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Патент USA US2125013

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July 26, 1938.,
c. L. CHARLES
'
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INTERNAL' COMBUSTION PERCUSSIVE HAMMER
Filed May 3, 1957
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2,125,013
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July 26, 1938.
C, L, CHARLES _
2,125,013
INTERNAL COMBUSTION‘ PERCUSSIVE HAMMER
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. July 26, 1938.
_c. L. CHARLES
2,125,013
INTERNAL COMBUSTION PERCUSSIVE HAMMER
Filed May 3, 1957
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Patented July 26, 1938
2.125313
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,125,013
INTERNAL COMBUSTION PERCUSSIVE
HAMJVIER
Carl L. Charles, Winnetka, Ill., assignor to Gas
Tool Patents Corporation, a corporation of
Delaware
Application May 3, 1937, Serial No. 140,504
22 Claims. (Cl. 123—7 )
This invention relates to an internal combus
tion percussive hammer, and more particularly
to improved means for subduing the reciproca
tion of the piston when the hammer is not work
5 ing and for rotating the tool during drilling.
One feature of this invention is that it provides
means for automatically subduing the reciproca
tion of the piston when the hammer is lifted,
either by lessening the frequency of such recip~
10 rocation or by stopping it completely; another
feature of this invention is that it automatically
eliminates the destructive vibration present when
such a hammer is lifted from working position;
yet another feature is that improved throttle
15 means is provided so constructed and arranged
that it enables variation of the amount of com
bustible charge entering the cylinder and at the
same time withstands the vibration of such a
hammer; a further feature is that improved
means for stopping and starting the hammer,
without shifting the hands from working posi
tion, is provided; another feature is that simple
and effective tool rotation is provided during
drilling; other features and advantages of this
invention will be apparent from the following
speci?cation and the drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is an elevation, partly in section, of a
hammer embodying this invention; Fig. 2 is a
top plan view of the hammer shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view of the hammer
shown in Fig. 1, transverse to that view; Fig. 4
is a horizontal sectional View of the ratchet de
Vice, along the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a
fragmentary detail view showing the range of
movement of the throttle member; Fig. 6 is a
top plan View of a hammer embodying a modi?ed
handle control arrangement; and Fig. '7 is a par
tial vertical section along the line 'l--'l of Fig. 6.
Internal combustion percussive hammers, par
ticularly of the free piston type wherein the pis
ton return is by a spring, have many problems
and dif?culties peculiar to themselves. One prob
lem is that of subduing the reciprocation of the
piston when the hammer is lifted from working
“ position and held in the air by the operator, as
when he desires to move from one place to an
other in order to start the tool working in another
spot. When the hammer is lifted the entire force
of the downward movement and impact of the
piston, as a result of explosion of the combustible
charge thereabove, must be absorbed within the
body and frame of the hammer itself. Where the
hammer has a desired power when in working
position, this force is frequently destructive in
55 effect when the hammer is lifted, even though
various means are used to cushion to some extent
the impact.
The average workman or operator,
however, will not throw the ignition switch to
stop the hammer before he lifts it, since in the
type of hammer heretofore used this would in
volve subsequently removing the hands from
working position on the handles, leaning the
hammer against his thighs, and operating a
starting rod to restart the working reciprocations
of the piston.
10
The present invention obviates this objection
in prior hammers of this type by providing means
for automatically subduing the reciprocation of
the piston when the hammer is lifted, and auto
matically restoring it to full force when the ham- '
mer is returned to working position, the operator
leaving his hands in working position on the
handles during movement of the hammer from
place to place and not performing any conscious
act to achieve the desired result. Two ways of‘
accomplishing this result are disclosed herewith:
in the ?rst the intake passage is throttled to re
duce the amount of combustible charge supplied
to the cylinder, and thus the power and rapidity
of the piston reciprocation; andin the second the
piston is instantaneously stopped upon lifting of
the hammer, and automatically restarted as soon
as the hammer is replaced in a working position.
