substitute a different frequency deter 15 mining standard in the circuit or to resort to cas cade harmonic producers. A cascade harmonic producer ordinarily requires one or more tuned circuits in addition to that for the fundamental ‘ 20 ‘ » . According to another feature. the beam may trace a cyciicpathin which lessthanallof one - set of alternate‘ segments are connected to one 10 output circuit for the production of current of the frequency which maintains the cyclic de?ec tion of the beam while the-beam is at the same I time commuta'ting current at a different fre quency for another output circuit. " According to another aspect of the present in vention, the beam is de?ected over any one of a plurality of rows of commutator segments to con trol the distribution of current impulses in the frequency. It also sli?ers the limitation that ' output circuit connections of the segments. The m ’ when a sine wave of frequency, 1. is subjected to number of segments in any row may be sufficient a single harmonic producing operation, the har to make the commutation frequency many times monic components of frequencies 2], 3)‘. and that of the de?ection frequency. Di?erent rows higher frequency, are of much smaller amplitude than that of the fundamental frequency I. Fur 23 thermore, the harmonic components of progres may contain di?erent numbers of segments. and provision is made for selecting a de?ection path 25 over any desired rowto determine the output cir sively higher frequency‘ are of successively smaller ' cult over which impulses are to be transmitted. amplitude._ '. , ' ' or to determine the frequency of the impulses. An object of the present invention is to simpli the beam has a given de?ection frequency. fy the production of impulses and alternating when any one of a plurality of different output fre-_ w 3o currents of constant fundamental and harmonic quencies may be produced, the output frequentsr frequency over a wide range of frequencies and to in any case depending upon the de?ection fre improve the efiiciency of production of such im quency and upon the effective number of seg pulses and currents. ‘ ments fnthe row‘over which the beamis de another object is to generate impulses or alter g5 nating currents over a wide range of frequencies under the control of a single frequency deter mining standard. and to produce very high fre quency impulses and currents under the control of u 40' ~ a frequency standard of lower frequency. Another object is to utilize a periodically de ilected. l'l'iiqucncies in the range between‘ the 35 - frequencies produced by different rows may be obtained by selecting harmonics produced within _ this range while the de?ection frequency remains unchanged, or by adiusting the deflection fro' quency to produce commutation or ‘harmonics at ?eeting beam of electric carriers to commutate ' the‘desil‘ed frequency. electric current in a ‘single operation at a ‘fre _ quency equal to or higher than that of the posi tive and negativepeaks in a wave controlling the 45 de?ection of the beam. and'to derive-the control’ wave fromthe de?ecting beam. Otherohiects'aretorestricttheproduotionof and'the am" tude of undesired harmonics. to . These and other features of the invention will ' be understood from the following detailed de scriptionin connection with the acoompcn?nl drawing illustrating speci?c a piications of the ‘5 invention. * - “ iis'adiagramof oneform ofs'pace discharge device and the‘ circuit-thereof forproducingel trical impulses and alternating ‘ currents of fundamental and harmonic frequeu- so ci'es. ‘ . i . rla?is aqiagrammlticradiaifaceviewofthe commutator ‘of Fig. l. j ‘ . l'lg.8is a-radiaifaoeviewofasupportingdisl: for the commutator. CROSS REFERENCE SEARCH ROOM arose-rs Fig.4isafragmentaryviewofanaxialsection of thecommutatorendof thespaoedischarge device of Fig. 1, showing in detail the arrange ment for supporting the commutator and an axial sectionof the Pig. 8 disk, taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3. Fig; 5 is a diagram of circuit connections for the commutator of Figs. 1 and 2. Figures 8 to 10 are diagrams of modi?ed forms of commutators and output connections. Referring to Fig. i, the space discharge device I, consisting of a highly evacuated tube, pref erably of transparent glass. contains the heater 2 for the cathode 3 which in turn is adapted 15 when the tube is suitablyenergized to discharge an electron stream through the axial apertures. that one set of alternate rings consisting of the rim of dish II, It. ring II, II, and ring Ii, 28, Fig. 6 are divided by gaps II into sections, while. the intervening rings I‘! and Il, constituting the other:s'et of alternate rings, are closed without gaps . 6 Each of the adjacent edges of any two adja cent rings has teeth-like segments fl projecting radially into the space between these edges. The segments 26 have such dimensions and locations 10 that those on one edge of a ring nest with uni form spacings between those on the adjacent edge of the adjacent ring, thus forming a single circular row of segments between each pair of adiacent rings and coaxial with the tube axis. One set of alternate segments in any one row of the annular control electrode 4 and the an ,connects with one ring and the other set of al nuiar anode 5, thereby producing a beam of electrons which discharges through the space ternate segments connects with the adjacent ring. The edges of each ring and its segments are spaced sumciently from the edges of the ad 20 iacent ring and its segments to insulate the rings between the beam de?ecting electrodes 6, ‘I, l, I. The commutator ll serves as a target for receiv ing the electron beam, and is supported from theinsulatingdisk ll whichinturnissupported from the end wall II of the neck It having the ?are ll Joined with the main wall of the tube l, the elements i2, it, It forming a reentrant end for the tube. One pair of de?ecting electrodes I, ‘I are dis posed face to face with each other on opposite sides of the tube axis, on a diameter of the tube at right angles to the diameter on which the de?ecting electrodes I, 8 are disposed face to face with each other on opposite sides of the tube axis. Electrodes 8, I may be spaced slightly fur ther along the tube axis from the cathode I than from each other. In order to obtain uniform frequency of com mutation, the segments in any one row are as nearly as possible of precisely equal width meas ured in a direction along an arc coaxial with the rings. and the spacings measured between adjacent segments along any such are are made as nearly as possible precisely equal to each other. Each, row preferably contains a di?erent number of segments from that of other rows. The number of segments in any row is preferably greater than that of a row of smaller diameter and less than that of a row of greater diameter. The commutator III is supported from a disk electrodes I. ‘I. ll Figs. 1, 3, 4, of highly refractory porcelain. Electrodes 3 to I are constructed and arranged as in well known cathode ray oscillographs. It is glass, or other material of suitably high me-' chanical and dielectric strength to serve as ‘a support while heated moderately and while sub ,iected to bombardment by an electric discharge. 