In the particular embodiment of this ‘inven
tion illustrated herewith in Figs. 1 to 5, an inter 30
nal combustion percussive hammer is shown com
prising a vertical cylinder I0 having a piston ll
freely reciprocable therein. The piston operates
inv accordance with conventional two-cycle in
ternal combustion practice,>being driven down 35
wardly by the explosion of a combustible charge
thereabove and being returned by the spring as
sembly comprising the piston spring I2 and a
cushion spring I3. A striker portion on the pis
ton is’ adapted to meet an anvil I4 at the end of 40
each downward movement, transmitting its im
pact therethrough to the tool I5.
A combustible charge is formed within the
charge forming unit I 6, comprising a gas tank
and carburetor assembly, and delivered through 45
the passage I1 to the sub-piston compression
space, where it is partially compressed upon the
downward stroke of the piston and then delivered
through the transfer passage I8 to the combus
tion chamber where it is comprgessed upon the
return of the piston and ?red at the appropriate
time by initiation of a spark across the terminals
of the spark plug I9. A suitable timer 20, cam
actuated from the piston surface, serves to con~
trol ignition current supplied through the cable 55
2
. 2,125,013
2|. Starting of the hammer is achieved by man
ually forcing the starting rod 22 downwardly to
depress the piston against the resistance of the
return springs, and then releasing the starting
rod to allow the piston to move upwardly to ?ring
position. The general operation of hammers of
ment of the handles with relation to the hammer
body is limited to such a relatively slight move
this type is known to the art, and will not be fur-'
ther described here.
.
The hammer is provided with a pair of working
handles 23 and 24 extending on opposite sides of
the hammer, the grip portions being spaced a
substantial distance from the center thereof.
These handles are mounted on a yoke member or
handle ring 25 which surrounds the top portion
15 of the hammer and is slidably splined thereto
upon rail members 26 for vertical movement in
a direction parallel to that of the piston. Shoul
ders are provided at the top and bottom of the
rail members 26 so that this slidable movement
of the handle ring, and thus of the handles, is
limited to a relatively short distance. The handle
ring has fastened thereto a throttle rod or throt
tle member 2'! extending downwardly therefrom
substantially parallel to the cylinder and mount
ed for longitudinal movement in a bore 28 inter
secting the passage [1. The throttle member has
a portion 29 of a width substantially equal to
that of the passage I1, and a'portion 30 of reduced
cross-section. A spring 3! serves to normally
urge this throttle member downwardly to hold
the reduced portion 3B in registration with the
passage I1, so that su?icient combustible charge
may pass therethrough for full'working opera
tion of the piston.
When the hammer is in working position, rest
35
ing on the tool l5, the operator exerts downward
pressureon the handles 23 and 24, and these
handles stay in the lowermost position of their
movement, so that the member movable there
40 with is in what might be termed open position,
with the reduced portion in registry with the pas
sage l'l. When it is desired to move the tool to
a new position, however, mere lifting of the ham
mer by the handles is su?icient to subdue the
45 piston reciprocation to idling action. Lifting on
the handles causes them to move relative to the
hammer body or rail members 26 on which they
are mounted, carrying the throttle member up
with them until their further movement with re
50 spect to the hammer body is stopped by the upper
shoulder on the rail members. At this point the
portion 29 of the throttle member substantially
closes the passage [1, as may be more readily seen
ment that it causes no inconvenience during lift
ing of the hammer.
'
In order to .prevent automatic throttling when
desired‘ a latch member 32 is provided. This is
urged inwardly by a' springr33 to latch into a
recess provided therefor in the hammer body
when the handles are in their lowest position, as
illustrated in Fig. 3. A pair of notches 34' and 35 10
are provided in the end of the handle 24, one be
ing deeper than the other. ' When the upturned
end of the latch member 32 lies in the deeper
notch 34, the inner end engages the recess in
the hammer body and latches the handles in 15
working position, so that even when the hammer
is lifted it remains at full power operation. When
the upturned end is moved to lie in the notch 35,
however, the automatic throttling operation is
20
achieved.
Thevparticular form of throttle member and
connection to the handles has been found to be
the best yet devised to withstand the effects of
the vibration ever present in a hammer of this
type. Butterfly and ‘other rotating closures in 25
a passage are utterly impracticable where they
are exposed to the terri?c impact shock occur
ring 1530 times or more a minute when such
a hammer is working; and linkages involving
jointed rods or flexible wires have been found 30
equally unable to withstand the effects of con
tinued vibration. In the form shown the throttle
member and connection to the handle ring are
all one integral rod, sliding in a bore which is
vertical, so that as far as possible transverse 35
wear between the rod and the bore is eliminated,
since the main vibration axis of the hammer is
vertical. While the reduced portion 30 is here
shown as circular in cross-section and concentric
with'the larger portion 29, it is to be understood 40
that any desired shape of reduced portion pro‘
viding less width blocking the passage 11 is ef
fective.
The particular hammer illustrated in these first
?ve ?gures not only incorporates the throttling 45
feature heretofore described, but also improved
and simpli?ed 'means for rotating the tool l5
when the hammer is drilling. When the, tool
is breaking a rock in order to prepare a hole
for the subsequent use of a blasting medium, 50
for example, it is necessary that it be substan
tially continuously rotated during hammer op
eration in order to prevent sticking in the hole.
from the fragmentary view in Fig. 5, so that only
55 su?icient charge is permitted to pass therethrough
to prevent the motor operation of the piston from
,Air operated. drills generally provide positive
lation thereto is necessary by the operator.
Mere lifting of the hammer by the handles throt
70 tles reciprocation of the piston to idling, and re
placing of the hammer in working position at
once restores it to full power operation; During
such movement the operator does ‘not have to
of the sleeve being provided with teeth adapted
power operated means for accomplishing this 55
rotation, but these means are not adapted for
stopping entirely. As soon as the tool I5 is 10- ' use with a free piston hammerof the type shown
cated at the new pointvon which it is desired to here. Instead, a ratchet device located at the
bottom of the hammer serves to permit uni
work and the hammer is replaced in working po
directional rotation only of the tool with respect 60
sition,
the
handles
move
downwardly
with
re
60
spect to the body until they strike the lowermost to the hammer, and drill rotation is achieved by
shoulder on the rail members 26 whereupon the . oscillating the hammer back and forth about the
axis of the tool, as indicated in Fig. 2.
reduced portion 30 again registers with the pas
Referring more particularly to Figs. 3 and 4,
sage l1 and a full charge ,is supplied to the cylin
a ratchet device is shown comprising a sleeve 65
der
to
achieve
the
desired'working
power.
65
The operation of the throttling mechanism is member 38 having an internal polygonal bore
through which the tool l5 passes, the outside
fully automatic, in that no conscious act with re
move his hands from their working position on
‘the grips of the handles 23 and 24, .and'the move
to interact with ratchet members 3'! and 38 on
opposite sides thereof.
These ratchet members 70
comprise substantially cylindrical members ly
ing in the bore of cylindrical housing portions
39, keyed to prevent rotation as by the key mem~
ber 43. Coil springs 4! and 42, held in the bore
behind the ratchet members, serve to urge them
‘2,125,013
‘ yieldingly toward the teeth on thei'rotatable
sleeve 36.
’
:
In order to secure the desired rotation of the
tool, the operator uses the same handles 23 and
2a with which he is supporting the hammer in
3
portion to form another pair of racks. Between
each of the ?rst mentioned racks and the start
ing rod is located a pinion to e?ect working
connection therebetween. These are here shown
as pinions SS and ‘ll! rotatably mounted on the
working position to simultaneously oscillate the
hammer about its central axis, coincident with
stub shafts ‘M and i2. Upward movement of
the handles 6i and E52 with respect to the ham“
that of the tool 55. This oscillation does not
have to be throughouta very large arc. In the
10 particular form shown ‘here, where the sleeve
member 36 has eight teeth, an oscillation of
slightly more than 45° would be all that would
be necessary. This would be suf?cient to insure
mer, when the hammer is lifted, causes the racks
(iii and ii? to engage the pinions 8i} and ‘iii to
effect downward movement of the starting rod
the ratchet members moving to and looking with
a new tooth upon each oscillation. Where it is
desired to secure rotation with a lesser movement
it is only necessary, of course, to increase the
number of teeth on the ratchet sleeve or to pro
vide additional ratchet members out of registry
with each other. The tool sticks in the hole
sufficient to overcome the slight resistance be~
tween the parts of the ratchet, and thus upon
clockwise rotation of the hammer (in the par
ticular modi?cation shown here) the ratchet
25 members move to engage a new tooth, and upon
counterclockwise movement of the hammer the
tool is rotated in the hole being drilled. Appro
priate passages in the tool and anvil assembly
are provided for the introduction of ?uid under
30 pressure through a conduit 43 in order to blow
out any material in the hole at desired intervals.