40 Fig. 4 shows details of one of the supporting elements It for the ring section II of the com mutator. similar'supports Iii are provided at to be understood, however, that the electrodes 40 and other parts of the tube may be varied in - design in accordance with the well known tech nique of high frequency tubes when very high frequencies are to be utilized and in accordance , with that of high power tubes when a larger 45 amountoipoweristobeutiliaedthanwithan other points along the ring II, II and on the othenrings at the places indicated by the small ordinary oscillograph tube. circles on the rings in Fig. 2. The commutator electrode ll, Fig. 2, is made up of a plurality of separate electrodes II", II. circles 8|, II. 33 on disk ll, Fig. 3, designate II, II, If. Theseetored dish Ii, it, the_ring disk II, I‘, the ring if, and the ring II, II, l1 and the ring II, II have their electron re ceiving surfaces and their circular rims coaxial with the tube axis. The electron receiving sur face of the commutator ll may be in a radial plane of the tube, or may be of slight curvature. not shown.asinthecase'oftheusual oscillo graph tube screen. The commutator may be‘ made of nickel, m'olybdenum. tungsten, or other respectively are supported. In order to simplify the drawing, the segments 28 of Fig. 2 are omit ted from the ring section II in Fig. 4. The support it consists of a wire parallel to the tube axis and ?rmly secured at one end to suitable refractory metal. The disk Ii, ll and the ring it. II are divided into sections by the insulating radial gaps 28 which are on the same diameter in the Fig. 2 commutator. . While Fig. 2 shows the dish II. I. and two rings l1 and II, II. it will be understood that in its simplest form. the commutator may uti line only two rings l1 and I8, is wlthoutthe disk ormayutiliseonlyonsring i'landthedisk II, it without the other ring II. II. or may utilize only theldisk ll. ll. ‘Furthermore. the com mutator it may include additional rings around 70 those shown in Fig. 2.‘ as shown diagrammati cally in Fig. 6, for example, in which the added rings II and ii, 22 are provided. Starting with the rim of the sectored disk ll, it which for con venience of description may be referred to as a ring, and going radially outward, it will be noted The concentric 45 the center lines of the holes M from which the the ring- it by passing through a hole therein and having its outer end preferably welded or riv eted to the ring. The wire 30 passes freely through the tubular metal spacer 8S and the hole 34 in the disk ll. At the end of the hole 30 re mote from ring", the wire as is given a sum ciently sharp bend or offset 38 to hold the ring it securely in place in ?xed relation with the disk II and to prevent objectionable looseness of the spacer 38 between the ring and disk. - Thedisk ll.asshowninFigs.3and4,issup ported by four equally spaced stiif wires 81 par alleltothetubeaxis. Oneendofeachwire? passes freely through a hole ll near the edge of the disk. The other end is sealed into the end 0 wall I! of the neck It and may be employed as a lead-in wire. The short wires a, II, welded or otherwise ?rmly secured to the lead 81 at oppo site sides ofthe dish ll. provide stops for limit lug movement of the dish axially of the tube and 75 3 9, 194,978 for holding the disk in its proper space relation with the end wall I2 of the tube. Wires 33, 39 are preferably separated more than the thickness of the disk II at the hole 28, so that one or both of the outer ends of the wires may be bent axially of the tube into contact with the edges of the disk to adjust the position of the disk and to hold it securely in place without causing excessive stresses therein. This arrange ment provides a simple and rugged form of an chorage for the disk I I, and is particularly adapt ed to yield to stresses originating from thermal and other causes. Each ring and ring section, such as section It, 15 Fig. 4, is electrically connected with one of the lead-in supports 31 or with a separate lead-in wire III by a tie-wire 4|. Various different con nections between rings and sections thereof may be made, depending upon the kind of output cir cuits to be employed or upon the kind of output current desired. Several speci?c arrangements of output circuit connections for the commutator Ill are shown in Figs. 5 to 10. The direct con nections between the rings may obviously be com pleted within the tube by tie-wires II, Fig. 4, or may be outside of the tube. The front surface of the commutator exposed to bombardment by the electron beam is prefer ably, but not necessarily, treated to reveal mo mentarily for visual observation, the area or path on the surface over which the beam travels. One such method is to deposit on the front surface of the disk I5, l6 and the rings l1, IS, IS, etc., a thin layer of condensed vapor of a refractory metal, 35 such as molybdenum, in an atmosphere of low pressure inert gas, such as argon, to produce a ?nely divided metal ?lm on the surface of the commutator. Another method is to coat the front surface of the commutator with a thin ?lm of zinc orthosilicate, commonly known as synthetic wil lemite. When assembling the commutator Ill and mounting it within the tube I, the disk I5, I6 and rings I1, I8, I9, Fig. 2, are first assembled on 45 the disk II. A tie-wire II is attached to one support wire 3|) for each commutator element. The neck I3 and ?are it are as yet unattached to the main wall of the tube. The four support wires 31 and the desired number of lead-in wires 50 ‘40 are sealed into the end wall II of the neck I3. The disk II, carrying the commutator ele also connects with the battery 53 or other steady source of direct current energy having the ad justable voltage terminals 54, 55, 66, 51, 53, 59, Bil. Terminal 55 is in the direct connection of the battery with ground 52. Terminal 56, connecting with the anode 5, is adjusted relatively to terminal 55 to provide a suitably high positive potential relatively to ground and to the cathode 3 to at tract a stream of electrons toward anode 5. Ter mine] 54, connecting with the control electrode .10 4, is adjusted to a lower potential than anode 5 and may be either positive or negative relative to cathode 3, depending upon the adjustments of the potentials of the other electrodes and the characteristics of the tube. Terminals 54 and 56 15 are adjusted relatively to each other to control the concentration of the beam and cross-sectional area of the beam where it strikes the com mutator III. The resistance elements 6| may be included in 20 the leads of electrodes 4, 5, 6,1, 8, 9 to prevent undesirably large currents from ?owing to these electrodes. ' ' The transformer 65, 66 has the upper and lower terminals of its secondary coil 66 connected, re 25 spectively with the de?ecting electrodes 9 and 6. The de?ecting electrodes 1, 8 connect, respec tively, through the condensers B1 and 68 of negli gibly low impedance, with the mid-point 59 of the impedance ‘Ill shunting the coil 66. The imped 30 ance 10 includes the branched circuit ‘II, ‘I2 in series with the branched circuit ‘l3, 14. The cir cuit ‘II, 12 consists of the variable resistance ‘II in parallel with the variable condenser 12, and the circuit ‘I3, 14 consists of the variable resist 35 ance ‘I3 in parallel with the variable induc tance ‘I4. The combined impedance of elements ‘II, 12 is adjusted to be equal to that of elements ‘I3, 14, while the ratio of the combined reactance to re 40 sistance of elements ‘II, ‘I! is adjusted relatively to the ratio of reactance to resistance of elements 13, 14, so that the phase angle between the volt age across the impedance ‘II, ‘II and the voltage across the impedance ‘I3, 14 is 90 degrees. The single phase voltage from the transformer 65, 66 is thus converted into a two phase voltage. The phase across elements ‘I I, 12, is impressed on the de?ectors 6, ‘I, while the phase across elements ‘I3, 14, is impressed on de?ectors 8, 9, thereby de ?ecting the forward end of the beam of electrons ments assembled therewith, is then mounted on so that it rotates periodically through a circular the supporting wires 31, the wires 38, 39 being 55 be located coaxially of the tube, the free ends of path. Adjustment of the terminals 51, 53, 59 oflthe battery 53, control the static potentials of the de?ectors 6, ‘I, B, 9 relatively to the anode 5 and the cathode 3, the potentials being so adjusted tube I to form a reentrant end therefor, care 60 being taken to locate the commutator and its that the beam passes by the de?ectors without being objectlonably attracted or repelled by their static potentials. A path for the static potential 60 of de?ector 6 may be traced from the terminal 51, through the resistance ‘II in parallel with another secured in position so that the commutator may the tie-wires ‘I being connected with the proper lead-in wires 31 and “I. The neck I3 is then sealed at the ?are It to the main wall of the front surface coaxially to the tube. Degasing of the elements within the tube, assembly of the other parts of the tube, and the other procedures ‘of the usual type necessary for producing a high vacuum tube, are well understood by those skilled in the art. and need not be referred to in detail. While one speci?c method of supporting the com mutator It has been described by way of illustra tion, it will be understood that various other 70 forms of support may be employed. ‘The circuit connections for the tube I, Fig. 1 will now be described. A source of alternating current enemy I0 is provided for the heater 2 of the cathode 3. A conductor It extends from the ' 15 ‘heater 2 and cathode : to ground at I! which 55 path through elements 13, ‘I4 and ‘coil 66. A path for the static potential of de?ector 9 may be traced from the terminal 51 through elements 65 13, ‘It in parallel with another path through the resistance ‘II and coil 66. Adjustment of terminal 53 controls the steady potential diii'erence be tween de?ectors i, ‘I, so that the circular path traced by the beam may be properly centered in 70 avertical direction. In a similar manner, adjust ment of terminal 58 controls the potential differ ence between de?ectors 3, 9 and permits of cen tering the circular path in a horizontal direction. 'I'heclrcularpath ofthebeammaythusbead 4 2,124,073 justed to a position coaxial with the tube and with the disk I3, II and the rings I‘I, I3, I9, and so on, of the commutator I0. The position of the path at any instant may be observed by watch ing the luminous path traced by the beam on the surface of the commutator, or by observing the current passing through the respective leads or circuits connecting with the different parts of the commutator. 10 . Referring to Figs. 1 and 5, the output circuit 80, 82 of the tube connects the commutator ring II with the adjustable positive potential terminal 60 of the battery 53, and includes the output coupling ll, 02, consisting of the variable tuning 15 condenser II in parallel with the inductance 02. conductor It“, the upper contact 01' the switch I02, and the rheostat I03 in series, to the upper end of the potentiometer I04. The lower termi nal of the coil 09 connects through the conductor I05 and the upper contact of the switch I06 with the lower end of the potentiometer I04. Two or more sliding contacts IN on the potentiometer I04, each connecting,respective1y, through one of the variable phase shifting reactances I00 and with one of the contacts of the sliding switch I00, 10 provide a connection between the potentiometer I04 and the upper end of the primary coil 60. The lower end of the potentiometer connects di rectly with the lower end of the coil 65. The repeater or ampli?er IIO, labelled A, and 15 adapted to repeat in the direction indicated by the arrow, has its input terminals II I, II2 con The coupling ll, 82 may be tuned to resonance with the frequency of the desired output wave. Coupled with the inductance 32, is the inductance nected across the conductors IOI, I05, and its out 03, connected with the utilization circuit 04, put terminals Ill, Ill connected respectively, with the lower contacts of the two-pole switch 20 I02, I05. The ampli?er A may be of any well The output conductor 05 connects with the right hand sector l8 of the disk IS, IS, and the ' known type, adapted faithfully to reproduce at right hand sector I! of the ring III, I! and extends its output terminals, the wave impressed upon by way of the lower contact of the switch blade its input terminals, without introducing distor tion. ' 06, when the two pole switch 06, 81 is in its low 25 The form of ampli?er shown in the drawing is er position, to the cathode 09 of the current lim 20 labelled U0. iting device 90, having the anode 0| from which ‘ of the well known resistance-capacity coupled the path of the output current may be traced to the resonant‘frequency determining circuit 02, 93, consisting of the inductance coil 82 in parallel with the variable tuning condenser 03, and through the lower contact of switch blade 81. type, in which the low impedance blocking con denser IIG in series with the potentiometer re sistance H6, is connected across the input termi nals II I, II2, the sliding contact III for varying the ampli?cation, being connected with the grid of the triode repeater or ampli?er tube I I0. The to conductor 05 and 62 to the battery 53. The current limiter 00 may be a recti?er of the usual direct current source “8 is provided to well known thermionic diode type, having its polarize the grid negatively with respect to the cathode for the purpose of reducing distortion. cathode heated to such a temperature by cur rent from the battery 48 controlled by the variable The anode-cathode circuit includes the resistance I20 in series with the source of space current I2I, resistance 30 that the space current increases rapidly with increase of the positive potential of and transmits output waves through the low im the anode relatively to the cathode of the rectifier, pedance blocking condenser I22 to the output but the space current quickly reaches a sub , terminals H3, III which are connected with the stantially constant predetermined strength or lower contacts of the switch I02, I06, in such value which does not increase appreciably when phase as to provide the same instantaneous polarity for the potentiometer I04 as the upper the anode-cathode voltage of the rectifier in contacts of the switch I02, I06. The amplifier A creases further to considerably greater values 45 may obviously consist of more than the one stage corresponding with the maximum working volt ages applied thereto. In other words the recti?er shown. The repeater or ampli?er I25, having its input 90 becomes saturated at a voltage which is low compared with the usual maximum instantaneous terminals connected in parallel with ‘those of the repeater I I0, serves as unilateral transmission de 50 operating voltages applied thereto. The recti?er 00 thus prevents the amplitude of the current vice to transmit waves of the frequency selected supplied to the frequency determining circuit 92, by the tuned circuit 92, 93 to .the, utilization cir cuit I2‘ and to prevent reaction of the circuit I26 03 from departing from a predetermined value. on the tuned circuit 92, 93. The resonant circuit 92, 03 is preferably of low The independent source of waves I30, is con loss construction and is preferably sharply tuned. The circuit is also preferably arranged in well nected across the upper contacts of the switch 08, 81, so that when the switch is in its upper known manner to maintain its constants un changed when the temperature in the vicinity position, impulses are transmitted from the source thereof changes. Adjustment of the tuning is I30, through the recti?er 90 to the resonant cir cuit 92, 03, in place of impulses transmitted over therefore primarily under the control of the var conductors 05, 05 from the commutator I0. In iable condenser 03. The left hand sector II of the disk II, It and this case the circuit 02, 93 is preferably tuned to the frequency of the source I30, but may be tuned the left hand sector I0 oi the ring II, I9 are con I nected together with the conductor 06, in series to a harmonic thereof. When operating the tube I, the adjustable ter with the variable resistance 31, the choke coil 00, minal 60 of the battery 53 is adjusted to such a and the conductor 02, connecting with the posi tive terminal 33 of the battery I3. Resistance 01 positive potential relatively to the cathode 3 that the beam of electrons discharges on the commu is adjusted to prevent an undesirably large cur rent through the conductor 30. The choke coil 00 tator I0. The focus of the beam may be adjusted 70 is of high impedance to alternating current of the by varying the potentials of‘ electrodes 4, I. The static potentials of the de?ectors 6, ‘I, I, 0 are de?ection frequency or higher. a The inductance coil 00, variably coupled as a adjusted. by terminals 01, 58, 09, as already re transformer secondary with the inductance coil ferred to, so that the beam is suitably centered 02, has its upper terminal connected through the relatively to the commutator axis. The current in the beam, builds up almost in76 adjustable phase controlling reactance I00, the 30 35 45 50 55 65 75 dividing its becauseofthebeambeingdirectedwhollyor pcrtupcmsector iineartheoenterofthedisk II, is, an im of direct current derived from the battery II by way of cathode I. discharges 10 through the conductor 8!, the current limiter O0 and the resonant circuit 92, ll, back through the conductor OI to battery 68. Waves oi resonant to number, n of segments of the ring I‘! in the ii. ll, it, multiplied by the. de?ection frequency. 