The method of drill rotation provided for in
the hammer shown herein provides simple and
effectual uni-directional rotation of the tool while
35 drilling without the necessity for a separate power
source to provide such rotation. Oscillation of
the hammer is not inconvenient to the operator,
since in drilling it is generally preferable to put
little or no downward pressure on the handles,
40 it being found that a series of rapid blows, even
if they are not quite so heavy, secure faster
progress through a rock than slower and heavier
blows. This is, of course, not the case where
the hammer is being used as a buster or breaker,
45 since there it is preferable that the operator
exert considerable downward pressure on the tool
through the handles.
While the reciprocation of the piston was sul ~
dued, in the modi?cation heretofore described,
50 by throttling or lessening the frequency and power
of the reciprccations, it has been found equally
advantageous to automatically stop the working
reciprocation or the piston entirely when the
hammer is lifted, provided that the hammer is
so constructed and arranged that full working
reciprocation starts again automatically when
the hammer is replaced in working position.
That is, there is no objection to stopping the
piston if the operator does not have to remove
60 his hands from the working handles or perform
any particular operation in order to restart the
hammer when it is again placed on the work.
This stopping and starting is accomplished auto
matically when the hammer is moved from place
65 to place during working by the structure shown
in Figs. 6 and 7, which structure also may be
used, where desired, for initially starting the
hammer.
In this embodiment of the invention, a pair
70 of handles (ii and 62 are carried by a yoke mem
ber 63 which is slidably mounted on the rail
members M carried by the body of the hammer
55. The yoke is provided with a pair of racks
65 and 87 disposed on opposite sides of the start~
75 ing rod 68, which is here toothed in its upper
68. When the hammer is replaced in working
position, the starting rod is again pulled up to
the position illustrated in Fig. 7, out of contact
with the piston l3 and sealing the combustion
chamber.
'
When the hammer is working and it is de
sired to move it to a new position, it is only neces~
sary for the operator to lift upwardly on the
working handles 6! and 62, whereupon the start
ing rod iiii moves downwardly to engage the piston 21)
and stop its movement. This engagement only
takes place, of course, during upward movement
of the piston, and consequently the only force
tending to create a shock in the handles is the
relatively weak return spring energy. The piston
has already transferred a fresh charge, moreover,
from the sub-piston space to the combustion.
chamber thereabove, and thus it is held in step
position but with a full charge above it. As soon
as the hammer is dropped to working position at v30
the new point, the movement of the handles
causes the starting rod to return to the position
shown in Fig. 7 whereupon the piston finishes its
upward travel and ignites the charge at the
proper interval. Full working reciprocation of
the piston commences at once,‘ without any
necessity for the operator to put the hammer
down and go through any particular starting op
eration.
In addition to temporarily stopping and then 40
automatically restarting reciprocation of the
piston when the hammer is working, this modi
?cation enables initial starting of the hammer by
movement of the working handles. That is, when
it is desired to start the hammer for the ?rst time, 45
as in the morning, it would ?rst be primed in
, accordance with known operation methods to
admit a very rich charge, the ignition switch
would be turned on, and then the handles would
be pumped up and down a. time or two with rela~.
tion to the hammer body. This would cause a
charge to be drawn into the sub-piston com
pression space, transferred to the combustion
chamber and ?red to effect the desired start.
While I have described and claimed certain 55
embodiments of my invention it is to be under—
stood that it is capable of many modi?cations.
Changes, therefore, in the construction and ar
rangement may be made without departing from
the spirit and scope of the invention as disclosed 60
‘in the appended claims in which it is my in
tention to claim all novelty inherent in my in
vention as broadly as permissible in View of the
prior art.