1. or an impulse frequency of at. frequency are thus set up and stored in the ire quency determining circuit or, 98. and are trans current abruptly, 15 mitted from the secondary coil 89 of the cou pling II, 00. through conductors III, III. switch III, I" to the potentiometer ill. from which ' g Eé beam on the segments. E 3' 5 5 s 5a8 R gEs the waves are transmitted through the trans former 6!, It and to the de?ectors l. ‘I. 8. I, caus ingthebeamtobede?ectedcyclicaily over acir cular path which quickly increases in diameter to a ?xed steady state value of constant frequency as impulses are supplied to the circuit l2, it in successive cycles. ~ ' For the production of the highest frequencies, the‘ switch m is‘ placed in its highest position with the highest slider lll'i near to but somewhat short or itshighest possible position. The resist-‘ ance Ill is then adjusted until the control wave applied to the de?ectors l, ‘I, I, I. has su?icient amplitude to cause the beam to trace a path over the outermost row ofsegments I1, “.19. Figs. 2 - and 5. The uppermost phase shifting reactance multiple thereof may be selected by on to the utilization circuit N, to the exclusion of wave energy of other frequencies. By making the on characteristic of the elements ll, 82, ll sumciently broad, several different fre quencies may be transmitted to the circuit ll without changing the impedance adjustment or these elements. when the range of output fre quencies is very wide. it is preferable to substitute 30 appropriate reactance and coupling elements II. or, II for different portions or the frequency range. , \ ' The coupling 9!, as is preferably made loose enough' to insure stability of _ ‘operation or the‘ 85 resonant circuit O2, 98 at the one desired free ill may then be adjusted to establish the opti mum output of waves oi’ the de?ection frequency, so that‘ the beam strikes and removes from the ring section I! at such instants of time that suc cessive impulses oi the de?ection frequency pro— duce the desired additive effect in the circuit 0!, 'quency,‘ and to insure the desired constancy of sary‘ while adjusting the phase shitting reactance Ill. in order to. maintain the control‘wave at its ondary coil II to the de?ectors b, ‘I, l. I, is in su?icient to maintain the desired diameter of the output frequency. when .the uppermost slider llll is near the upper end of the resistance 4.“ It. or provide the ‘desired stability of operation. .llll and the resistance "3'18 adjusted to a mini 40 mum. and the energy supplied through the sec Adjustment of the resistance in may be neces proper amplitude, so that the beam maybe kept ‘ circular path of the beam. some increase in‘ energy traveling over the Proper row i1, II, II.- One may be obtained by the expedient of increasing 45 half of one set of alternateseg'ments, namely - the coupling 82. $9, or by raising the saturation those on the edge of the sector I‘. collect direct limit of recti?er ill. or by both at these expedi current during every other half cycle of the de-. ents. However. when these expedients are in ?ection wave. At the beginning of one half cycle, adequate or ‘are not desired, use may be made the beam passes from ring section ll to section of the ampli?er III by connecting the switch I9, and for that‘ half cycle the resonant circuit I02, I" in its'lower position, and adjusting the _ s2, 9! is supplied with a series of direct current impulses corresponding with the number of seg ments over which the ‘beam passes. These im pulses are integrated on the condenser ll, pro ducing an eil'ect on the circuit I2, 83 similar to that of a single direct current impulse of a dura tion of one half a cycle oi’ the de?ection wave. a At the end of this ?rst half cycle, the beam passes from the ring section I! to section ll andtrans mits direct current to the section II during the second half cycle without transmitting any cur slider II‘I until the ampli?er ill provides the desired amount of amplification. , _ The second and third contacts from the top in the switch m, in the order named, provide voltages of successive'lower strength or value for the de?ectors I, ‘I, U, I from the second and third sliders ill, respectively of the potentiometer llll. ‘from When the the top, switch the‘II! associated is in itsorsecond second slider 60 It‘! is adjusted to make the beam trace its path over the row", is, H to produce in the output rent to the circuit 82; as. Succeeding cycles re peat the periormance of the ?rst cycle. The beam thus commutates direct current at the de ?ection irequency and thereby supplies the neces circuit so. impulses and waves of a frequency sary control current to maintain the cyclic de?ec tion of the beam. The electrostatic charge col lected by the ring section I8. discharges through the high frequencychoke coil It, and the resist thirdslider lll‘lisadjustedtomakethebeam ai'ieev .1 to the battery ll. ' ‘ At the same time that the beam current is being commutated fat the de?ection frequency through one set of ‘alternate segments, namely 75 those of the ring II, I! in the row l‘l, ll, ll, equal to the‘de?ectiou frequency multiplied by one-half the number of ‘segments in the row. When the switch III is in its third position. the travel wholly over the sectors II, is. which serve as a two segment commutator to produce waves of the deflection frequency in the utilisation cir 70 cult i2! and on the de?ectors ‘I. ‘I, 40, I; By transferring the switch ill from second to third positionJtwiIIbeseenthatoutputcm-rentenergy ceases to be transmitted to the output circuit II. For each position of the switch II. and- of CROSS VKLrtKtNUI: 6 ‘ WSEARCH BOOM 2,124.9" the associated slider ill. the associated phase shifting reactance Ill is_adJusted-to give the de?ector control circuit as a whole, the desired phase angle. as described above in connection eachofthethreeormorepositiousoftheswitch Ill, the wave transmittedtothe utilisation‘ cir cult I20 remains at the de?ection frequency. ifitbeassumedthattherearemsegmen withthe adiustmentofthe?rstorumlcrmoet intherow i‘l, II, llinaparticularcase.the reactance Ill. During the adjustment of the circuits of the second and third contacts of switch ring I‘! would have 100 segments in that row and“ the beam current would be commutated atja I", the resistance"; remains unchanged. It frequency at or 100 I, thereby producing direct isnowpossibletoshiftthepathoftheheam 10 quickly from one row of segments to another 15 and thus select by the switch Ill, .any one of several di?'erent frequencies for production with out changing the tuning of the resonant fre frequency of would have a frequency of 1000 I lntheassumedcase. Ifitbefurtherassumed that the de?ection frequency determining cir quency determining circuit II, 88. frequency of commutation. the tuning thereof cuit 02, I! is made resonant to an audio fre quency wave of 1000 cycles, the current would be 15 commutated at a frequency of 100,000 cycles and need not be as critical as that of the circuit 0!, the tenth harmonic would be 1,000,000 cycles. _ Since the circuit ii, I! does not control the I]. and the circuit Ii, I! may therefore be of relatively low cost construction for its particu 20 lar frequency range. . In order to obtain an output frequency in the range between two adjacent communication fre quencies, one of the commutation frequencies. be low that of the upper of these two adjacent fre 25 current impulses and waves of a frequency of 100 I. The tenth harmonic of the fundamental 10 quencies. may be employed to produce a harmonic havingthedesiredfrequency,orthedesiredfre Itwillbeunderstoodthat thenumberofsec mentsinanyonerowmaybegreaterorlessthan 200 and that the frequency, is at which circuit II, II is resonant may be subaudihle, or may be a g iEE s a be made to commutate, not only at very low fre quencies, but aho at extremely high frequencies. and toproduce directcurrentimpulsesorwaves when the number of lec mentsisconsiderablyless than200in-onerow, tion frequency su?iciently to produce the desired commutation or harmonic . veryhighfrequenciesmayheproducedbyemr oyingahighdeilectionfrequency. isnecessarytousegreatcarelnavoid changing the tuning of the circuit 0!. 08, any tendencyof'thepathofthebeamtobecomenom, ' veryhighi'requenciaaretohepro-_ when 5: 5 E E E 85%‘gE%E5E2 ,2 aminimumJndtheimpedancesatthecow Fate nandatthecircuitterminaticnsshmiidbe tched for emeient operation. Balanced cir ts, owndiagrammaticallyinmmoandmand 45 quency of the circuit 02, II maybemadesuf-‘ ?cientb wide,withres'pecttothenmnbers of segmentsinthediifereritrowaastopermitof 50 65 the production, by commutation or briber monics, of any desired wave frequency between commutation frequency to a frequency many times that of the highest commutation frequency. Because of the fact that the frequency range of theswitch Illinthiscasehas?vecontsctposi tions, one for each row of segments, so the beam maybede?ected'overanydesiredoneof the adjustment of the circuit 02, It may ordinarily ' five rows to produce any one of the ?ve diil'erent 60 bequitelimitedandinsomecasesresonancemay commutation frequencies for a given tuning of be permanently ?xed ata single frequency. the the circuit 02. II. control circuit elements including the trans former elements ‘I, it and II, ‘I. and the im pedance elements 10, are adapted for-use without replacement while the output frequency is varied from its lower to its upper limit. 4 More than three contact positions may obvi ously be provided for the switch I00, together with the associated elements I01, ill, when more 70 than three rows of commutator segments are pro vided. as in Fig. 6. When rows of successively larger diameter contain respectively larger num bers of segments, the successively higher posi tions of the switch I" select successively higher commutation frequencies -for production. but in - Rings i‘iandilareconnectedwiththeupper contact of the blade "I of the two-pole two-' position switch ill, ill.‘ Sectors- II. II and II are connected with the lower contact of the switch blade I“ and with the upper contact of the switch blade ill. Sectors I0, I! and 22 are connected with the de?ection control circuit con ductor 85. The switch blade ill provides an output circuit path through the variable non inductive resistance coupling element I" to the positive conductor 02 of the battery II. The low impedance blocking condensers m, I“ are con nected to transmit impulses, representing the potentialdiiferenceacroaresistanoellhtothe 7 9,191,078 utilization circuit, UC, Ill, by way of the upper contact of the switch. Ill. The conductor Ill. commutator,asin1"ig.6. l'nadditiontotbe output circuit II, If, connected with the ring I‘l, extending from condenser Ill to circuit Ill is Pig. 5, there is provided in grounded at ill. output coupling III, an, included in the output ‘ An ampli?er A, Ill. has its input connected between the condensers Ill, Ill, and its output connected at one terminal to the lower contact of the switch I48 and at the other terminal to conductor Il‘l'. When switch Ill is in its lower 10 position, the ampli?er Ill is inserted between coupling “2 and circuit Ilt to supply ampli?ed impulses to circuit Ill and to isolate circuits connected with the amplifier output from the coupling circuit "2. Condensers Ill and Ill in 15 conjunction with the ground Ill isolate and safeguard the utilization circuit ll! from static or non-impulsive potentials from the battery 63. The switch blade Ill, when in its upper posi tion, connects the output circuit resistance Ill 20 with the closed rings II and II, so that when the beam is de?ected over any desired one ofthe four rows of segments connected with rings I1 and 20, impulses of the corresponding commuta tion frequency with harmonics thereof are trans 25 mitted ‘to the utilization circuit I". It is thus possible to select any one of a plurality of out put frequencies by the switch I”, Fig. 1 while . ‘I, an output cuit I". 02, connected with the ring fl. beam is selected by the switch III, as already de 10 scribed, so that the beam is de?ected over the desired row of segments. It may be assumed that the row II, ll, l‘l contains 211: segments and that the rows of suc cessively larger diameter contain, respectively, 2n, 2p and 2:; segments. The output coupling II, I! may then receive impulses having a commutation frequency of either ml or a}, depending on whether the beam traverses the inner or outer row of segments of the ring II, the de?ection 20 frequency being represented by 1. Similarly, when the beam travels over the inner or outer row, respectively, of the ring IO. impulses having a commutation frequency of p! or of. respective ly, are transmitted to the output coupling III. I62. Circuits-II, II and Ill, Ill are preferably tuned, to the frequency of the desired waves, '- using only a single frequency determining cir which may be either a commutation frequency or cult .2, SI, which may be tuned much lower, 30 than the output frequency and whose tuning a harmonic thereof, but if desired these circuits may be adjusted to have broad frequency trans mission characteristics to permit of the simulta may remain unchanged while the output wave is shifted to any one of several different commutae tion frequencies extending over a wide range. If desired, the switch IIII may be closed to 35 connect the resonant circuit iii, m, including theinductance III and the variable capacity Ill, across the utilization circuit lli, so that some one of the frequency components of the output wave may 'beselected for transmission to the 40 circuit Illto the exclusion of all components of different frequency. ‘ In its upper position, the switch blade Ill dis charges direct current from the sectors Ii, II and II of the commutator. and in its lower position 45 from rings l1 and III. The direct current path from the blade Ili may be traced through the variable resistance 01, the high impedance choke 50 channel Ill, Ill’, I", Ill, may be selected to be energized by output‘ waves, or to be deener gized. by merely operating the switch III to shift‘ the beam to the desired output channel while the channel It, Ill remains energised, or chan nels Bl and Ill may remain deenergiaed when 40 the switch III! is in its lowest position, to con ?ne the beam to a path over the sectors II, It and to confine the transmission of waves to the ‘ output channel I5, I26. It will be understood that the waves transmitted to the different chan nels ll, Ill and I26 may each be of a different frequency when their respective commutation frequencies are‘di?erent, or may be of the same mutator are connected with the output resistance coupling Ill. Two different commutation fre quencies are thus supplied simultaneously to the Fig. 8 shows aeommutator Ill and connected circuits adapted for substitution in Fig. l in place of the Fig.‘ 5 arrangement. The Fig. 8 ar When the switch blade llIl is in its lower po- . frequency when their respective commutation frequencies are the same. sition. the sectors I‘, I8 and 2! of the‘ com and the other being at a higher frequency deter .mined by the rate of travel of the beam over a particular row. of segments. The frequency range obtainable with this connection, therefore extends from the lowest de?ection frequency to the highest harmonic of the highest commutation frequency. Furthermore, when the output cir cuit has a broad frequency transmission charac teristic, as when the, switch Iill remains open and the utilization circuit Il! is not sharply se 65 lective, the resulting wave transmitted to the utilization circuit consists of a band of compo nents of different harmonic frequencies, includ ing the fundamental. Since the direct current impulses are cut off during one-half of each suc 70 cessive cycle of the de?ection frequency, while the beam is impinging on one of the sectors It. It,’ 22, the output wave band is modulated at the de?ection frequency. re of di?'erent frequency. The output channel ll, ll. l2, ll, or the output 0011 It and conductor If to the battery It. output circuit, one being the de?ection frequency 60 neous transmission of two or more components _‘ ' - The Fig. '! circuit