I claim:
65
1. A percussive hammer of the character de
scribed, including: a cylinder; a piston recipro
cable therein; a tool adapted to receive impacts
therefrom when said hammer is working; and
means for automatically subduing the reciproca~ 70
tion of said piston when said hammer is lifted,
said means permitting unhindered reciprocation
when said hammer is returned to working posi
tion.
2. Aninternal combustion percussive hammer 75
2,125,013
of the character described, including: a cylinder;
a piston reciprocable therein; means for supply—
ing a combustible charge to said cylinder to effect
reciprocation of said piston; a tool adapted to
receive impacts therefrom when said hammer is
working; and means for automatically subduing
the reciprocation of said piston when said ham
mer is lifted, said means permitting unhindered
tion by said handles or downward pressure may
be exerted therethrough on said tool; and means
for partially blocking said passage to lessen the
reciprocations of said piston, said means being
actuated by movement of said handles when said
hammer is lifted from working position thereby.
10. Apparatus of the character claimed in
claim 9, wherein said blocking means comprises
reciprocation when said hammer is returned to
10 working position.
3. An internal combustion percussive hammer
of the character described, including: a cylinder;
a piston reciprocable therein; means for supply
ing a combustible charge to said cylinder to effect
15 reciprocation of said piston; a tool adapted to
receive impacts therefrom when said hammer is
working; a lifting handle mounted on said ham
mer but movable with respect thereto; and means
actuated by movement of said handle when said
20 hammer is lifted from working position thereby
for subduing the reciprocation of said piston.
1i. A hammer of the character claimed in claim
3, wherein said handle is splined to said hammer
for limited movement with respect thereto.
5. An internal combustion percussive hammer
25
of the character described, including: a cylinder;
a piston reciprocable therein; means for supply—
ing a combustible charge to said cylinder to effect
reciprocation of said piston; a tool adapted to
30 receive impacts therefrom when said hammer is
working; a pair of handles splined to said ham
mer for limited vertical movement with respect
thereto, whereby said hammer may be lifted from
working position by said handles or downward
pressure may be exerted therethrough on, said
tool; and means actuated by upward movement
of said handles when said hammer is lifted there
by for subduing the reciprocation of said piston.
6. An internal combustion percussive hammer
of the character described, including: 'a cylinder;
a piston reciprocable therein; means for supply
ing a combustible charge to said cylinder to effect
reciprocation of said piston, said means including
45
a passage; a tool adapted to receive impacts
therefrom when said hammer is working; and
means for partially blocking said passage to lessen
the reciprocations of said piston, said means be
ing automatically actuated when said hammer is
lifted from working position.
7
'7. Apparatus of the character claimed in claim
6, wherein said blocking means is mounted for
slidablc movement in said hammer.
8. An internal combustion percussive hammer
of the character described, including: a cylinder;
55 2. piston reciprocable therein; means for supplying
a combustible charge to said cylinder to effect
reciprocation of said piston, said means including
a passage; a tool adapted to receive impacts
therefrom when said hammer is working; a lift
60 ing handle mounted on said hammer but mov
able With respect thereto; and means for par
50
a longitudinally slidable member connected to
said handles and having a reduced portion in 10
said passage when said handles are in working
position.
11. An internal combustion percussive hammer
of the character described, including: a cylinder;
a piston reciprocable therein; means for supply
ing a combustible charge to said cylinder to e?ect
reciprocation of said piston, said means including
a passage; a tool adapted to receive impacts
therefrom when said hammer is working; and
means for partially blocking said passage to les 20
sen the reciprocations of said piston, said means
comprising a member slidably mounted for move
ment transverse to said passage, said member
having a portion of a width substantially equal
to that of said passage and a portion of reduced ‘ 25
width, said last mentioned portion normally regis
tering with said passage.
12. Apparatus of the character claimed in claim
11, wherein the movement of said member is sub
stantially parallel to that of said piston.