shows how the Fig. 5 circuit may be expanded by adding extra rings, to the rangement is particularly adapted for producing ultra-high frequency impulses and waves, al-. though it may also be employed for producing impulses of any lower frequency. The central disk "I, I12 differs from the disk II, I‘, Fig. 5, merely in having one sector I‘II larger in angu lar measure than the other sector Ill. The ring I1 surrounding the central disk, as in Fig. 6, has segments on its edge fitting between al ternate segments on the circular rim of the disk I'll, I12, as described in detail in connection with the ring I‘! and disk I5, ll, Fig. 2. The small 65 sector I'll may have one or more segments on its edge, depending upon the angular widths of the sector and of the segments. The balanced U-shaped coupling circuit I'll, I'll, has one free end of the U connected with 70. the ring I‘! and the other free end connected with the larger sector I'll. Length varying means, such as the U-shaped slides I", are provided in each- arm of the U-circuit I18, Ill to adiust the wave length or tuning and the 75 iki >cR0ss REFERENCEi SEARCH ROOM * 9,194,078 balance of the circuit at the desired commuta mined path when ?uctuations of the at... m tion or harmonic frequency. The middle point tentg‘ to make the beam depart from its desired of the base of the U of the circuit I'll,‘ I", is connected with the positive potential direct cur The commutator I” has the central disk lift rent. supply lead 6!. The smaller sector I12 and the coastal rings It! and I” having 5 connects with the de?ection controlconductor meals on their adjacent circular edges. as de ll. Impulses of direct current, representing scribed with reference to the segments on the commutation at the de?ection frequency, are circular edges of the disk "fit, the ring ii and collected on the sector "I and transmitted over the ring it, ll, Fig. 2. The switch I". Fig. l, the conductor 85 to the circuit 02, 91. Fig. l. is positioned to select the desired row of scg— 1o The utilization circuit U0. I'll, is connected ments to be traversed by the beam. when the through the low impedance blocking condensers row ill. m is selected and the switch ltll is in III, III. with the variable coupling points III, its upper position, a continuous train of im III, near the base of the U of the outputcou pulses are transmitted to the two output con 15 pling I13. I14. Waves of the desired commuta ductors Ill and the coupling circuit C which 15 tion or harmonic frequency. for which the cou may be like the circuit C of either Fig. 8 or Fig. pling I13, I'll is adiusted, are transmitted to 9. The resulting waves are transmitted from the utilization circuit I". the‘circuit C to the utilization circuit I'll. When By reducing the angular width of the sector the row "I. II! is selected by the switch ill, pa ' . "2 as much as possible, in terms of the number the switch I” is placed ‘in its lower positionvto of segments thereon, the sector I'll‘ and the connect with the disk "I, so that the output number of segments thereon may be made cor conductors i" receive impulses from the seg respondingly larger, so that the duration of ‘the .ments in the row ill, I“. interruption of the train of, impulses while‘ the Thetsofll'lgaihlandlilare beam is on the segment or segments of the sec similarinhavlns balancedcircuitsand inbeing tor III, is correspondingly minimized. Fig. 9 shows a_ commutator II and connected circuits adapted for substitution in Fig. 1 in place operablein push-pull relation in which on the average more than one impulse is received dur ing each commutation cycle or the output wave above the de?ection frequency. whereas the ar of the Fig. 5 arrangement The ring i‘l sur 80 rounds the equal sectors. II, it, as in Fig. 2. The circuit is similar to that of'li‘lg. 8, except for the portions of the coupling circuits within'the' rectangle C. The portion of the coupling cirp cult within the rectangle 0, includes in each arm I13, I", a lumped variable tuning capacity I" in parallel with a lumped inductance I“ which take the place of the distributed capacity I and inductance .in the corresponding arms in, I'll in Fig. 8. The junction oi’ the two seats of elements III, I", Fig. 9, connects with the positive direct current supply lead It. The in ductance I81. coupled with the inductances I86, I". connects with the utilization circuit UC, I" and‘transmits waves of the selected output frequency thereto. ' ' Each circuit “I, I“ is preferably tuned to the same desired output frequency which may rangements of Figs. i5, 6, and ‘I are of simpler construction without balancing of the kind used in the arrangements of Figs. 8, 0, and i0, and - the output circuits of Figs.‘ 5, e, and 1 receive only one impulse during each commutation cycle of the output wave above the deiiection fre _ quency. In the arrangement of any of the above de scribed ?gures, the beam or electric carriers may consist of‘carriers other thanelectrons per se, since the desired relation of the focus to the 40 commutator, and the de?ection and commute‘ tion of the beam may be obtained wlthya' beam of electric carriers other than simple electrons. Furthermore, one or both of the two electrostatic '?elds of the two sets of de?ecting electrodes I, ‘I, and I, 9, may be replaced in well known manner by ‘magnetic ?elds, adapted to produce be either the commutation frequency or a har monic thereof. The Fig. 9 clrcuitC is intended more particularly for use at lower frequencies than the Fig. 8- circuit C, but it is to be under the cyclic de?ection of the beam. stoodthat the circuitsC'ofml- Oandilmaybe of rows ‘being preferable to a larger number of rows when electrostatic capacity across the out interchanged to adapt the Fig. 8 ' gement for the production of lower frmuencies or the 55 Fig. 9 arrangement for the production of higher frequencies. ' . ' i . Any number of rows of segments may be pro videdinthecommutatorofany oftheabovede scribed ?gures. one row or the minimum number putcircuitis tobeminimised, asinthecaseof the production of very high frequencies. ‘ ‘ 55 Arcircular path of de?ection'of the beam has Fig. 10 shows a commutator i” and its con been described and is preferred. for many pur nected circuits for substitution in Fig. 1 in place of the Fig. 5 arrangement; While the arrange poses, since it is easier to construct a commu ments of Figs. 5, ,8, '1, 8 and 9 are adapted for either self excitation or separate excitation by the independent source I“. Fig. 1, the Fig. 10 the output frequency is less likely to be variable when. the path is circular. Many of the features of the invention may be employed, however, when the cyclic path traced by the beam is of some tator having sumciently accurate dimensions and arrangement is adapted only for separate exci tation. The switch It. II, is placed in its upper ' other shape than circular. It will be seen that position, Fig. 1. so that wavesj'from the source the circular path is merely one species of an ill supply a train of direct current impulses to ' ellipsoidal path, and that another species of the the resonant circuit .2, ll. by recti?cation in ellipsoidal path is a linear path. In any case the recti?er N, the circuit 02, 83 being tuned to where uniform frequency isdesired. any one seg the frequency of the source I" or to a harmonic 70 thereof. The rectifier I. limits the amplitude of the impulses and the excitation ofthe' cir cuit l2, 03, thus maintaining‘ the amplitude of the control waves. supplied to the de?ectors I. ‘I, I. I substantially constant. so that the deileee TI tions of the. beam are kept in their predeter mentinaglvenrowshouldbeofmchlength ‘along ‘the ‘path traced by the beam-relative to 70 the rate of movement of the beam when over that segment, that the beam traverses that segment in thesame lengthof time that is required to traverse each other segment in the row at a given ' de?ection frequency. 75 2,124,073 The angular measure of the sectors II, it, or II, IO, or 2|, 2! of Figs. 5,5, ‘7, and 9, may be made unequal in the manner shown by the un equal sectors ill. I12, Fig. 8, and may have any other relative angular measure, provided there is a diiference between the number of impulses transmitted to the circuit 91. 98 in successive half cycles of the de?ection control frequency to which the circuit 92. 93 is tuned. Viewed from another 10 aspect. the de?ection frequency may be supplied to the circuit 91, 91, if the impulses transmitted thereto are derived from less than all of one set of alternate segments in the row. When the source of energy 53 is adjusted to 15 vary the output energy, or when the source 53 de parts from its desired potential, or when certain other changes such as load and impedance varia tions occur in the circuit, the amplitude limiting device 90 tends to stabilize the operation of the system at the desired commutation frequency, so that the beam is kept directed over the desired row of segments. ‘ When commutating the beam current to pro duce impulses of a desired frequency higher than twice the de?ection frequency, the production of impulses of unwanted lower frequencies is avoided within the range between the de?ection frequency andthe desired higher impulse fre quency, in contrast with the production of such lower frequency impulses in systems utilizing a utilizing said lower frequency wave to produce said periodic de?ections of the beam. 5. The method of transmitting waves to a pinrality of circuits, each selective to a different fre quency, which ‘comprises producing a beam of_ 5 electric carriers. periodically de?ecting the beams} ‘ and utilizing the de?ecting beam to transmit cur-l‘ rent by commutation simultaneously to each of said circuits at a frequency of commutation in each respective circuit equal to the frequency for l0 which'the circuit is selective. " 6. The method of transmitting waves to a plu rality of circuits, each selective to a different fre quency. which comprises producing a beam of electric carriers, periodically de?ecting the beam. 15 utilizing the de?ecting beam to transmit current by commutation simultaneously to each of said circuits at a frequency of commutation in a first of said circuits equal to the frequency for which said circuit is selective and at a frequency of com 20 mutation in a second of said circuits which is a submultiple of the frequency for which said sec ond circuit is selective. '1. The method of transmitting waves to a plu rality of circuits, each selective to a di?erent fre quency, which comprises producing a beam of electric carriers, periodically de?ecting the beam. utilizing the de?ecting beam to transmit current by commutation simultaneously to each of said circuits at a‘ frequency of commutation in each 30 respective circuit equal to the frequency for which plurality of small harmonic producing stages- in cascade. Losses incident to the production of - the circuit is selective. and utilizing the current these intermediate frequencies may thus be commutated at one of said frequencies to- produce avoided, and the impulses of desired frequency, the periodic de?ections of the beam. 8. The method which comprises producing a 85 produced in accordance with the present inven space discharge in the form of a beam of electric tion, may. at the same time be of greater energy for a given input energy than in such a cascade system. What is claimed is: l. The method of producing electric impulses, which comprises producing a space discharge in the form of a beam of electric carriers, periodi caily de?ecting said beam over any chosen one of a plurality of predetermined paths. causing the de?ecting beam to commutate electric current in said chosen path at a predetermined frequency, and utilizing the beam simultaneously to commu tate current at a different predetermined fre quency. .2. The method which comprises producing a space discharge in the form of a beam of electric carriers, utilizing a control wave of predeter mined frequency for periodically de?ecting the beam, utilizing the de?ecting beam to’commutate current at a frequency higher than that of the positive and negative peaks of said control wave. and deriving said control wave from said de?ect ing beam. 3. The method which comprises producing a space discharge in the form of a beam of electric carriers, utilizing a control wave of predetermined frequency for rotating one end of the beam over a predetermined path. utilizing the rotating beam to commutate current at a frequency ‘higher than that of the positive and negative peaks of said control wave, and deriving said control wave from said de?ecting beam. 4. The method which comprisesproducing a 70 space discharge in the form of a beam of electric carriers, periodically de?ecting the beam. deriv ing a series of electric impulses from the beam during a portion of each cycle of de?ection of the beam, the impulses in each series having a pre 40 determined frequency, converting said impulses into a wave of frequency lower than said prede termined frequency, and utilizing said lower fre quency wave to periodically de?ect the beam. 9. In combination with a plurality of circuits, each selective to a di?erent frequency, means for producing a beam of electric carriers when suitably energized, means responsive to an electric wave for ‘periodically de?ecting the beam, and means including a commutator for transmitting 50 current simultaneously to each of said circuits from the de?ecting beam at a frequency of com mutation in each respective circuit equal to the frequency for which the circuit is selective. 10. In combination with a plurality of selective 65 circuits, means for producing a beam of electric carriers when suitably energized, means respon sive to an electric wave for periodically de?ecting the beam, ‘means including a commutator for transmitting current simultaneously to said cir 60 cuits from the de?ecting beam at di?'erent fre quencies of cbmmutation, one of said circuits be ing selective to current commutated at one of said frequencies, and another of said circuits be ing selective to a harmonic of one of said fre quencies at which commutation takes place but non-selective at all said commutation frequencies. 11. In combination, a space discharge device having means for producing a beam of electric carriers when suitably energized, an input circuit 70 for periodically de?ecting the beam in response to current of predetermined frequency, an, output circuit, means including a commutator whereby said commutatedcurrent a wave of frequency , the de?ecting beam commutates current at a fre 75 lower than said predetermined frequency. and quency higher than that of the positive and nega carriers, periodically de?ecting the beam, deriv ing from the de?ecting beam a current commu tated at a predetermined frequency, deriving from csoss RtitRENCE 1O angers tive peaks of said de?ecting current and whereby said commutated current is transmitted to said output circuit, said output circuit being selective to a component of said higher frequency current, a frequency determining element selective to said predetermined frequency and coupled with said input circuit, and means for deriving impulses of said predetermined frequency from said de?ect ing beam and for transmitting said impulses to said frequency determining element. 12. In combination. a space discharge device having means for producing a beam of electric carriers when suitably energized. means respon sive to a periodic current for de?ecting the beam. 15 means including a commutator.for deriving from the de?ecting beam a current commutated at pre determined frequency. means for deriving from said commutated current a current of frequency lower than said predetermined frequency, and 20 means for transmitting said current of lower fre quency to said de?ecting means. 13. In combination, a space discharge device having means for producing a beam of electric carriers when suitably energized. means respon 25 sive to an electric wavefor periodically de?ecting the beam, means for deriving a series of electric impulses from the beam during a portion of each cycle of de?ection of the beam, the impulses in each series having a predetermined frequency, means for converting said impulses into a wave of frequency lower than said predetermined fre quency, and meansfor transmitting said lower frequency wave to said de?ecting means. 