13. An internal combustion percussive hammer
of the character described, including: a cylinder;
a piston reciprocable therein; means for supply
ing a combustible charge to said cylinder to ef
fect reciprocation of said piston, said means in-" ’
eluding a passage; a tool adapted to receive im
pacts therefrom when said hammer is working;
and means for partially blocking said passage to
lessen the reciprocations of said piston, said
means
comprising
a
rod
member
slidably 410
mounted for movement substantially parallel to
that of said piston in a bore intersecting said
passage and transverse thereto, said member hav
ing a portion of a width substantially equal to
that of said passage and a portion of reduced: 45
width normally registering with said passage,
said member also extending substantially to the
top of said hammer'and adapted to be actuated
therefrom.
a
14. An internal combustion percussive hammer
of the character described, including: a cylinder;
a piston freely reciprocable therein; means for
supplying a combustible charge to said cylinder
to effect downward movement of said piston; a
spring for effecting upward movement thereof; a 55
tool adapted to receive impacts therefrom when
said hammer is working; and means for auto
matically moving said piston to depressed posi
tion against said spring when said hammer is
lifted
_
'
V
60
15. An internal ‘combustion percussive ham
mer of the character described, including: a cyl
inder; a piston freely reciprocable therein; means
for supplying a combustible charge to said cylin
der'to effect downward movement of said pis 65
ton; a spring for effecting upward movement
tially blocking said passage to lessen the recipro
cations of said piston, said means being actuated
by movement of said handle when said hammer
65 is lifted from working position thereby.
9. An internal combustion percussive hammer
of the character described, including: a'cylinder; ‘ thereof; a tool adapted to receive impacts there
a piston reciprocable therein; means for supplying from when said harrmer is working; a lifting
a combustible charge to said cylinder to effect handle mounted on said hammer but movable 70
with respect-thereto; and means actuated by
70 reciprocation of said piston, said means including
a passage; a tool adapted to receive‘ impacts
movement of said handle when said hammer is
therefrom when said hammer is working; apair 1ifted,'for moving said piston to and retaining it
of handles splined to said hammer for limited in depressed position against said spring.
16. An internal combustion percussive hammer
vertical movement with respect thereto, where
by said hammer may be lifted from working posi ' of the character described, including: a cylinder; 75
5
2,125,013
a piston freely reciprocable therein; means for
supplying a combustible charge to- said cylinder
to effect downward movement of said piston; a
spring for effecting upward movement thereof; a
tool adapted to receiveimpacts therefrom when
said hammer is working; a starting rod adapted
to contact said piston to move it to depressed
position against said spring; a handle splined to
said hammer for movement in a direction par
10 allel to that of said piston; and means connect
ing said handle to said rod, whereby movement
of said handle when said hammer is lifted thereby
effects downward movement of said piston.
17. Apparatus of the character claimed in
15 claim 16, wherein said last mentioned means
comprises a rack and pinion.
18. An internal combustion percussive hammer
of the character described, including: a cylinder;
a piston freely reciprocable therein; means for
.20 supplying a combustible charge to said cylinder
to effect downward movement of said piston; a
spring for effecting upward movement thereof;
a tool adapted to receive impacts therefrom when
said hammer is Working; a starting rod adapted
25 to contact said piston to move it to depressed po
sition against said spring; a pair of handles
splined to said hammer for movement together
in a direction parallel to that of said piston; and
means connecting said handles to said rod where
30 by movement of said handles when said hammer
is lifted thereby effects downward movement of
said piston.
19. Apparatus of the character claimed in
claim 3, wherein latch means is provided for look
ing said handle in working position.
20. Apparatus of the character claimed in
claim 9, wherein latch means is provided for 5
locking said handles in Working position.
21. A percussive hammer of the character de-'
scribed, including: a cylinder; a piston recip
rocable therein; a tool adapted to receive im
pacts therefrom when said hammer is working; 10
and means movable with respect to said hammer
and adapted to automatically subdue the recip
rocation of said piston when moved upwardly
with respect to said hammer, said means per
mitting unhindered reciprocation of said pis
ton when in lowered position.
15
22. An internal combustion percussive ham
mer of the character described, including: a cyl
inder; a piston reciprocable therein; means for
supplying a combustible charge to said cylinder 20
to eifect downward movement of said piston; a
spring for effecting upward movement thereof;
a tool adapted to receive impacts therefrom when
said hammer is working; a handle mounted on
said hammer and movable with respect thereto; 25
and means actuated by movement of said handle
when said hammer is lifted for moving said pis
ton to and retaining it in depressed position
against the resilient force of said spring.
30
CARL L. CHARLES.
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