14. In combination, a space discharge device 35 having means for producing a beam of electric carriers when suitably energised, means respon sive to an electric wave for periodically de?ecting the beam, means for deriving electric impulses of predetermined frequency from the de?ecting beam and for utilizing said impulses, means for 65 SEARCH BOOM control means adapted to be energised to periodi cally de?ect the beam over a predetermined path, a plurality of output couplings, a commutator having segments disposed in the path of the de ?eeting beam. one of said output couplings being connected with one set of alternate segments of said commutator, another of said output cou plings being connected with less than all of one set of alternate segments of said commutator. and means for transmitting current from said 10 last mentioned output coupling to said control means for maintaining the periodic de?ection of the beam. ' 18. In a wave producer; a space discharge de vice having means for producing a beam of elec tric carriers when suitably energized, a commu 15 tator having segments, a controller responsive to alternating current for periodically de?ecting the beam over said segments. a ?rst output circuit connected with certain of said segments, means 20 for transmitting control impulses from said out put circuit to said controller, and a second output circuit differently connected with certain of said segments for receiving impulses of a frequency differing from the frequency of de?ection of said beam 19. In a wave transmission system, a space dis charge device having means for producing a beam of electric carriers when suitably energized, a commutator having a plurality of rows of seg 30 ments, control means adapted to be energized to periodically de?ect the beam over any one of said rows, output connections for said segments, means for selectively determining the row of segments over which the beam is to be de?ected, and means 35 responsive to energy to be transmitted to said control means for maintaining the de?ections of the beam over said selected'row when ?uctuai tions of said energy tend to make the de?ections depart from said selected row. 40 20. In a wave producer, a space discharge de deriving another set of impulses of said frequency from the beam during a portion of each cycle of ‘ vice having means for producing a beam of elec de?ection of the beam, means for converting said tric carriers when suitably energized. said device last mentioned impulses into a wave of frequency having a beam de?ecting circuit and having an lower than said predetermined frequency. and means for transmitting said lower frequency wave output circuit through which current from the 45 beam is periodically transmitted, said output cir to said de?ecting means. cuit having a coupling with said de?ecting circuit. it. In a wave producer, a space discharge de and means responsive to the beam current period vice having means for producing a beam of elec ically transmitted through said output circuit for tric carriers when suitably energized, control preventing the wave transmitted through said 60, means adapted to be energised to periodically de coupling to the de?ecting circuit from departing ?ect the beam over a predetermined path, an out from a predetermined amplitude. put circuit. means for periodically collecting a 21. In a wave transmission system, a space dis component of energy from the beam at one fre charge device having means for producing a beam quency and for transmitting said component to said control means, and means for periodically of electric carriers when suitably energised, a collecting another component of energy from the I commutator having a row of segments, control beam at a higher frequency and for transmitting means adapted to be energized by a wave for said higher frequency component to said output periodically de?ecting the beam over said row of segments, and means responsive to the wave to circuit. be impressed on said control means for prevent 16. In a wave transmission system, a space dis ing the amplitude of said wave from departing charge device having means for producing a beam from a predetermined value. of electric carriers when suitably energised, con 22. The method of translating electric waves trol meanaadapted to be energized to periodically which comprises producing impulses, preventing deflect the beam over a predetermined path, a said impulses from departing from a predeter-v plurality of output couplings, a commutator hav mined amplitude, storing said impulses by reso ing segments disposed in the path of the de?ect nance, controlling the de?ections of a beam of ing beam, one of said output couplings being electric carriers in accordance with the resulting connected with one set of alternate segments of resonant waves. and commutating direct current said commutator, and another of said output cou the control of the de?ections of the beam. plings being connected with less than all of one under 23. The method which comprises producing a set of alternate segments of said commutator. space discharge current, periodically de?ecting 17. In a wave transmission system, a space dis 66 (i5 70 . the space discharge current, storing energy in the charge device having means for producing a , form of waves under the control of said de?ected current, preventing’ the amplitude of the current 75 ._ 75 beam of electric carriers when suitablyenergized, may): 11 charuedevleehevlnlmeeutorwoducincabeem of electric curlers when n?tebl! energised. e commutator having e row 01’ secmenm'outw connectlonliorealdsecmentmmeensedaptedto heenercisedbyanelec?'lccurrenttoeeuethe 'beemtobeperlodicallyde?ectedlnapredeter minedpethcversaidmwotsegmenmsndmeam for melntainin: the de?ections otthebeamwith in said ed path when ?uctuations oi‘ the mum: current tend to make the beam traceadl?erentpeth. CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION. Patent No. 2,12h,973. JUS'I'IIILI'IARING. _ July 26, 1958. JUSTIN L . FEARING . It ichereby certified that ‘error eppeare in the printed specification of the above nmbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first column‘, line 61, for‘Degasing“ reed Degaesing; page 5, second column, line 22, for the word "by" road for; page 6, first colmin, line 22, for “communi cation" read comnutationg‘ second column, line 52, for "attention" read attenuation; page 8, first column, line 39, for "seats rend sets; and that the said Letters Patent should be’ read with this correction therein that thevsame may confom to the‘ record of the case in the Patent Office. Signed and. sealed an; 15th day of September, A. n. 1938. Henry Van Aredale Acting Commissioner of Patents. _ 11 charadevioehavlnameautor woducincabeam 2.10am being stored from depart-inc man a predeter- oielectrlccan'ienwhen n?tabl! mm‘ minedvamcandoontrollingaaidpenodicde?eetionsinaccm-daneewlthlaidstoredwavee. having a row at ?i'i'hemethodotwoducmlelect?ewavee dlecharle connectlonliorcaldsecmen heenercisedhyanelecmocurrenttccauethe 5 5 currentperiodlcalb . of sald'currentinthe tormc?mmlsemwevent heemtobeperledicallyde?ectedlnapredeter minedpethcversaidmwotsegmenmandmeam in: the amplitude 01 saidlmm?seetrom depth‘ for malntaininc the de?ections ottheheamwithin said predetermined path when ?uctuations oi‘ ' iolnrgm “will!!! valuesto nun-0%.“ theenercmnccurrenttendtomaketheheamm control traoeadl?erentpath. JUS'I'III l5. FEAR-1N0. thnproductlmotsaldnerlodiclmpullee . 25. mawavetrannnllllonmtemmspecedle CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION. July 26', 1958. Patent No. 2,12%973. JUSTIN L- FEARING. It iihereby certified that ‘error appears in the printed specification of the above nmbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first column‘, line 61, for‘Degasing“ read Degassing; page 5, second column, line 22, for the word "by" road for; page 6, first colmn, line 22, for “communi cation" read commutation; second column, line 52, for "attention" read attenuation; page 8, first column, line 39, for "seats read sets; and that the said Letters Patent should be’ read with this correction therein that thevsame may confom to the‘ record of the case in the Patent Office. Signed and. sealed an; 15th day of September, A. n. 1938. Henry Van Aredale '( Seal ) ‘ Acting Commissioner of Patents.